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Old Fr. pere
P. coturnix, or common quail, is not above PER'EGAL, adj. Fr. peregal. Equal. Obhalf the size of the partridge. The feathers of solete. the head are black, edged with rusty brown;
Whilom thou wast peregal to the best, the breast is of a pale yellowish red, spotted
And wont to make the jolly shepherds glad ; with black; the feathers on the back are marked With piping and dancing did pass the rest. with lines of pale yellow, and the legs are of
Spenser. a pale hue. Except in the colors thus described,
PEREGRINATION, n. s.? and the size, it every way resembles a partridge PEREGRINE, adj.
perein shape, and, except that it is a bird of passage, grinus. Travel; abode abroad : peregrine, it is like all others of the poultry kind in its foreign ; not native; not domestic. habits and nature. The quail seems to be an The received opinion, that putrefaction is caused inhabitant of every climate. It is observed to by cold or peregrine and preternatural heat, is but
Bacon. shift quarters according to the season, coming
nugation. north in spring, and departing in autumn, and in
It was agreed between them, what account he Fast flocks. On the west coast of Naples, within should give of his peregrination abroad.
It is not amiss to observe the heads of doctrine, four or five miles, 100,000 have been taken in a day. In England they are not numerous at any peregrinations.
which the apostles agreed to publish in all their
Hammond. time. They feed like the partridge, and make That we do not contend to have the earth pass no nest, except a few dry leaves or stalks scraped for a paradise, we reckon it only as the land of our together; and sometimes a hollow on the bare peregrination, and aspire after a better country. ground suffices. In this the female lays six or
Bentley. seven eggs, of a whitish color, marked with irre
PEREMPT, v. a. ? Lat. peremptus.
To gular rust-colored spots : the young follow the
PEREMP’TION, n. s. Skill; to crush. A law mother as soon as hatched, like young partridges. term. They have but one brood in a year. Quail- Nor is it any objection, that the cause of appeal fighting was a favorite amusement among the is perempted by the desertion of an appeal; because Athenians. They abstained from the flesh of the office of the judge continues after such instance this bird, deeming it unwholesome, as supposing is perempted.
A yliffe. that it fed upon the white hellebore: but they This peremption of instance was introduced in reared great numbers of them for the pleasure of favour of the public, lest suits should be rendered
Id. seeing them fight, and staked sums of money, as perpetual. we do with regard to cocks, upon the success of
PEREMPTORY, adj. Fr. peremptoire ; the combat. With us its flesh is considered as Per'EMPTORILY, adv.
barb. Lat. perempa very great delicacy. Quails are easily caught PER'EMPTORINESS, n. s.
torius, from perempby a call.
Dogmatical ; absolute; such as PERDUE, adv. From the French perdue or destroys expostulation : the adverb and nounforlorn hope: as perdue or advanced sentinel. substantive corresponding. Close ; in ambush.
He may have fifty-six exceptions peremptorily Few minutes he had lain perdue,
against the jurors, of which he shall show no cause.
Spenser. To guard his desp'rate avenue. Hudibras.
As touching the apostle, wherein he was so resolute Perdue Bay, a bay on the south-west coast and peremptory, our Lord Jesus Christ made manifest of St. Vincent; a mile north-west of Kingston Bay. unto him, even by intuitive revelation, wherein there PER'DULOUS, adj. Lat. perdo. Lost ; was no possibility of error.
Hooker. thrown away.
Not death himself There may be some wandering perdulous wishes of In mortal fury is half so peremptory, known impossibilities; as a man who hath com
As we to keep this city. Shakspeare. King John. mitted an offence, may wish he had not committed Not to speak peremptorily or conclusively, touching it; but to chuse efficaciously and impossibly is as
the point of possibility, till they have heard me de
Bacon. impossible as an impossibility.
duce the means of the execution. Bramhall.
If I entertaine PER’DURABLE, adj. Fr. perdurable ; Lat. As peremptorie a desire
, to levell with the plaine perduro. Lasting; long continued. A word A citie, where they loved to live ; stand not betwixt not in use. Confess me knit to thy deserving with cables of And what it aims at.
Daniel. perdurable toughness. Shakspeare. Othello. Norfolk denies them peremptorily. O perdurable shame! let's stab ourselves.
