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to the habit of getting work performed by slaves, and to the backward state of social comfort in either country. Another unpleasant point of resemblance is found in the prevalence of duelling :
• Private quarrels frequently disgrace the public prints : challenges are sent; and if refused, the parties are posted as “prevaricating poltroons and cowards.” A few months before I arrived, a duel took place between two young gentlemen of respectable families, which terminated in the death of both. There is, perhaps, no country in the world where duels are so frequent as in the United States. During my short stay of six months in that country, there were upwards of fourteen fought which came to my knowledge; and not one of them in which the parties were not either killed or wounded. Since my departure, I heard of a duel having been fought with rifles at only seven paces distance, in which two young men, whose families were of the highest respectability, were both killed on the spot.
Mr. Lambert had ample opportunity of observing how little the existence of such a spirit is connected with the true military character. A levy of militia having been ordered by Congress, he saw the Charlestown quota reviewed, and received an impression similar to that which the campaigns in Canada have produced among us at home. It was at that time not unusual for militia-men to attend at muster with walking sticks, instead of firelocks, and an amusing anonymous satire on these sham reviews is inserted at p. 192.- In taking a general view of the province of South Carolina, he divides it (p. 205.) into three parts, the lower, middle, and upper country ; each of which exhibits considerable diversity in soil and management. The lower country lying along the sea-shore has, in general, a level surface, and is distinguished by creeks, marshes, and islands. Cotton and rice are here the great objects of cultivation, corn and potatoes being grown in very limited quantities. In the middle country, cotton and corn, particularly Indian-corn, are raised both for consumption and exportation; while in the upper country tobacco, and of late years cotton, are the chief objects of attention. There being few or no slaves in this quarter, the labour of cultivation devolves on the farmer and his family, who thus approach nearly to the situation of the inhabitants of the New England States. The want of slaves has taught the importance of saving the waste of labour, and of substituting the plough for the hoe ; and though the latter continues the chief instrument of husbandry in the lower country, we cannot doubt that the use of the plough would be beneficial throughout the whole province. Of the three divisions, the upper country is by far the most healthy; the city of Charlestown and the tract adjoining the sea being subject to very dangerous mildews;
The • The climate of South Carolina is peculiarly liable to sudden changes of temperature ; so that in one moment the body is relaxed by heat, and the next chilled by unexpected cold. Thus, profuse perspirations are checked; and unless the functions of the body are restored to their proper duties, a course of disorders commences, which sooner or later destroys the constitution. In tropical climates, it is said, the degrees of heat throughout the year do not vary more than sixteca degrees of Fahrenheit's thermometer, making thereby little difference between summer and winter. But in South Carolina there is often a variation of 83 degrees between the heat and cold of different days in the same year, in the space of seven months; and of 46 degrees in the different hours of the same day.'
Returning northwards, Mr. Lambert visited Boston, which is irregular in point of building, but highly favoured as to situation. On viewing the neighbourhood from an elevated part of the town, a traveller is delighted with the number of villages, country-seats, farms, and pleasure-grounds, which he perceives seated on the summit of small hills or in the midst of spacious vallies. In the town, likewise, great improvement has taken place in late years; and the population is upwards of thirty thousand :
• The inhabitants are distinguished for their domestic habits, regu. larity of living, integrity in their dealings, hospitality to strangers, strict piety and devotion, and respect for the moral and social virtues ; upon which depend the happiness and well-being of a community.
• The people of Boston, and of New England in general, were formerly remarkable for a punctilious rigidity of character that differed but little from the manners of the Quakers. They were the immediate descendants of men who had fled from persecution in Enge land; and, as if emigration had sourcd their dispositions, they in their turn became religious tyrants and persecutors, and committed the most extravagant outrages. In the course of time these puritanical follies wore off with the increasing prosperity of their new settle. ments; and their frequent intercourse with men of more moderate principles begat in them a greater degree of toleration, and gave them a taste for the innocent amusements of polished society.'
Notwithstanding the Bostonians have considerably relaxed from their former rigid manners, and given into the gaiety and amusements of modern times, yet their scrupulous and devout observance of religious worship still continues with little variation; and they perhaps afford beyond any other people, the pleasing proof that social amusements and diversions are not incompatible with, nor need interrupt, the more important and solemn duties which we owe to our Maker. Sundays are observed with the strictest decorum; the town appears as if completely deserted; and scarcely a person is seen walking the streets, except in going to or coming from a place of worship. Indeed all the towns and cities which I have visited in the United States are extremely exemplary in this respect, and present none of
that noise, bustle, and driving about, so common in the streets of London on the Sabbath day.-
« There is a material difference in point of character between the people of the northern States and those to the southward ; there also exists a considerable spirit of rivalry, jealousy, and opposition between them. The former (speaking in general terms) are a plain, honest, and industrionis people; regular in their habits, punctual in their payments, and strongly attached to agricultural and commercial pursuits. Before the embargo, their merchants traded with all the world; and the spirit of commercial enterprise had diffused itself in an extra. ordinary manner over those States. Their ships covered the ocean, and transported the commodities of their own country, and of other nations, to every quarter of the globe. A considerable share of their exports was furnished by their own portion of the Union ; but the greater part was supplied by the southern States. The latter, however, had but few ships of their own, and cared not who were the carriers, so that they could dispose of their cotton, tobacco, and rice. They would have been equally satisfied to sell their produce to fo. reigners, and let them take it away in their own vessels, as to sell it to the northern merchants; and it is this sort of policy which is said to guide Mr. Jefferson, Mr. Madison, and others of their party even at this day; but I cannot bring myself to believe that there is any foundation for such an assertion.
