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legally proved within forty days, either within or without the said province.

Sixteenth. That seven years quiet possession shall give an unquestionable right, except in cases of infants, lunaticks, married women, or persons beyond the seas.

Seventeenth. That all briberies and extortions whatsoever, sball be severely punished.

Eighteenth. That all fines shall be moderate, and saving mens contenements, merchandize or wainage.

Nineteenth. That all marriages (not forbidden by the law of God, as to nearness of blood and affinity by marriage) shall be encouraged; but the parents or guardians shall be first consulted, and the marriage shall be published before it be solemnized, and it shall be solemnized by taking one another as husband and wife, before credible witnesses, and a certificate of the whole, under the bands of parties and witnesses, shall be brought to the proper register of that county, and shall be registered in his office.

Twentieth. And to prevent frauds and vexatious suits within the said province, that all charters, gifts, grants and conveyances of land, (except leases for a year or under) and all bills, bonds, and specialties have five pounds, and not under three months, made in the said province, shall be enrolled or registered in the public enrolment office of the said province within the space of two months next after the making thereof, else to be void in law. And all deeds, grants, and conveyances of land (except as aforesaid) within the said province, and made out of the said province, shall be inrolled or registered as aforesaid, within six months next after the making thereof, and settling and constituting an enrolment office or, registry within the said province, else to be void in law against all persons whatsoever.

Twenty-first. That all defacers or corruptors of charters, gifts, grants, bonds, bills, wills, contracts and conveyances, or that shall deface or falsify any enrolment, registry or record within this province, shall make double satisfaction for the same; half whereof sball go to the party wronged, and they shall be dismissed of all places of trust, and be publickly disgraced as false men.

Twenty-second. That there shall be a register for births, marriages, burials, wills, and letters of administration, distinct from the other registry.

Twenty-third. That there shall be a register for all servants, where their names, time, wages, and days of payment, shall be registered.

Twenty-fourth. That all lands and goods of felons shall be liable to make satisfaction to the party wronged twice the value; and for want of lands or goods, the felons shall be bond-men to work in the common prison or work-house, or otherwise, till the party injured be satisfied.

Twenty-fifth. That the estates of capital offenders, as traitors and murderers, sball go one third to the next of kin to the sufferer, and the remainder to the next of kin to the criminal.

Twenty-sixth. That all witnesses, coming or called to testify their knowledge in or to any matter or thing in any court, or before any lawful authority within the said province, shall there give or deliver in their evidence or testimony, by solemnly promising to speak the truth, the whole truth, and nothing but the truth, to the matter or thing in question. And in case any person so called to evidence, shall be convicted of wilful falsehood, such person shall suffer and undergo such damage or penalty, as the person or persons against whom he or she bore false witness, did or should undergo; and shall also make satisfaction to the party wronged, and be publicly exposed as a false witness, never to be credited in any court, or before any magistrate, in the said province.

Twenty-seventh. And to the end that all officers chosen to serve within this province, may with more care and diligence answer the trust reposed in them, it is agreed, that no such person shall enjoy more than one publick office at one time.

Twenty-eighth. That all children within this province of the age of twelve years, shall be taught some useful trade or skill, to the end none may be idle, but the poor may work to live, and the rich, if they become poor, may not-want.

Twenty-ninth. That servants be not kept longer than their time, and such as are careful, be both justly and kindly used in their service, and put in fitting equipage at the expiration thereof, according to custom.

Thirtieth. That all scandalous and malicious reporters, backbiters, defamers and spreaders of false news, whether against magistrates or private persons, shall be accordingly severely punished, as enemies to the peace and concord of this province.

Thirty-first. That for the encouragement of the planters and traders in this province, who are incorporated into a society, the patent granted to them by William Penn, Governor of the said province, is hereby ratified and confirmed.

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* * * Thirty-third. That all factors or correspondents in the said province wronging their employers, shall make satisfaction, and one third over, to their said employers : and in case of the death of any such factor or correspondent, the committee of trade shall take care to secure so much of the deceased party's estate, as belongs to his said respective employers.

Thirty-fourth. That all treasurers, judges, masters of the rolls, sheriffs, justices of the peace, and other officers and persons whatsoever, relating to courts or trials of causes, or any other service in the government; and all members elected to serve in Provincial Council and General Assembly, and all that bave right to elect such members, shall be such as profess faith in Jesus Christ, and that are not convicted of ill fame, or unsober and dishonest conversation, and that are of one and twenty years of age at least; and that all such

so qualified, shall be capable of the said several employments and privileges as aforesaid.

Thirty-fifth. That all persons living in this province, who confess and acknowledge the one almighty and eternal God, to be the creator, upholder and ruler of the world, and that hold themselves obliged in concience to live peaceably and justly in civil society, shall in no ways be molested or prejudiced for their religious persuasion or practice in matters of faith and worship, nor shall they be compelled at any time to frequent or maintain any religious worship, place or ministry whatever.

Thirty-sixth. That according to the good example of the primitive christians, and for the ease of the creation, every first day of the week, called the Lord's day, people shall abstain from their common daily labour, that they may the better dispose themselves to worship God according to their understandings.

Thirty-seventh. That as careless and corrupt administration of justice draws the wrath of God' upon magistrates, so the wildness and looseness of the people provoke the indignation of God against a country; therefore, that all such offences against God, as swearing, cursing, lying, prophane talking, drunkenness, drinking of healths, obscene words, incest, sodomy, rapes, whoredom, fornication, and other uncleanness (not to be repeated.) All treasons, misprisons, murders, duels, felonies, seditions, maims, forcible entries, and other violences, to the persons and estates of the inhabitants within this province : all prizes, stage plays, cards, dice, may-games, masques, revels, bull-baitings, cock-fightings, bearbaitings and the like, which excite the people to rudeness, cruelty, looseness and irreligion, shall be respectively discouraged, and severely punished, according to the appointment of the governor and freemen in Provincial Council and General Assembly, as also all proceedings contrary to these laws, that are not here made expressly penal.

