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ancles, and a string of silver coins around then as thick as the fore-finger, and from a the neck ; these are usually heir looms in foot to fifteen inches in length; a party on a fumily, and in turn grace all the young the road with both ears thus mounted, olive branches as they shoot forth.
looks not a little singular. Neither the Infants are slightly, if at all clad, and practice of smoking, nor the method of there is no custom among these people carrying the cigar is confined to the men, tending to produce any deformity of limbs, and from infancy both sexes are accustomed which from the birth are allowed free de- to the indulgence; but as before noted it is velopement, nor is any care taken to pre- of a most mild quality, and made principally vent exposure to either sun or rain. In- from a leaf found in a jungle, with but little fants are seen in the houses of all the vil- tobacco. It is the only one of an excitable lages crawling about alone, and as soon as nature in use, if indeed the mild mixture old enough to get down the, so called, they smoke, is so at all. The only bevestairs of ihe raised floors, they are to be rage is water, and though the licensing found in groups amusing themselves with of shops for liquor and opium, is, in the out any control, and naked as when born. more populous towns of Ranree, and the The girls clothe when five or six, the boys mainland, gradually tending to deprive their seldom submit to the restraint till eight or neighbors and countrymen of those parts, nine years old. This freedom enables them of the invaluable inheritance of national to exhibit in youth well made persons, sobriety, Chedooba is as yet clear of the tends to much personal activity, and inures infection. them to subsequent exposure, without any The acquirements of education are the fear of ill consequences. The government result of the labors of the priesthood, who of their children is mild and affectionate, thus repay the maintenance allotted them and is repaid by duty and attention in after by the public. All classes receive a like life, and there is little evidence to be de- attention, the extent of which goes to the rived from their noise of crying, of the learning to read and write; of this benefit number of children who flourish in a Che- however, the children alone of the more dooba village.
populous villages of Chedooba principally Though well proportioned, and exhibit- partake, they alone being large enough to ing a good share of muscle, especially on maintain continually an establishment of the lower limbs, they are a small people, the sort, though every village has attached and of moderate stature, the tallest among to it, a riong or church, and a school-room, them not attaining a height of five feet ten to which occasional visits are paid by itineinches; five feet four or five inches may be rant priests. Spinning cotton, and ihe use the average; the females less.
of the loom are branches of domestic eduThough with decided Tartar features, cation, learnt by the females at home; all search for any thing approaching to while as soon as he is old enough to bear what constitutes in our ideas, beauty, must its weight, the boy sallies forth with his be in vain, yet there is an open expression parent, and his dih, to assist in clearing of frankness and good humor, in the coun- the jungle for cultivation, or in felling it for tepances of many of both sexes, and very fuel. commonly so in age, which with us must The skill in the use of this weapon, thus be allowed to pass in its stead, and among learnt, is very great; in shape it resembles themselves constitutes that envied distince our bill-hook, with the sharp edge along tion. But truth compels to the avowal the outer or convex side, but it is without that this is found oftener with the males the crook, longer and heavier, the largest than females. The color of the skin is not in this latter particular fully cqualling that a black, but that of a mulattoe.
of one of our own axes, with a blade nearly Of ornament, when grown up, neither two feet long, and about four inches in sex have any; but a practice designed for width. With this weapon, the ease and such purpose in all other countries, is here rapidity with which the largest trees are transferred into one of every day usefulness; felled is very great, and the Mug is perhaps with both, the lobe of the car is perforated, as dexterous a woodsman as the Kentucky and the large hole fully occupied with the man himself. ever accompanying cigar. A roll of paper The tree is not felled so low down as fills its place, when not present, in order with the axe, but breast high, which raises that the capacity of this natural cigar case an objection to felling with it for timber, may not be diminished by contraction; though not in mere clearing for cultivation. where it can be afforded, silver is used in- Every man in the island has his dâh, which stead of paper, and sometimes the white is his constant companion, and is in conpith of a particular wood is used. When stant nse, to fell his timber, to make his about to make a journey, the dimensions cart, his house, his canoe, his baskets for of the cigar are greatly increased, and it is fishing or other purposes,
and last not least,
to chop up his curry. A Mug without a amusement and religion, unaccompanied by dàh might as well be without a right hand. her husband. In the performance of reli
In felling trees of very large diameter, gious duties, the women are more punctual an axe is made use of;; it is a sort of thick and attentive than the men. chisel, with about a two inch blade, insert In erecting his but, the Mug has only to ed into a handle knobbed at the end for its purchase materials, the neighbors assemble reception, where it is further secured by a
as these are prepared, and his seizing of rattan. This is a formidable house is established in a very short space weapon in a Mug's hand, and he fells his of time. They are all constructed on the tree with it quickly and clean.