In all conferences it was insisted peremptorily, that
Shakspeare. the king must yield to what power was required. Why should he, for the momentary trick,
Clarendon. Be perdurably fined. Id. Measure for Measure. Self-conceit and peremptoriness in a man's own The vig'rous sweat
opinions are not commonly reputed vices. Tillotson. Doth lend the lively springs their perdurable heat. God's laws peremptorily injoin us, and the things Drayton. therein implied do straitly oblige us to partake of the
kettleuell. PERECOP, an ancient fortress in the south holy sacrament. of the isthmus which joins the peninsula of the and absolute, whosoever denies Christ shall assuredly
Though the text and the doctrine run peremptory Crimea to the continent. It is the ancient Taph- be denied by him ; yet still there is a tacit condition, ræ. In the neighbourhood are lakes, on the
South, surface of which a great quantity of salt crystal- He would never talk in such a peremptory and dislises naturally, in May, June, and July. This couraging manner, were he not assured that he was salt is collected and sold to the average amount able to subdue the most powerful opposition against of 20,000 waggon loads yearly.
unless repentance intervene.
the doctrine which he taught.
Addison. B 2
Peremptoriness is of two sorts; the one a magiste
Within a ken our army lies ; rialness in matters of opinion; the other a positive- Our men more perfect in the use of arms, ness in relating matters of fact.
Our armour all as strong, our cause the best ; Government of the Tongue. Then reason wills our hearts will be as good. The more modest confess, that learning was to
Shukspeare. give us a fuller discovery of our ignorance, and to Is this your perfectness ?
Id. keep us from being peremptory and dogmatical in our My parts, my title, and my perfect soul determinations. Collier. Shall manifest me rightly.
Id. Othello. Some talk of letters before the deluge ; but that It is a judgment maimed and most imperfect, is a matter of mere conjecture, and nothing can be That will confess perfection so could err peremptorily determined either the one way or the Against all rules of nature.
Thou art perfect then, our ship hath touched upon
Her cause and yours
PEREN'NITY, n. s. Sing through the year : Before the duke. Id. Measure for Measure. quality of lasting through all seasons.
I do not take myself to be so perfect in the priviThe matter wherewith these perennial clouds are leges of Bohemia as to handle thai part ; and will raised, is the sea that surrounds them.
There is no variety in that which is perfect, because
there is but one perfection ; and so much shall we That springs have their origin from the sea, and grow nearer to perfectness, by how much we draw
nearer to unity and uniformity. Bp. Hall. not from rains and vapours, I conclude from the pe
And they, so perfect in their misery,
Uriel, no wonder if thy perfect sight tany, a term applied to those plants whose roots See far and wide.
Milton. will abide many years, whether they retain their True virtue being united to the heavenly grace of leaves in winter or not. Those which retain faith makes up the highest perfection.
Id. their leaves are called evergreens; but such as Beauty now must perfect my renown ; cast their leaves are named deciduous, or per
With that I governed him that rules this isle. difols.
Waller. PERFECT, adj. & v.a. Fr. parfait ;
· Praise and adoration are actions perfective of our souls.
. More. Per'FECTER, n. s.
Latin, perfectus. PERFECTION,
Complete; full; under water, he could longer support the want of re
Chawing little sponges dipt in oil, when perfectly PERFECTIONATE, v. a. -consummate; cer
Boyle. Perfective, adj.
tain; due; not
No human understanding being absolutely secured PERFECTIVELY, adv. defective or re- from mistake by the perfection of its own nature, it
PER'FECTNESS, n. $. j dundant; blame- follows that no man can be infallible but by superless; pure: to perfect is to finish; make com- natural assistance.
Tillotson. plete; conclude; make skilful, or fully to in- An heroick poem requires, as its last perfection, struct: a perfecter is he who makes perfect: the accomplishment of some extraordinary underperfection and perfectness mean completeness; taking, which requires more of the active virtue than goodness; virtue; supreme excellence: to per
Dryden. fectionate, a word only used by Dryden for to
Painters and sculptors, chusing the most elegant advance to perfection : perfective is having the natural beauties, perfectimate the idea, and advance tendency to make perfect : perfectively, in such tion; the utmost mastery of human performance.
their art above nature itself in her individual producmanner as brings to perfection.