Thirty-eight. That a copy of these laws shall be hung up in the Provincial Council, and in public courts of justice, and that they shall be read yearly, at the opening of every Provincial Council and General Assemby, and courts of justice, and their assent shall be testified by their standing up, after the reading thereof.

Thirty-ninth. That there shall be at no time any alteration of any of these laws, without the consent of the governor, his heirs or assigns, and six parts of seven of the freemen, met in Provincial Council and General Assembly.

Fortieth. That all other matters and things not herein provided for, which shall and may concern the publick justice, peace or safety of the said province; and the raising and imposing taxes, customs, duties, or other charges whatsoever, shall be, and are hereby referred to the order, prudence and determination of the governor and freemen in Provincial Council and General Assembly, to be held from time to time in the said province. Signed and sealed by the Governor and freemen aforesaid, the

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fifth day of the third month, called May, one thousand six hundred and eighty-two.

No. VIII.

THE FRAME OF THE GOVERNMENT Of the Province of Pennsylvania and Territories thereunto annexed

in America, 1683. To all persons to whom these presents may come: Whereas, king Charles the Second, by his letters patents, under the great seal of England, bearing date the fourth day of March, in the thirty and third year of the king, for divers considerations therein mentioned, hath been graciously pleased to give and grant unto me, William Penn, (by the name of William Penn, Esquire, son and heir of Sir William Penn deceased,) and to my heirs and assigns for ever, all that tract of land or province called Pennsylvania, in America, with divers great powers, preheminencies, royalties, jurisdictions and authorities, necessary for the wellbeing and government thereof. And whereas, the kings dearest brother James, duke of York and Albany, &c., by his deeds of feoffmeut under his hand and seal, duly perfected, bearing date the four and twentieth day of August, one thousand six hundred eighty and two, did grant unto me, my heirs and assigns, all that tract of land lying and being from twelve miles northward of Newcastle, upon Delaware river in America, to Cape Hinlopen upon the said river and bay of Delaware southward, together with all royalties, franchises, duties, jurisdictions, liberties and privileges thereunto belonging.

NOW KNOW YE, That for the well being and good government of the said Province and territories thereunto annexed, and for the encouragement of all the freemen and planters that may be therein concerned in pursuance of the rights and powers aforementioned, I the said William Penn, have declared, granted and confirmed, and by these presents for me, my heirs and assigns, do declare, grant and confirm unto all the freemen, planters and adventurers, of, in and to the said province and territories thereof, these liberties, franchises and properties, so far as in me lieth, to be held, enjoyed and kept by the freemen, planters and adventurers of, and in the said Province of Pennsylvania and territories thereunto annexed forever.

Imprimis. That the government of this province and territories thereof, shall from time to time, according to the powers of the patent and deeds of feoffment aforesaid, consist of the Proprietary and Governor and freemen of the said Province and territories thereof, in form of provincial Council and General Assembly, which provincial Council shall consist of eighteen persons, being three out of each county, and which Assembly shall consist of thirty-six persons, being six out of each county, men of most note for their virtue, wisdom and ability, by whom all laws shall be made, officers chosen and public affairs transacted, as is hereafter limited and declared.

Second. There being three persons already chosen for every re

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spective county of this province and territories thereof, to serve in the provincial Council, one of them for three years; one for two years, and one for one year; and one of them to go off yearly in every county; that on the tenth day of the first month yearly for ever after, the freemen of the said province and territories thereof, sball meet together in the most convenient place in every county of this province and territories thereof, then and there to choose one person qualified as aforesaid in every county, being one-third of the number to serve in provincial Council for three years; it being intended that one-third of the whole provincial Council, consisting and to consist of eighteen persons, falling off yearly, it shall be yearly supplied with such yearly elections as aforesaid; and that one person shall not continue in longer than three years; and in case any member shall decease before the last election during his time, that then at the next election ensuing his decease,'another shall be chosen to supply his place for the remaining time he was to have served, and no longer.

Third. That after the first seven years every one of the said third parts that goeth yearly off, shall be incapable of being chosen again for one whole year following; that so all that are capable and qualified as aforesaid, may be fitted for government and have a share of the care and burden of it.

Fourth. That the provincial Council in all cascs and matters of moment, as their arguing upon bills to be passed into laws, or proceedings about erecting of courts of justice, sitting in judgment upon criminals impeached, and choice of officers in such manner as is bereinafter expressed, not less than two-thirds of the whole shall make a quorum, and that the consent and approbation of two-thirds of that quorum shall be had in all such cases or matters of moment: and that in all cases and matters of lesser moment, one-third of the whole shall make a quorum the majority of which shall and may always determine in such cases and causes of lesser moment.

Fifth. That the Govenor and provincial Council shall have the power of preparing and proposing to the Assembly hereafter mentioned, all bills which they shall see needful, and that shall at any time be past into laws, within the said province and territories thereof, which bills shall be published and affixed to the most noted place, in every county of this province and territories thereof, twenty days before the meeting of the Assembly in order to passing them into laws.

Sixth. That the Governor and provincial Council shall take care that all laws, statutes and ordinances, which shall at any time be made within the said province and territories be duly and diligently executed.

Serenth. That the Governor and provincial Council shall at all times have the care of the peace and safety of this province and territories thereof; and that nothing be by any person attempted to the subversion of this frame of government.

Eighth. That the Governor and provincial Council shall at all

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