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of Cork, and about the year 1674 an hospital for poor chilldren, now called The Blue Coat Hospital, was erected on the ancient site." Archdall's Monast. Hibern., pp. 62. et seq.'
On this extract, it is obvious to remark that the notices of objects which no longer remain, but which time has swept away, might have been shortened, to make room for a fuller account of the actual state of Cork, including a detail of particulars usually found in Gazetteers ; such as the number of streets and houses, and a rough guess (if nothing better can be obtained) of its population. We may excuse Mr. Carlisle for being seduced by the amiable impulse of friendship to record the gallant conduct of Captain Parker, though we have not deemed it necessary to transcribe his detail : but, when he adverted to modern history, he ought, for the instruction of his readers, to have told more than he has communicated. We trust that he will excuse this hint, and not forget it when he prepares for a second edition.
Under the article Killarney, we presumed that some details would have been given respecting the sublimely picturesque landscapes in that vicinity, especially as “ Weld's Illustrations of the Scenery of Killarney” are enumerated among the books which the author professes to have consulted: but, instead of having such expectations gratified, we are dismissed with the frigid and meagre notification that the vicarage of Killarncy
is situate' (which word uniformly occurs for situated) near the beautiful lake of Loch Lean, or the Lake of Killarney, the boast and pride of Ireland'!
We shall advert to one article more; viz. that of the Giants' Causeway. For an explanation of this stupendous natural phenomenon, Mr. C. refers his readers to an account given by Dr. Pocock in the 48th Vol. of the Philosophical Transactions; not reflecting that we have since had much more correct and scientific details of the basaltic columns of Staffa and the Giants' Causeway. He might have consulted with advantage the memoirs of Dr. Richardson on this subject, in the Transactions of the Dublin Academy. Objects of natural history will occasionally present themselves to the topographical surveyor; and he should describe them with philosophical correctness according to the most recent discoveries, and not refer to obsolete science. Mr. Carlisle's merit is so conspicuous that it will not be materially injured by a few buts.
To the title-page, this memorandum is subjoined: N. B. This volume being complete in itself is sold separately : but it is also intended to form a third volume to the Dictionary of England recently published by the same author.'
ART. III. A Topographical Dictionary of Scotland, and of the
Islands in the British Seas ; exhibiting the Names of the several Cities, Royal Burghs, Parishes, Villages, and Islands, with the Shire, and Division of the Shire, in which they are situate ;- the Stipend of each Benefice, the present Condition of the Manse and Church, the Extent of the Glebe, the Patrons, and the Presbytery and Synod to which they respectively belong ;- the resident Population, according to the Returns made to Parliament in 1801, and also in 1811; — the Distance and Bearing of every Place from the nearest Post-Office, and of the Post-Offices from the Metropolis ; — Markets and Fairs;--- Members of Parliament and Cor. porations; Parochial Schools, and Schools established by the Society for Propagating Christian Knowlege ;-Circuit-Courts of Justiciary. To which are added, the Quality of the Soil, and the State of Agriculture, Roads, Bridges, Ferries, and Canals, and a Variety of Historical Information, Subjects of Antiquity, Mo. nastic Foundations, and peculiar Customs. Compiled from the most authentic Documents, and arranged in alphabetical Order. Being a Continuation of the Topography of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. By Nicholas Carlisle, Fellow and Secretary of the Society of Antiquaries of London, and Assistant Librarian to His Majesty. 4to. 2 Vols. 41. to Subscribers.
51. 55. to Non-subscribers. Nicol and Son. 1813. W e now congratulate Mr. Carlisle on the successful termi
W nation of his labours; which, so honourably for himself, and so usefully for the public, have been perseveringly exerted in the topographical delineation of every portion of the United Kingdom. It often happens, in long and arduous undertakings, that the spirit and energy which were exhibited at the beginning evaporate in the progress; and that, after the commencement has been executed to admiration, “extremum actum, tane quam ab inerti poeta, esse neglectum.” Not so Mr. Carlisle. If that be possible, he finishes better than he began, and shews himself intitled to be dismissed with applause. Owing to the very ample materials furnished by Sir John Sinclair in his Statistical Account of Scotland, Mr. C. has been enabled to be more minute, accurate, and various in his present details, than in his account of Ireland, which is in want of a Sir John Sinclair, seconded by the exertions of a learned and inquisitive parochial clergy, to produce such a statistical elucidation as the Baronet has supplied in his 21 vols. on Scotland: of which it may be confidently pronounced, “ That no publication, of equal importance and curiosity, has appeared in Great Britain, since Doomsday-Book, and that it stands unrivalled for extent of useful information." Mr. Chalmers's Caledonia, the CountyReports, and other works, have also been consulted with advantage.