Id. If perfeccioun was bi the preesthood of leuy, for He has founded an academy for the progress and undir hym the peple took the lawe, what ghit was it perfectionating of painting.
Id. nedeful another preest to rise bi the ordre of Melchi- Endeavour not to settle too many habits at once, sedech?
Wiclif. Ebrewis vü. lest by variety you confound them, and so perfect Put on charity, which is the bond of perfectness.
Locke, Col. ii. 14. We know bodies and their properties most'perfectly. Thou shalt be perfect with the Lord thy God.
Id. Deut. xviii. Eternal life shall not consist in endless love; the If we love one another, God dwelleth in us, and other faculties shall be employed in actions suithis love is perfected in us.
1 John iv, 12.
able to, and perfective of their nature. What tongue can her perfections tell,
Ray on the Creation. In whose each part all pens may dwell? Sidney.
What toil did honest Curio take We count those things perfect which want nothing To get one medal wanting yet, requisite for the end whereto they were instituted.! And perfect all his Roman set? Prior.
Hooker. As virtue is seated fundamentally in the intellect, Man doth seek a triple perfection ; first, a sensual, so perfectively in the fancy; so that virtue is the consisting in those things which very life itself re- force of reason in the conduct of our actions and quireth, either as necessary supplements or as orna- passions to a good end.
Grew. naments thereof; then an intellectual, consisting in Too few, or of an improper figure and dimension, those things which none underneath man is capable to do their duty in perfection.
Blackmore. of ; lastly, a spiritual and divine, consisting in those If God be infinitely holy, just, and good, he must things whereunto we tend by supernatural means take delight in those creatures that resemble him here, but cannot here attain. Id. most in these perfections.
Whoever thinks a perfect work to see,
Some things have a natural deformity in them; Thinks what ne'er was, nor is, nor e'er shall be. as perjury, perfidiousness, and ingratitude. Pope.
Tillotson. This practice was altered ; they offered not to Can he not deliver us possession of such places Mercury, but to Jupiter the perfecter. Broome. as would put him in a worse condition, whenever
The question is, not whether gospel perfection can he should perfidiously renew the war? be fully attained, but whether you come as near it
Swift's Miscellany. as a sincere intention and careful diligence can carry PERʻFLATE, v. a. Lat. perfio. To blow you.
through. PERFECTIBILITY, a word which we owe
If eastern winds did perflate our climates more to the new philosophy, which made so great a frequently, they would clarify and refresh our air.
Harvey. noise in the first stages of the French revolution. As far as we understand, the word perfectibility tion to the air, which ventilates and cools the mines.
Miners, by perflutions with large bellows, give mois pretended, in the writings of that disastrous
Woodward. period, to mean the ultimate and absolute per
The first consideration in building of cities is to fection to which man and society have a natural make them open, airy, and well perflated. and necessary tendency; and which, we were
Arbuthnat on Air. told, neither the tyranny of kings nor the bigotry PERFORATE, v. a. Lat. perforo. To of priests could eventually restrain.
PERFORA'TION, n. s. pierce with a tool; PERFECTION is divided, according to some bore; act of boring or piercing. writers, into physical,' moral, and metaphysical.
Draw the bough of a low fruit tree newly budded 1. PERFECTION, METAPHYSICAL, TRANSCEN- without twisting, into an earthen pot perforate at DENTAL, or ESSENTIAL, is the possession of all the bottom, and then cover the pot with earth ; it the essential attributes, or of all the parts ne- will yield a very large fruit. cessary to the integrity of a substance: or it is
Bacon's Natural History. that whereby a thing has or is provided of every The likeliest way is the perforation of the body of thing belonging to its nature. This is either ab- the tree in several places one above another, and the
Bacon. solute, where all imperfection is excluded, such filling of the holes. as the perfection of God; or secundum quid, second joints of fingers and toes, and the drawing
The industrious perforation of the tendons of the and in its kind.
the tendons of the third joints through them. 2. PERFECTION, MORAL, is an eminent degree
More's Divine Dialogues. of virtue or moral goodness, to which men ar
A perforated bladder does not swell. Boyle. rive by repeated acts of piety, beneficence, &c.
