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The sword of Napoleon fell upon the Venetian State, and closed her proud history, and shut up forever her golden book—a striking example of the effect of war, and its retributive power.

An examination of the history of every nation of Europe would add to the strength of our argument. But we are able to present a general view of the effect of war upon that continent, which will satisfy the most incredulous. The irregular feudal wars of the middle ages have within the last three centuries been succeeded by standing armies and regularly equipped navies. War has become a regular science. Louis the Fourteenth of France, had at times a standing army of more than four

hundred thousand men—and Napoleon marched

a greater one upon Russia. In Europe, about three millions of persons are ordinarily employed in the armies and navies, though in war, the number is increased to four, or four and a half millions. The European ships of war in commission, vary from 1,368 in time of peace, it is said, to about 2,641 the maximum in war. A high authority states three millions as the average number of o armed men maintained by the States, Kingdoms, and Empires of Europe. Let us compute in money the amount with which wars past and armies and navies now on foot burden the annual productive industry of that continent. If upon an ave

rage it costs $200 per man, to pay, cloth, support, and arm 3,000,000 of men, the amount of these items will be,... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $600,000,000 The present national debts of that continent, the fruits of wars, are about 6,500 millions of dollars. The annual interest on this sum, is probably, about . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 240,000,000 For the construction of ships and fortifications and their annual repair, add, say. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15,000,000 Add $50 for the value of each man's * * time, if employed in agriculture o or on public works, . . . . . . . . . . . 150,000,000

It shows an aggregate annual loss • to Europe, of... . . . . . . . . . . . . . $1,005,000,000

This is the annual charge of wars and warlike establishments in time of peace. Such a heavy burden upon productive industry accounts for the poverty and wretchedness of the mass of the people of that continent. The annual waste of wars and military expenditure in Europe is about equal to the entire income of the people of the United States. What an amazing punishment inflicted upon the nations of Europe by their wars and warlike establishments. Asia has been given over to a succession of conquerors from the earliest historic period. From the time of Alexander the Great to the invasion of India and China by the British Asia has been scourged by war, her cities burned and destroyed, her people pillaged and butchered. Her history shows war as the disturber and destroyer of the felicity of nations. If the dark cloud that hangs over Africa could be dissipated the same truth would appear. We know that African wars are the cause of the enslavement of her sons, and that they are the primal curse of that unhappy country. Our knowledge of the history of Europe, leads us to the important conclusion, that a large portion of the taxes, the misery, the poverty, the ignorance and the crime of that Fatherland, are the natural and necessary result of wars and warlike establishments. They are the penalty of the violated moral law of nations, which enjoins peace, equity, and humanity. On the historic records of thirtyseven centuries, we read this universal, natural, moral law and its penal sanctions inscribed by the finger of God. When will man learn wisdom from on high, or from his own history ! May the statesmen of the nineteenth century observe and practise upon the great truth recorded on every page of history and write that force and injustice are the destroyers of nations,

Statesmen now behold in the history of the past and present generations, the waste of life and treasure, the oppressive taxes, and the consequent ignorance, poverty, and wretchedness of the people, as the natural and inevitable evils of wars. These obvious facts teach enlightened statesmen, that peace is the true interest of all nations; and that the princes and rulers of every state and kingdom ought from considerations of interest, as well as duty, to improve the code of public law, and hasten the happy era, when “Nation shall not lift up a sword against nation.”

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