same plan, raised on poles from the ground With a disposition greatly averse to any several feet; the flooring and walls are of continued or fixed labor, the Mug yet is bamboo matting, wove in a neat pattern ; always on the move, either at work, or the roof of the Ahtup leaf neatly covered half amusement with bis dâh in the jungles, with a frame work of bamboo, to prevent or wandering through them from village to its being injured by the monsoon winds. village; this constant out door exercise All apartments, whether sleeping, sitting, and use of limb, gives a suppleness, and cooking, bathing, or private, are on this developement of muscle to their legs and raised Hoor, through wbich all refuse finds thighs particularly, which constitute him an its way underneath, where what is left by untiring walker, and is very perceptible dogs and vermin, serves as manure for the even in very old age, rendering him to the garden attached to each house. Shelter is last independent of all other means of pro- also afforded underneath to the poultry, of gression, and able still to indulge his love which they have much, and sometimes to of rambling with those he was born with. the smaller kine. The kitchen range is I found to my astonishment that the old- formed by a round tray of moist clay, about
on the Island, numbering 106 three feet in diameter, and five or six years, bad walked from his own village, a inches thick, leaving three small projections distance of thirteen or fourteen miles, in or columns on its centre, whereon to rest order to meet me at another, and walked the cooking pot; when dried in the sun, it back again on being disappointed. He is fit for employment, and effectually prosubsequently came two miles from his own lects the combustible floor; the furniture village to where we did meet, and during consists of a few reed mats, and each memour interview, I could not but be much ber possesses a wooden pillow; these are struck with the exhibition he made in illus- the whole amount. The rice for the family tration of the above remarks. While on meal is served up in a wooden bowl, around his body the skin lay quite loose, and was which the whole party squat; the fish, persectly sestooned with wrinkles, his legs flesh, fowl or vegetables are served in small and thighs exhibited as much plampness, coarse China tea cups, the right hand, and and fulness of flesh and muscle, as they , the mouth are always washed before, and could have done, when they had performed after the meal; water is the only beverage but half their over century of work, and at the meal, and when it is over, pawn is though in other cases I found old men, in use, and the cigar lit. Two meals whose faculties had broken down under suffice during the day, the one at seven in years, I never heard of one whose limbs the morning, the other at sundown, and had given way, or who was bedridden; a both are very soon despatched. On taking staff was all the assistance the above old a journey the meal is carried in a few gentleman required.
leaves bound up with a rattan; on such Beside the above out door duties and occasions they have also a practice of cookamusements, all the heavier labors of agri- ing rice, which I believe to be peculiar; it culture fall to the share of the man; but is partly boiled, and then pressed with the cleaning of the rice for ordinary con- force into a bamboo, with a further portion sumption after it is brought in, is done by of water, and when full, the bamboo is put
with the instruinent in com- into the fire, and roasted. The rice within, mon use for this purpose in other parts of when dressed, thus keeps for many days, India. This falls to her lot as one of the and a bundle of these bamboos is the household duties which are assigned to her; simplest manner of carrying more than a but in none any more than in her general day's provisions through the jungle. When treatment and place in society, has she to be eaten, it is split with the dâlı; the ought to complain of. Besides her house- rice is formed into a kind of semi-transpahold affairs, she goes to market, and pre- rent jelly of strong consistency, with the pares the family meal, at which she invari- soft inner lining ef the bamboo firınly atable eats out of the same dish with her tached to it, which is eaten with it. When husband. No restraint is imposed on her baked with milk instead of water, and with liberty, and she may attend all places of the addition of a little flour, rice cooked in
this manner, is described as quite a lux-, an evidence of their forgiving and unreury.