That the nipples should be made spongy, and This is usually subdivided into absolute or in- with such perforations as to admit passage to the herent, which is actually in him to whom we milk, are arguments of providence. attribute it; and imputative, which exists in
Ray on the Creation. some other, and not in him it is attributed to. The aperture was limited by an opaque circle
3. PERFECTION, Physical, or NATURAL, is placed between the eye-glass and the eye, and perthat whereby a thing has all its powers and fa- forated in the middle with a little round hole for the
Newton. culties, and those too in full vigor; and all its rays to pass through to the eye.
The laboured chyle pervades the pores, parts both principal and secondary, and those in
In all the arterial perforated shores. Blackmore. their due proportion, constitution, &c., in which
Worms perforate the guts.
Arbuthnot. sense man is said to be perfect when he has a
The patient, placed in a convenient chair, dipping sound mind in a sound body. This perfection the trocar in oil, stab it suddenly through the teguis by the schools frequently termed evepyntin, ments, and, withdrawing the perforator, leave the because a thing is enabled thereby to perform all waters to empty by the canula.
Sharp. its operations.
And such in ancient halls and mansions drear PÉ'RFIDY, n. s. Fr. perfidie ; Lat. May still be seen ; but perforated sore, PERFID'Ious, adj. perfidia. Treachery; And drilled in holes, the solid oak is found, PERFID'IOUSLY, adv. want of faith; breach By worms voracious eaten through and through. PERFID'IOUSNESS, n. 8. of faith: perfidious
Cowper. is treacherous; false to trust.
PERFORCE', adv. Per and force. By vio
lence; violently. Perfidiously
Guyon to him leaping, staid He has betrayed your business, and given up,
His hand, that trembled as one terrified ;
And though himself were at the sight dismayed,
Spenser. O Judas, how happy had it been for thee, if thou
Jealous Oberon would have the child, hadst never done what thou perfidiously intendedst !
But she perforce withholds the loved boy.
She amaz'd, her cheeks Forsaken of all good, I see thy fall
All trembling and arising, full of spots, Determined, and thy hapless crew involved
And pale with death at hand, perforce she breaks In this perfidious fraud.
Into the inmost rooms. Peacham on Poetry. Tell me, perfidious, was it fit,
PERFORM', v.a. & v. n. Ital. perfor-
mare, of Lat. per PERFOR'MANCE,
and formo. Widow and Cat.
To They eat perfidiously their words,
PERFOR'MER, n. s.
execute; do; And swear their ears through two inch boards. achieve; accomplish; discharge: to succeed :
Hudibras. performable is practicable : performance, aceom
plishment of a design or promise; completion; nose in no part of the room where a perfume is composition ; work; action: performer, he whó burned but we smell it.
Digby. performs; particularly, he who publickly dis
Even the rough rocks with tender myrtle bloom, plays his skill or ability.
And trodden weeds send out a rich perfume.
Addison. I will cry unto God who performeth all things for Pinks and roses bloom,
And every bramble sheds perfume.
Gay. Perform the doing of it; that as there was a rea
The pains she takes are vainly meant diness to will, so there may be a performance.
To hide her amorous heart, 2 Cor. viii. 11.
'Tis like perfuming an ill scent, Let all things be performed after the law of God:
The smell's too strong for art.
1 Esdrus viii. 21.
No rich perfumes refresh the fruitful field, All three set among the foremost ranks of fame for
Nor fragrant herbs their native incense yield. great minds to attempt, and great force to perform
Popc. what they did attempl.
See spicy clouds from lowly Sharon rise,
And Carmel's flowery top perfumes the skies. Id.
Swift. Promising is the very air o'th' time; it opens the eyes of expectation : performance is ever the duller PERFUME, denotes either the volatile effluvia for his act, and, but in the plainer kind of people, from any body affecting the organ of sinelling, the deed is quite out of use.
Id. or the substance emitting those effluvia; in In this slumbery agitation, besides her walking and which last sense the word is most commonly other actual performances, what have you heard her used. The generality of perfumes are made up
of musk, ambergris, civet, rose and cedar woods, The merit of service is seldom attributed to the orange flowers, jessamines, jonquils, tuberoses, true and exact performer.
and other odoriferous flowers. Those drugs Men forget the relations of history, affirming that commonly called aromatics, such as storax, elephants have no joints, whereas iheir actions are not performable without them.
frankincense, benzoin, cloves, mace, &c., enter Thou, my love,
the composition of a perfume; some are also Perform his funerals with paternal care.