• It is true the southern planter acquires his wealth not by the sweat of his brow like the New Englander, but by the labour of his negroes. He lolls at his ease in the shady retreat, drinking, smoking, or sleeping, surrounded by his slaves and overseers, who furnish him with the luxuries of life, without the necessity of his leaving the piazza. The northern merchant, on the contrary, is strenuously exerting himself from morning till night; exercising his faculties, ex. panding his mind, and enlarging his ideas by continual intercourse with people of every nation, and correspondence in every part of the globe.'
Towards the conclusion of his work, Mr. Lambert has introduced biographical notices of several eminent characters in the United States. Mr. Jefferson is described as living with all the simplicity of a philosopher and agriculturist; a habit which he did not renounce even when placed in the highest station of the republic. He was not then, in the opinion of this writer, swayed in his politics so much by predilection for France, as by a desire to remain in peace with all the world. Mr. Madison is the first President who did not perform any part of consequence in the war of 1775. Notwithstanding the lofty and hostile
tone of his late public communications, it is almost generally .. understood that personally his wishes are pacific; and that, if
his party would permit, he would gladly terminate this une prosperous contest on the terms offered by our government: His diplomatic compositions have been frequently verbose and obscure; while the course of late events must have abundantly satisfied his countrymen that he is not calculated to shine as a war-minister.-President Adams, with considerable energy and activity, is deemed deficient in the temper which is necessary for the occupier of a ministerial station. – Mr. Randolph is known to the public, on this side of the water, only by his speeches. His figure, says Mr. L., is tall and emaciated, but the disadvantages of a first impression are soon removed by the vivacity of his conversation. He is not gifted, however, with those accommodating manners which are necessary to connect a body of men together, so that his speeches are to be considered rather as the effusions of an individual than the declarations of a party.--Mr. Gallatin, who has so long appeared in the capacity of Secretary to the Treasury, is a native of Geneva, and removed to America about the year 1779. The first part of his career was not creditable to his patriotism, and he is considered as owing his place chiefly to his dexterity in financial details.
The late Joel Barlow was of an age that enabled him to discharge the office of chaplain to a brigade in the revolutionary war; and, at the peace, he made an attempt to enter on the pro. fession of the law. His « Vision of Columbus” was first published in 1787: but neither law nor poetry proving sufficiently profitable, he came over to Europe as agent for the sale of lots of land in the Ohio territory. Here, also, his success was very limited, and the settlement of that fertile district has been owing much more to adventurers from the New England States than to emigrants from Europe. The latter have to combat in America with various difficulties, being ignorant of the quickest mode of clearing land, and unwilling to submit to pass a stormy season in a log-hut, or to live for twelvemonths together on salt provisions. The Americans, on the contrary, consider a forest as their natural habitation ; and, like the wandering Indians, they emigrate from spot to spot with the view of increasing their property. Being aware, likewise, of the various disadvantages of uncultivated land, they are less liable to shackle themselves with an unprofitable bargain.
Mr. Barlow finding little encouragement in the sale of the Ohio lands in London, and having committed the imprudence of carrying an address from one of our democratic societies in 1792 to the National Convention of France, it became expedient for him to remain out of England. He now proceeded to figure in the French Revolution; and, when he had seen the vanity of his hopes of liberty in that country, he dedicated his leisure hours to the composition of “ The Columbiad," a poem in ten books, and an enlargement of his “Vision of Columbus." He returned to America in 1805, and was again appointed ambas
sador to Bonaparte in 1812, but died in the course of a journey undertaken to meet Napoleon in Poland.
Mr. Jay, who is chiefly known in this country by the treaty of 1794, is now very far advanced in life, having been born in 1734. He was educated for the law, and was in considerable practice on the breaking out of the war of 1775. Being deputed to Congress, he was chosen President in 1777, and sent afterward as ambassador to Spain and France. He bore a part with Franklin and Adams in the treaty of Paris in 1783 ; and, on his return to America, he acted first as minister for foreign affairs, and afterward as Chief Justice of the United States, a station which he found it necessary to resign in consequence of the clamour excited against him by the treaty of 1794. He was soon afterward elected Governor of New York, and continued to hold the place for several years, until he determined to withdraw from active life, and to pass his rer maining years in retirement.
General Pinkney is, like Mr.Jay, a character of the greatest respectability. He distinguished himself by his courage and conduct in the revolutionary war; and, in the various diplomatic missions with which he has been subsequently charged, his proceedings have been marked by an open and conciliating spirit. -In his notes on other public men, Mr. L. makes (p. 440.) a few observations on the conduct of General Moreau, during his residence in the United States, and combats the ridiculous but very prevalent notion that he was in the habit of transmitting se, cret intelligence to Bonaparte's government. A journey made by Moreau to New Orleans in 1808 gave rise to a thousand rumours, and created great alarm in the numerous class of people who had become sick of even the name of Revolution. :
It is now time to take our leave of Mr. Lambert, whom we shall have no objection to meet again as a traveller and an author, provided that he will give attention to the remarks which we have made on his first volume; and which may be comprized in the plain rule to study condensation and arrange, ment. His preface and introduction are somewhat in the style of an advertisement; a practice against which we would dissuade him, as being neither creditable nor advantageous. A book of real interest stands in no need of so doubtful an auxi. liary ; and these expedients are now so common as to lose in a great measure their effect. Neither is it advisable to give such very minute tables of contents, the reader being thus led to expect more than he will occasionally find. - The plates are inserted chiefly in the first volume, and, though of very ordinary quality, are useful, and effectually supply the deficiency of verbal description,