vengeful disposition. The man, though As in the construction of his hut, so in much hurt with the blow of a stick, and all other labors and necessities, the readiest indignant at it, expressly requested on the assistance is rendered by every one to all; offer being made, that no punishment might hospitality is universal, and the last grain be awarded; all he required was that such of rice will be cheerfully shared with the treatment might not again be repeated. stranger; every village has its traveller's They are very fond of public amusements, house, and he who occupies it is the gen- which are generally given in honor of the eral guest. Besides being too independent exertion of some work of public utility; at to beg when able to work, amongst a peo- these, plays, dancing, and wrestling take ple so disposed charity has no place, or place; of the former two, not much may be rather the universal hospitality is exalted said; of the latter, the most remarkable into that virtue. At a late period, when feature exhibited, appeared the total abthe whole province suffered from the visita- sence of all angry feeling on the part of the tion of cholera, hundreds of children were antagonist. Boxing is also at such times orphaned, but neither were they sold as is another exhibition. common in India, nor was the assistance of Old age is treated with great respect, Government called in charitable aid for and the elders of a village, even when not their support; all were adopted at once officials, are consulted and listened 10 in all into families of neighbors or relations, and matters of debate relative to the interests of treated as their own sons and daughters. the community. When addressed they No part of the revenue was sought to be are called “ Appogee,” a title of respect. remitted, on account of the general calami The language of the Mug is with slight ty, but all was paid.
difference, the same as that of his neighbor The Mug of Chedooba is strictly honest, the Burmah, of which it would seem to be no such thing as theft is known among a mere provincialism, and the similarity in them, and even in the more populous this, in feature, religion, and all leading towns, it is most rare, if known, for a customs, and points of character, proclaim Mug to be brought into court on such a them both to be the offspring of one comcharge. In their dealings with one another mon stock. A difference in the pronunciabut one price is asked, though the simplici- ion of certain of the letters, constitutes the ty and honesty of such a custom is giving principal distinctions between the two lanway before the worse example of the Ben- guages, and of these distinctions, that afgallee in the larger towns; but no Mug will fecting the Y and the R stands first; the degrade himself by a charge of customs' Y with the Burmese is always changed on the purchaser, for the benefit of his ser- into an R by the Mag. The language in vant. To this may be added, that in all general use sounds uncouth and indistinct, my experience of them, I do not know to but when properly spoken is said to be have had occasion to entertain even suspi- otherwise; it is difficult to acquire by Eucion of their word. The Mug will not bear ropeans. the restraint on his time, or his will, neces The character again is the same as that sary to qualify him as a servant; and though of the Burmese, so that these people have bard labor, when imposed, is submitted all the benefit of the productions of the to with his universal cheerfulness, it is Maulmain press, which are printed in that never freely chosen. Their respect and character, and amongst these that of a esteem of Europeans is very great, and any translation of the whole bible into their services in their power, were cheerfully vernacular. Their own books, which treat performed for our party with no object be- principally of religious or philosophical subyond that of giving satisfaction. On many jects are impressed, with a style on dried occasions I have found it necessary to des- leaves stitched together, and rubbed with patch a messenger to the ship, both to take, the finer produce of the Petroleum wells to and to bring communications or supplies; preserve them; paper is only used by the the parties were always punctual to the district officers of different grades. The time they would appoint for their return, religion of the Mug is that of Boodh, and but would never take a pice in remunera- in Chedooba I believe, the only exception tion, seeming hurt even at the offer, and to this, is to be found in the Christian conwhatever return was made them was al- vert, who has been before mentioned; in ways obliged to be given strictly as a Ramree and the main coast, Mug Mussulpresent, and as a pledge of approbation mans are not uncommon. and kindly feeling.