composed of aromatic herbs, or leaves, as laven
Drylen. der, marjoram, sage, thyme, hyssop, &c. The In the good poems of other men, I can only be use of perfumes was frequent among the Hesure, that 'tis the hand of a good master ; but in brews, and among the orientals in general, before your performances ’tis scarcely possible for to be de- it was known to the Greeks and Romans. They ceived.
came to be very common among the Greeks and The only means to make him successful in the per- Romans, especially those composed of musk, formance of these great works was to be above con- ambergris, and civet. The nardus and malobatempt.
thrum were held in much estimation, and were He effectually performed his part, with great integrity, learning, and acuteness ; with the exactness of imported from Syria. The unguentum pardinum a scholar, and the judgment of a complete divine.
was variously prepared, and contained many inWaterlund.
gredients. Malobathrum was an Indian plant. When a poet has performed admirably in several il- Perfumes were also used at sacrifices to regale lustrious places, we sometimes also admire his very the gods; at feasts, to increase the pleasures of
Watts. sensation ; at funerals, to overpower cadaverous Men may, and must differ in their employments; smells, and please the manes of the dead ; and in but yet they must all act for the same ends, as du- the theatres, to prevent the offensive effluvia protiful servants of God, in the right and pious perform- ceeding from a crowd from being perceived. ance of their several callings.
PERFUNC TORILY, adv. Lat. perfunctorid. Few of our comick performances give good exam
Carelessly; negligently; so as merely to satisfy ples.
external form. PERFUME', n. s. & v. a.)
His majesty casting his eye perfunctorily upon it, PERFU'MER,
Š Strong odor of
and believing it had been drawn by mature advice, sweetness; pleasant scent: to give or impregnate
no sooner received it, than he delivered it to the lordwith such scent: a perfumer is a dealer in per- keeper.
Lay seriously to heart the clearness and evidence Why rather, sleep, liest thou in smoky cribs,
of these proofs, and not perfunctorily pass over all And husht with buzzing night-fies to thy slumber,
the passages of the gospel, which are written on purThan in the perfumed chambers of the great, pose that we may believe, without weighing them. Under the canopies of costly state,
Lucas. And lulled with sounds of sweetest melody?
A transient and perfunctory examination of things Shakspeare.
leads men into considerable mistakes, which a more Pomanders and knots of powders for drying rheums correct and rigorous serutiny would have detected.
Woodward. are not so strong as perfumes ; you may have them continually in your hand, whereas perfumes you can
Whereas all logic is reducible to the four princitake but at tiles.
Bacon. pal operations of the mind, the two first of these Smells adhere to hard bodies ; as in perfuming of have been handled by Aristotle very perfunctorily; gloves, which showeth them corporeal.
I. of the fourth he has said nothing at all. Baker. A moss the perfumers have out of apple trees, that PERFUSE', v. a. Lat. perfusus. To tinchath an excellent scent. Id. Natural History.
ture; overspread. Not used. Perfumes, though gross bodies that may be sensi- These dregs immediately perfuse the blood with bly wasted, yet fill the air, so that we can put our melancholy, and cause obstructions. Hurley.
PERGAMA, the citadel of Troy; which, be- and, although he sought to deprecate their vencause of its extraordinary height, gave name to geance, it would have fallen on him, but for his all high buildings (Servius, Virg.) Others say death, which happened in the thirty-ninth year the walls of Troy were called Pergama. of bis reign. He left one son, but, as he was an
PERGAMEA, PERGAMIA, names given by infant, he nominated his brother to succeed him. Virgil and Plutarch to Pergamum.
Attalus II., in the beginning of his reign, was PERGAMO, or Pergamos, the modern name routed in a pitched battle by Prussias king of of Pergamum, and Pergamus.
