« PreviousContinue »
inclined to flirt with the parson; bis : son was fast going to the devil. But
Sidney, finding that he had been at the club-rooms on the previous evening, and supped largely of lobsters, replied, * All these gloomy views are the lob
sters." And he was right; with the :- lobsters converted into bone or muscle,
or returned to their ocean home, (where all lobsters should be,) doubtless his daughter's cough would loosen, his son become the most promising of lads, and his wife the most loving of women. The health of the body politic is, in no small degree, dependent upon digestion. "Will the coming man drink wine?" as propounded by Mr. Parton, is an important query; but no more so, supposing the coming man to be a politician, than the query, "Will the coming man digest well?"
Very much of the bad legislation that has been inflicted upon the American people can be traced directly to the bad digestion of the legislators. Voltaire uttered a wholesome truth in say. ing the good or bad digestion of a prime minister has often decided the fate of a nation. It is said that a Pole, exiled to Siberia for political offences, obtained his pardon from Paul I. of Russia, by contriving to keep the royal table well supplied with a pie made of drake's livers, of which the einperor was excessively fond. The rulers, too, of a nation can serve the people in a no better way than by preventing heartless traders from selling improper food to the poorer classes. The old saying, “Tell me what you eat, I will tell you what you are," contains a truth to which it is not wise for us to close our eyes. "Were I charged with the mission of degrading a nation," writes Dr. Holland, “stunting the form and weak ening in the same proportion the mental and moral nature, there is no way in which I could so readily accomplish my object as through improper food.” This truth was appreciated in olden
times, and from “Memorials in London” we find that in 1319, a certain Wm. Spelyng was sentenced to be put upon the pillory and two putrid beef carcases to be burnt under him, which he had exposed for sale. In 1365 a poulterer received the punishment of the pillory for selling putrid pigeons. In 1419 Henry the Fifth issued a proc. lamation against the adulteration and mixing of wines, with the punishment of the pillory as penalty. A few examples of this kind would be beneficial in the present day.
Another potent cause of indigestion is that people insist in cramming two or three times as much food in the stomach as nature intended it should contain. The story is told that at a certain banquet, an eccentric doctor managed to sit near one of his patrons, the alderman, and placed in a bag provided for the purpose, a duplicate share of everything that the alderman placed in his stomach. The next morning brought the alderman to the doctor's office, brim full of his complaints of indigestion. The doctor emptied the contents of his bag before him, and asked him how he expected any man to digest such a heap. Albanus, a Gaul. ish consul, is charged with consuming, at one supper, one hundred peaches, ten melons, fifty large green figs, and three hundred oysters.
Indigestion is the bane of domestic life. An imperfect diagnosis would that physician make, who did not ascribe headaches and blues, with their concomitant snappish and waspish temper, oftener to the stomach than to the brain. The marital relation is physical as well as moral and intellectual, and very often the difference between the happiness of homes is the difference between the soundness of stomachs. Eve brought sin and suffering into the world through eating, and many of Eve's daughters have, in like manner, brought discomfort and alienation into
the minature worlds over which they with it. Possibly this male turtle, col reign. Plutarch ascribes a prodigious hearted disciple of the cui-bono scho amount of marriage infelicity to those may be a deacon in the church, who, petty points of temper which fret the a Sunday morning sings, “How hapa daily tenor of life. Well has Burns is the little flock," till he is very hoan written:
and very red in the face; or, perchan “To make a happy fireside clime
he is the squire of the neighborhoo For weans and wite,
from whom the little urchins for mil That's the true pathos and sublime Of human life.”
around derive their ideas of justice an You would scarcely expect a man to christianity. These nitro-glycerine te strive after the “true pathos and sub- pers, which are fathered by indigestion lime of human life," with his stomach and which, by a nod or look, may ex in open rebellion — the victim of intes- plode and blow away all domestic peace tine wrath. Human nature is not apt you may depend upon it are very bac to be amiable under such circumstan. things in a family. Certainly angels ces; but human nature has no right to shed tears over a no sadder sight tha make such circumstances. A man's two souls, who should be twin in hopes soul should warm and grow full to over- . and heart as they are twin in years and flowing under the heart-warming, soul- suffering, with prospects mellowed by inspiring home influences, until its time, and forms crooked, and heads goodness and love shines forth and whitened, going down into the valley of blesses all. Many a wife, child-like in death, bickering and quarreling and her simplicity and angel-like in her backbiting. purity, the pillar of her husband's We draw, in conclusion, this inferhopes, whose bright smile wreathes the ence, that we are the happier the nearer family altar in a beauty born of heaven, we live in harmony with nature's laws. and tinges with a silver lining every We are the better doctors when we obcloud that fits across the home-sky has serve the laws of nature, and very seldegenerated into the petulent shrew, dom patients. It will not do to breathe whose frown blights every noble feeling impure air, and eat through five hours and whose tongue ever wags out a dole- and twelve courses, as it is said they reful dirge of complaint and faultfinding. cently did in New York city. The eccenPhysical suffering - bad digestion—is tric Dr. Abernethy's advice to his dyspepoften the prime cause of the degenera tic patients was, “Live like Christians." tion. The vestal fires of the Lares Let our fashionable hotels begin the rewhich formerly warmed and expanded form and strike from their bills of fare every heart with goodness, and kind very many of those captivating foreign ness and love, now emits but an uncer names, (of which few know the meantain light and no warmth. Discord is the ing,) attached to most execrable dishes, god now. Should one venture on a lit- and supply the proper names in their tle pleasantry, it sounds like a voice stead, as “Sleepless nights," "Headfrom the tombs — is out of place, like ache,” “Colic," “Constipation." It laughter at a funeral. Father snaps might not look so well, but it has a mother, mother snaps father, John twofold advantage. It is more truthsnaps Jane, and thus they snip, snap ful: and then, unsuspecting people, all around. I would rather live with a with weak stomachs, will not partake family of snapping turtles and be done of the vile compounds.