Their religion, however, sits but lightly In the case of one of our Bengallee at- on them, maintaining its supremacy more tendants who had struck a Mug, of which because it is unopposed by any other, than complaint was made to me, was afforded from any attachment of the people to its
precepts or practice, and when discussing, I the only one on the Island, and is a sinand ridiculing its absurdities, as brought cere, and pious old man, deeply interested forward by our friend its advocate, the in the improvement, social and religious, of laugh and joke was fully participated in by his Island countrymen. He is intelligent all the hearers, who appeared much to en- and well informed for his means, of the joy and even promote such a scene. mildest manners, and benevolent appear
All the pagodas are in a state of ruin or ance; though between 75 and 76. His decay, or rapidly approaching to it, and pittance is small, five rupees a month from broken fragments of the image of Gaudma the American Baptist Mission, of which he Jie strewn aboui, without any one attempt is an assistant; he is listened to with great ing the restoration of him or his temple. attention and curiosity, but, unsupported The old Christian before mentioned, had as he is, and with but little encouragement, taken forth his god years ago, and both his success is small., broken, and deserted him on the high road Ramree, the chief town of the province, side, where his remains were pointed out enjoys the privilege of a school, where to us without either mark or expression as English is taught, and Chedooba, as a part to any impropriety in such conduct, but of the province, is entitled to send its quota contrariwise, the forlorn state of the poor of pupils. But the habits of the people, idol excited laughter instead of commisser- and even the regulations of the school, deation. On a remarkable hill in the centre prive its inhabitants of making almost any of the Island stands the principal pagoda in use of it. Payment is required; there the common ruinous state; no pious hand, may be no friends at Ramree to take charge had for many a year attempted to annihi- of the children, and the Chedoobans are late himself by its restoration; but whether attached to their Island too much to allow in waggery or not, its chief ornament con- willingly even their children to leave it for sisted of a cut glass decanter, turned bottom any length of time; very few parents, thereup, on a bamboo stuck into its pinnacle, fore, and those chiefly the Island authoriand excited the langhter of our native party, ties, give their children the benefit of the as much as our own.
advantage offered by the provincial school. The Mugs are superstitious, and though But the payment which is begrudged to the by no means more deficient in personal Ramree establishment, would be willingly courage than their Burmah neiglibors, yet made even in higher amount to one at exbibit in some points a weakness, which home; both children and parents in Chemight cause a doubt on this point. No dooba are all common friends, and mutually Mug will travel alone in the dark, nor even known; and such an establishment, which on inoonlight nights, for fear of evil spirits the deficiency of priests, for educational or Naths; but when together « three Mugs purposes, point out as wanted, would soon will face the devil.” Nothing but positive meet with that most grateful appreciation order and accompaniment by us would in- of the boon, a large attendance. duce them to trespass on many of the hill tops, wbich were inhabited, they said, by these demons, but with us not only would they advance fearlessly, but did not hesitate to fell the trees, though the blame of
A correspondent of the Calcutta Christian such sacrilege was always laid on us, in Observer, under the signature of J. M. D)., in a direct apostrophe to the supposed injured series of letters 10 a friend, under dale of July inhabitants. On felling any very large tree 1, 1841, has the following upon the Lord Jesus one of the party at work on it, was always Christ as a sacrifice, and for which we bespeak ready prepared with a green sprig, which ar attentive perusa). he ran and placed in the centre of the stump, the instant the tree fell, as a propitiation to It is indeed my happiness to write you its spirit which had been dislodged so again concerning the LORD Jesus Christ. roughly, pleading at the same time the or- I am so deeply his debtor, and there is so ders of the strangers for the work.
much to say concerning him as a Savior, No distinction of caste is recognized by that I feel glad to obey your summons, and their religion, and the priest both eats, and write you somewhat more concerning him. will accept the offering of all and every Oh, why does not the whole world fock class. The dead are burnt, the bodies of together to hear of Christ, the Redeemer priests with great pomp and ceremony, of man? Why at least, do not the multiafter being preserved a considerable time, tude of his disciples, continually rehearse and the bodies of all with decency; this and forever listen to the tale of his love! constitutes a very meritorious deed when | Go through this great city, wherein are so performed with the remains of a stranger. many Christians :-)isten to their conver
The old Christian above mentioned, is | sation for one whole year; and then say,
how many of those men and women, who į This is the first step which faith takes in say they are brought from hell by the blood | the contemplation of the sacrifice of our of Christ, ever mention his name or speak Lord and Savior Jesus Christ; it makes one word concerning his love to man! Go, sure of the fact, that there was a true enwatch the epistolary correspondence, of durance of the very curse of sin, in the those Christians ?-write they at all to death which took place on Calvary, their brothers and sisters, to their children, 2. Next, my dear friend, consider that their parents, their friends, concerning that the Lord Jesus Christ died as a substitute. blessed Kinsman, the Son of God, who That he came into the world to act and died for their common salvation ? A few suffer in the room of otbers, I presented to there are;--yet, how few! and how are your view in my last communication, as those few despised and shunned!