Bithynia; but the intervention of the Romans PERGAMUM, PERGAMEA, or Pergamia, a procured him complete redress. The latter part town of Crete, built by Agamemnon in memory of his life he devoted to ease and luxury. He of his victory (Plut. Virg. Velleius). Here was died in his eighty-second year, about 138 B.C. the burying-place of Lycurgus (Aristoxenus). He was succeeded by Attalus III. the son of It was situated near Cydonia (Servius); but Eumenes, whose reign was one continued horrid Scylax helps him out, who places the Dactyn- scene of madness and tyranny. On his death a nean temple of Diana, which stood near Cy- will was found, by which he left the Roman donia (Strabo), to the north of the territory of people heirs of all his goods ; upon which they Perramia.
seized on the kingdom, and reduced it to a proPERGAMUM, a town of Mysia, situated on the vince of their empire by the name of Asia ProCaicus, which runs by it (Plin. Strabo). It was per. Aristonicus, a son of Eumenes by an the royal residence of Eumenes, and of the Ephesian courtesan, endeavoured to wrest it from kings of the race of the Attali (Livy). It had them, but although he gained several battles he an ancient temple of Æsculapius (Tacitus). The could not attain his object, but died in prison. ornament of Pergamum was the royal library, The country remained subject to the Romans vying with that of Alexandria in Egypt; the while their empire lasted, but is now in the hands kings of Pergamum and Egypt rivalling each of the Turks. “The city is half ruined, and is other in this respect (Pliny). Strabo ascribes this still known by the name of Pergamo. rivalry to Eumenes. Plutarch mentions 200,000 PERGUNNAH, in the language of Hindosvolumes in the library at Pergamum. Here tan, means the largest subdivision of a province, the membranæ Pergamenx, whence the name whereof the revenues are brought to one parparchment, were invented for the use of books ticular head cutchery, whence the accounts and (Varro, Pliny). It was the country of Galen, cash are transmitted to the general cutchery of and of Oribasius, physician to Julian (Euna- the province. pius). Here P. Scipio died (Cicero). Attalus, PERHAPS', adv. Per and hap. Perad son of Eumenes, dying without issue, bequeathed venture; it may be ; mayhap. his kingdom to the Roman people, who reduced
Perhaps the good old man that kissed his son, it 10 a province (Strabo). Here was one of the And left a blessing on his head, nine conventus juridici, or assemblies of the His arms about him spread, Asia Romana, called Pergamenus, and the ninth Hopes yet to see him ere his glass be run. in order, which Pliny also calls jurisdictio Per
Somewhat excellent may be invented, perhaps PERGAMUS, an ancient kingdom of Asia, more excellent than the first design, though Virgil formed out of the ruins of the empire of Alex- must be still excepted, when that perhaps takes place. ander the Great. It commenced about the year
His thoughts inspired his tongue, 283. The first sovereign was one Philetærus a
And all his soul received a real love ; eunuch, by birth a Paphlagonian, of a mean descent, and in his youth a menial servant to Anti- Perhaps soft pity charmed his yielding soul
Perhaps new graces darted from her eyes, gopus, one of Alexander's captains. Philetærus
Perhaps her love, perhaps her kingdom charmed him. left the city of Pergamus to his brother, or, ac
Smith. cording to some, to his brother's son Eumenes It is not his intent to live in such ways as, for I., who obtained possession of the greater part ought we know, God may perhaps pardon, but to be of the province of Asia. Eumenes was suc- diligent in such ways, as we know that God will ceeded by Attalus I., nephew of Philetærus, infallibly reward.
Law. who, during a reign of forty-three years, was A dejection of mind, which perhaps may be reengaged in many successful wars with the Gauls, moved by to-morrow, rather disqualifies me for writing. Philip of Macedon, and others. He was a man
Couper's Private Correspondence. of great generosity, and such an enthusiast in PERIAGOGUE, in rhetoric, is used where favor of genius that he caused a grammarian many things are accumulated into one period named Daphidas to be thrown into the sea from which might have been divided into several. the top of a high rock, because he spoke disre- PERIAGUA, a sort of large canoe made use spectfully of Homer. Attalus was succeeded by of in the Leeward Islands, South America, and his eldest son Eumenes II. He was exceed- the Gulf of Mexico. It is composed of the ingly attached to the Romans, and assisted them trunks of two trees hollowed and united togein conquering Antiochus the Great, for which ther; and thus differs from the canoe, which is they rewarded him by adding to his dominions formed of one tree. all the countries on this side of Mount Taurus, PERIANDER, tyrant of Corinth and Corcyra, which belonged to that monarch. He continued was reckoned among the seven wise men of long a faithful ally of that powerful people, but, Greece; though he might rather have been having entered into a secret treaty with Perseus reckoned among the most wicked men, since he king of Macedon, he excited their resentment; changed the government of his country, deprivea