· An appropriate and very instructive preface is affixed to these volumes, in which many particulars relative to North Britain are explained: but, as Mr. C. is a very minute ecclesiastical reporter, we were rather surprized at not finding, in this part, a more amplified delineation of the constitution of the church of Scotland. In his preliminary discourse, the author arranges his matter under three general heads, treating (ist, Of the Manner and Period when the Crown of Scotland was merged in that of England, and of the Union of the two Kingdoms, by the Name of Great Britain. 2dly, Of the Method adopted to obtain accurate Information. 3dly, Of the general Arrangement and Execution of the present Work.' On the first head, we shall merely remark that the historical sketch appears to be correct, and on the second that it affords a similar specimen of unwearied industry with the other portions of the author's labours : but on the third department of his preface we must dwell rather more. « The orthography of the name of each pari h is given from an examination of the population-returns made to Parliament, in the years 1801 and 1811, compared with the Statistical Account, and sundry topographical histories, so that here mistakes are not likely to occur. Mr. C. next adverts to the change which has taken place in the ecclesiastical government of Scotland from Episcopacy to the Presbyterian form : but, though he notices the alteration, he adheres to the use of words that are not at present strictly proper, for which he makes an apology:
He has constantly given to each benefice the appellation of Rectory, Vicarage, or Chaplainry, a designation which is disused by the present Presbyterian ministers. He has been enabled to denote this circumstance from a copy of Bagimont's Roll*, which was specially procured for him from the Advocates' Library, by the kindness of Mr. Napier ; and he was induced, independent of the great worth and curiosity of that Roll, to preserve the distinction in compliance with history, and the several learned writers who, in treating of ecclesiastical affairs, have studiously retained those titles. In further apology for introducing the appellation, he remarks, that frequent mention of allowance for « vicarage" is made by the ministers themselves in the Statistical Account, which would seem to render it consistent; and in the more formal Returns to the Teind Court so late as the year 1812, the claims of vicarage and vicarage teind (tithe) are repeatedly enumerated.'
As a mere matter of record, or calculating on a return of the episcopal government, this notice might be allowable: but, as
«*" The auld Taxation of Bagimont” is often referred to by the Scotish Statutes, as an adequate measure of the true value of eccle. siastical benefices. He flourished in the 13th century.
I things things now are, the terms Rectory and Vicarage do not convey ideas which mark the situation of the incumbent. By what follows, it will appear that the provision for the clergy of the church of Scotland is different from that which is made for the established clergy in England :
On the final establishment of the Presbyterian church, the benefices were so poor, that few persons of education would dedicate themselves to the ministry. Various circumstances had co-operated to otcasion this diminution in the property of the church. Before the demise of James the Fifth, the abbots and bishops adopted the practice of relinquishing some of their privileges and property, to some powerful baron, to protect their rights against violence, by bonds of man-rent *; and in March 1596, it was calculated that, of the nine hundred churches in Scotland, there were then four hun. dred without ministers or read rs; that is, at the end of forty years after the Reformation began: the whole estates of the ancient church having been appropriated by the nobles, before any establishment could be made for the reformed clergy.
. In 1617, an attempt was made to give permanent relief to “ the ministery, who had been keeped in poverty, without being able, fruitfully, to travel in their charges.” Parliamentary commissioners were now appointed to plant churches, and to modify stipends, by a fair application of the wasted teinds. The lowest stipend was, by this commission, fixed at five chalders of victual, or 500 merks, Scotch, (251. 158. 6 d. sterling,) which were equal to thé highest stipend that had been proposed by the ministers themselves in 1581. But this authority soon expired without being able to accomplish its purposes; and a new commission was granted in 1621, with similar powers, which were executed with similar inefficiency.
In 1633, when the tithes were transferred to the landholders, the minimum was raised to 800 merks, or eight chalders of victual, and the maximum was left undefined.
• From the Union in 1707, to 1738, there appear to have been no augmentations. The first application for a second augmentation was made in 1742, and 53 augmentations were soon after applied for and obtained. The year 1750 may be deemed the late commencement of the prosperity of Scotland, and the augmentations of the ministers' stipends kept pace with the gradual advance of every order in the state.'
The author proceeds to detail the subsequent relief which has been extended to the ministers of the church of Scotland, and to specify the progress which has been made under an act passed June 15th, 1810, for augmenting parochial stipends
* This is defined in the glossary to be homage made to a su. perior |-- the power of a superior, especially in respect of the number of kinsmen and vassals whom he could bring into the field ;-a bond or engagement to a superior, to support him in all his quarrels, and to appear in arms at his call.'
to the value of 1501. sterling at least. Having obtained from the Teind-office the lists of the several benefices which were made out, as the act required, he has placed this subject in a clear light; and in order to constitute, as it were, a Liber Regis for Scotland, the magnitude of the glebes and the patrons of the several benefices are inserted.
As he had done in his Topography of England, Mr.C. follows the authority of the returns to Parliament on the subject of population; and he states that of Scotland, in 1801, to have been 1,650,000, and in 1811 to have been 1,860,000 persons, which is an increase of 210,000 in ten years.
Provision for the poor in Scotland' is different from that which is obtained by the poor's rates in England. In the Presbyterian church, charity and piety are so united that the levy of a heavy tax is superseded; and Mr. Carlisle informs 115 that the members of the episcopal congregations support their own poor.
On the size of Scotland, it is remarked that, with its islands, it is about equal to Ireland in area, and is half as large as England and Wales. But in computing the area of Scotland in English square miles, it is right to mention, that the Scotish mile is 5952 English feet, or, compared with the English mile, as 9 to 8: but it is rapidly falling into disuse.'
Not only has Mr C. consulted the best authorities on the subjects of post-office towns, markets, fairs, royal burghs, &c, but he has introduced a variety of information on points of history, antiquity, and peculiar customs; and so ample have been his materials, that he has been enabled to give the magnitude of the several parishes, with an account of the quality of the soil and the present state of agriculture. Here he takes an opportunity of adverting to circumstances which, in concurrence with the ungenial nature of the climate and the inequalities of the soil, tend to obstruct the exertions of the farmer; among which he specifies the mode of granting leases on the life of a single individual, the mode of assessing the teinds, and the claim of thirlage, in some districts: which is defined to be that servitude by which lands are astricted or thirled to a particular mill, to which the possessor must carry the growth of the adstricted land to be ground, for the payment of such duties as are either expressed or implied in the constitution of the right.'
Mr. Carlisle also enlarges on the improvement which Scotland has undergone since the rebellion, by the application of a portion of the revenues of the forfeited estates towards the construction of roads and bridges, and he does not omit to point out the exertions which have been made by the Highland So