clearly as lay in my power. What a man Oh mad world, thus to despise thy Sa- docs for himself, belongs to himself :-what vior, and to hate those that love him! My a man does for others, is done by those friend, let us give thanks that we have others through him ;—so that they can use been so far separated from this world, that it as if done by themselves. Christ bewe desire at least to know more concern came a curse for them who were “ under ing Christ; and that we feel the claims of the curse;''-iherefore does his death behis love so apprehending our personal grat- long, by right, for acceptance, to those itude, that we cannot but honor all that is who are sinners:—if any receive, it bestamped with his image, or that purely comes actually theirs;—if any reject, by it bears his name. May this work advance they cannot profit. The simple question in you, until it can be said by you, “ To then is, whether you belong to the class, me, to live, is Christ!" Your wish is, for whom the Savior died, that is, sinners : that I should say somewhat more concern--and if you do, then your very sinfulness ing the SACRIFICE of Christ;—and es- shuts you up to accept and embrace the pecially that I should present to you more death of Christ, as a vicarious death availclearly the grounds of that confidence which able for you; because you are a sinner, a sinner is warranted to entertain, for eter- and he died as a substitute for sinners. nal life, on the death of Christ. This is a He that realizes well this truth, will rise pleasing theme, and not a difficult task;— in spirit towards heaven continually, in the for, what God has freely given, He has smoke of Christ's glorious sacrifice;—and also clearly revealed; so that the fulness to every earthly challenge, he will thus of the record, corresponds with the gran- answer—" Jesus was consumed instead of deur of the gist. To it I shall now directly the guilty—therefore do I, who am guilty, pass; and endeavor familiarly to convey to live !" you, the most solemn and important of all 3. The value of this sacrifice is infinite; earthly subjects.
-therefore have you ample scope for trust 1. In the death of Jesus Christ, there in its sufficiency. We have seen how the was an actual fulfilment of that curse divine and human natures were united in against sin, proclaimed by God against the person of the Lord Jesus Christ, acman in his word. When Christ was on cording to their peculiar and respective the cross, he endured every thing that con- properties. These were not interchanged stitutes suffering :-he had bodily pain, and or intermixed, so that humanity became mental anguish; he was persecuted by divinity, or divinity humanity; but they man, tormented by devils, and forsaken by were simply united, so that the exercises God, as the Judge of all. His death was of one nature were associated with the not a mere exit of the spirit from the flesh, qualities of the other. Thus, Christ but he endured all the pangs of death as obeyed the law in his human nature, whilst " the curse;"'—so that, in the language of at the same time he was infinitely glorious inspiration, « he became a curse." What- in bis divine nature; consequently, the ever be the penalty of sin, whatever its glory of Godhead, which could not obey, necessary punishment, that he fully en was united with the obedience of manhood dured;—so that, what the law required or which did obey; and so Christ's obedience could require, was fulfilled on Calvary. was of infinite glory. It was more honorChrist's sacrifice contained in it an endur- ing to the law and government of God, ance of all that could be demanded as a than any possible amount of obedience from compensation or penalty for sin. On this, any possible number of mere inen, who my friend, fix your eye first of all, and neither individually nor collectively can say—“In the death of Christ, I see as cer- have any intrinsic glory whatever. tain a fulfilment of the sentence of death, also, the human death of Christ had, by under which I labor, as if hell blazed before virtue of the incarnation, all the glory of me, and I saw sinners in their own persons God united to it; so that his sacrifice was enduring all its awful horrors !"
an infinitely glorious sacrifice. But the