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and there was scarce a Shepherd to be met with who had not seen a Spirit. Hence

Those Tales of vulgar Sprites,
Which frighted Boys relate on Winter Nights,
How cleanly Milk Maids meet the Fairy Train,
How headless Horses drag the clinking chain :
Night-roaming Ghosts by Saucer Eye-Balls known,
The common Spectres * of each country Town.

Gay. Our Shakespear's Ghosts excel all others :- The Terrible indeed is his Forte:--How awful is that Description of the dead Time of Night, the Seafon of their Perambulation!

"v 'Tis now the very witching Time of Night, " When Church yards yawn, and Hell itself breathes out “ Contagion to the Worldt.”

The Antients, because the Cock gives Notice of the Approach and Break of Day, have, with a Propriety equal to any Thing in their Mythology,

* Mr. Gay has left us too a pretty Tale of an Apparition :-The golden Mark being found in Bed, is indeed after the indelicate Manner of Swift, but yet is one of thofe happy Strokes, that rival the Felicity of that Dash of the Spunge which (as Pliny tells us) hit off so well the Expression of the Froth in Protogenes' Dog-It is impoflible not to envy the Author the Conception of a Thought, which we know not whether to call more comical or more pointedly Satyrical. + Thus also in Hume's Douglas :

In such a Place as this, at such an Hour,
If Ancestry can be in aught believ'd,
Descending Spirits have convers' with Man,

And told the Secrets of the World unknown. In Scotland, Children dying unbaptized (called Tarans) were supposed to wander in Woods and Solitudes, lamenting their hard Fate, and were said to be often seen.-It is thought here very unlucky to go over their Graves.-It is vulgarly called going over *6 209christened Ground.”

dedicated this Bird to Apollo.— They have also made him the Emblem of Watchfulness*, from the Circumstance of his summoning Men to their Business by his crowing, and have therefore dedicated him also to Mercury. With the Lark, he may be poetically itiled “the Herald of the Morn."

The Day civil or political has been divided into thirteen + Parts. The After-midnight and the Dead of the Night, are the most folemn of them all, and have therefore, it should feem, been appropriated by antient Superstition to the walking of Spirits.

* Vanes on the Tops of Steeples were antiently in the Form of a Cock (called from hence Weather Cocks) and put up in papal Times to remind the Clergy of Watchfulness. “ In fummitate Crucis, quæ “ Campanario vulgo imponitur, Galli Gallinacei effingi solet Figura, quæ Ecclesiarum Rectores Vigilantiæ admoneat.”

Du Cange. Gloff. ť 1. After-midnight. 2. Cock-crow. 3. The Space between the first Cock-crow and Break of Day. 4. The Dawn of the Morning. 5. Morning. 6. Noon. 7. Afternoon. 8. Sunset. 9. Twilight. 10. Evening. 11. Candle Time. 12. Bed Time. 13. The Dead of the Night.-The Church of Rome made four nocturnal Vigils: The Conticinium, Gallicinium or Cock-crow, Intempeftum et Antelucinum.

Durand. de Nocturnis. Dr. Johnson, in his Description of the Buller of Buchan, in Scotland, pleasantly tells us, “ If I had any Malice against a walking Spirit, instead of laying him in the Red Sea, I would condemn “him to reside in the Buller of Buchan.”

The Streets of this Northern Metropolis were formerly (so vul. gar Tradition has it) haunted by a nightly Guest, which appeared in the Shape of a Mastiff Dog, &c. and terrified luch as were afraid of Shadows. This Word is a Corruption of the Anglo-Saxon gast, fpiritus, anima. I have heard, when a Boy, many Stories concern. ing it.

CHA P.

CH A P. VII.
Of Church-yards; why the Vulgar are generally

afraid of passing through them at Night: The
Original of this Fear: That there is nothing
in them now, more than in other Places to be
afraid of.
THE most of ignorant People are afraid

1 of going through a Church-Yard at Night-time. If they are obliged upon fome hasty and urgent Affair, they fear and tremble, till they are beyond its Bounds, but they generally avoid it, and go further about. It would, no Question, be better if there were fewer Path-ways through Church-Yards than there are, both as it would prevent several Abuses committed in them, and also cause the Ashes of the Dead to be in greater Quiet, and more undisturbed Peace: We should not then fee Church-Yards changed into common Dunghills, nor should we tread so frequently upon the Bones of our Friends: But when for the Conveniency of Neighbourhood, or other Reafons, there are allowed public Ways, it is a very great Weakness to be afraid of passing through them.

The Reason of this Fear is, a Notion they -have imbib'd, that in Church-Yards there is a frequent walking of Spirits at the Dead-time

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of of Night. Indeed there is at that Time fomething awful and horrible every where, and it must be confefs'd something more folemn in a Church-Yard, than in the Generality of other Places; but that it is then more frequented with Apparitions and Ghosts than other places are, is at this Time of Day intirely groundless, and without any Reason.

The Original of this Timorousness may be deduc'd from the Heathens : For they believed that the departed Ghosts came out of their Tomts and Sepulchres, and wander'd about the Place where the Body lay buried. Thus * Virgil tells us, That Meris could call the Ghosts out of their Sepulchres: And † Ovid, that Ghosts came out of the Sepulchres, and wandered about: And Clemens Alexandrinus, in his Admonitions to the Gentiles, upbraids them with the Gods they worshipped; which, I says he, are wont to appear at Tombs and Sepulchres, and which are nothing but fading Spectres and airy Forms. And the learned Mr. Mede observes, from a Passage of this fame ancient Father, 9 “ That the Heathens “ supposed the Presence and Power of Demons (for fo the Greeks called the Souls of Men * Mærin fæpe animas imis excire fepulchris,

Vidim-Bucol. 8. Virg. + Nunc animæ tenues.-Sepulchris.-Errant.-- Ovid. Fasi. † Poos oun, &c. Admonit. ad Gent. P. 37. ý Mede, Lib, 3. P. 633, de Cultu Demon.

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“ departed) at their Coffins and Sepulchres; “ as tho' there always remain'd some natural “ Tye between the Deceased and their Relicts.” Agreeable to this, Dr. Scot, * in his Discourse of the Christian Life, fpeaks of " gross and sensual Souls, who appeared often, after " their Separation, in Church-Yards or Charnel-Houses, where their Bodies were laid. "The Soul that is infected with a great Luft to " the Body, continues fo, for a great while after Death, and suffering many Reluctances, ho. vers about this visible Place, and is hardly drawn from thence by Force ; ly the Dæmon that hath the Guard and Care of it. By the “ visible Place, he means $ their Monuments and Sepulchres, where the madowy Fantasms, “ of such Souls, have sometimes appeared."

It having therefore been a current Opinion of the Heathens, that Places of Burial and Church-Yards were frequently haunted with Spectres and Apparitions, it is easy to imagine, that the Opinion has been handed from them, among the Ignorant and unlearned, throughout all the Ages of Christianity to the present Day. And indeed, tho' now there may be no such Things, yet that there have been, need not be disputed ; not that they were the real Souls of Men departed : For I cannot see for : * Scot, Christ. Life, P.71. Part 1. + Plat. Phed. P. 348. $ P. 386. ibid.

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