CHARLEMAGNE'S LAMENT FOR ROLAND.
BY CHARLES LANDOR.
Roland, friend - God grant thee mercy now!
Roland, friend — God lift thy spirit bold
Roland, friend — to rule the Great Domain
From states and kingdoms men shall come each day “Where is the brave young Captain ?” they shall say,
And I must tell them, here thou liest low-
Roland, friend — the dart that wounded thee
Roland, friend, O youth so brave and fair!
Cold on the hearts that loved thee best shall fall —
Nor let me quit the soil wherein he lies
So runs the sad lament Thorold
CHICAGO RIVER TUNNEL.
MHE NEW YEAR was inaugurated,
1 in Chicago, by the opening of the Washington Street Tunnel, under the South Branch of Chicago River, connecting, by substantial and commodious passage ways, the South and West Divisions of the city of Chicago. All great public works of difficult or doubtful execution–disconnected with land grants, subsidies or bribery_requiring the expenditure of large sums of money, have to encounter serious obstacles, both in the character of the work and in the distrust, parsimony and selfishness of legislative or municipal bodies, and the tunnel under Chicago River is no ex. ception to the general rule. The credit of first proposing the tunnel is due to Wm. B. Ogden, one of the foremost private citizens of Chicago, who, as early as in
1844 — nearly twenty-five years ago employed Asa F. Bradley, then City Surveyor, to make an estimate of its cost. He supposed it could be done for $30,000, but Mr. Bradley's estimate made it $130,000. Nothing further was done in the matter till in 1855 — some eleven years afterward-when the Chi. cago Tunnel Company was organized, with Mr. Ogden as President. But the cost was found, by surveys, to be greater than was anticipated; the directors could not agree upon plans; the measure received little support from the Common Council or the public, and it was aban. doned.
After an interval of nine years, the Common Council opened their eyes wide enough to see that not only was it a meritorious project, but that it was be
coming a public necessity. And after dallying three or four years, trying to induce private subscriptions to the work, by offering to locate the tunnel on this street and on that, changing the site from Washington to Adams street, and from Adams back to Washington street, and passing one ordinance after another, the Council finally, July 17, 1866, directed the Board of Public Works to let the contract for tunneling the river at Washington street. The contract was awarded to Stewart, Ludlam & Co., August 29, 1866, for $271,000, and work commenced ander it September 15, 1866. After ex. pending over $40,000, in labor and materials, the contractors suspended operations May 17, 1867, and after due notice had been served on them to resume Fork in five days, the Council declared the contract forfeited, and finally settled with them by paying them $20,584.
Proposals were again issued, and the contract re-let to J. K. Lake, and Charles B. Farwell of the dry-goods house of John V. Farwell & Co., July 25, 1867, for $328,500, and work commenced on it immediately. The work was pushed forward vigorously, and, notwithstand ing sereral serious floodings and consequent delays, and the partial or total suspension of the work, by order of the city, from December to April, for fear the work done in frost-time might not be perinanent, the tunnel was completed and opened for both teams and foot passengers, on the first day of January, 1869.
The first flooding was caused by the bursting of a four-inch water-main, on Canal street, September 3, 1867, and caused much damage. It was again flooded, November 10, 1867, by fire engines, at the burning of Maples & Fletcher's mill, all the water thrown upon the building running into the tun nel. But the worst flooding was caused by the bursting of a water-main on West Water street, September 3, 1868. The water burst around the sheathing which
supports the banks, breaking down the timber bracing, filling the cut ten feet deep with slush, and widening it to nearly one hundred feet. The railroad bridge over the cut fell into it, causing much delay and damage.
The labor perforned, and materials used, in constructing the tunnel, represent the character and magnitude of the work. There were 44,000 cubic yards of excavation, most of it a very tough blue clay, which had to be cut in blocks, with a sharp shovel, to be removed. The usual and necessary slopes, in works of this kind, would have increased the excavation to 68,000 cubic yards, but to guard against contingencies, the contractors, at great expense, planked the sides and supported them by heavy, framed timbers, extending across the cut from side to side. There were used in constructing the foundation, walls, abutments, backing, arches and roof of the tunnel, 3,500,000 bricks, 10,000 cubic yards, or 2,500 cords of stone-masonry, 10,000 cubic yards of broken stone and sand, 5,000 cubic yards of concrete, and 30,000 barrels of water cement. Sixty thousand days' labor, of ten hours each, were performed on the tunnel, in addition to the work performed by teams and steam engines.
There are two passage ways-one for teams, 1608 feet, or nearly ninety. seven rods, long, extending from the center of Franklin street, on the East, to the center of Clinton street, on the West side of the river, and the other for foot passengers, 810 feet, or about fifty rods, long, extending from Market street on the East to Canal street on the West. The pedestrian way is planked with white pine, laid on eight-inch joists, is ten feet wide, and eight feet high, and is reached by eighteen steps in entrance houses of cut stone, at either end, costing $5,000.
The road-bed of the passage way for teams is laid with the Nicholson pavement, resting on sand and gravel.