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Her. You gods, look down,

And made between 's by vows. Thou hast found And from your sacred vials pour your graces

mine; Upon my daughter's head! - Tell me, mine own, But how is to be questioned : for 1 saw her, Where hast thou been preserved; where lived; As I thought, dead; and have in vain said many how found

A prayer upon

her

grave : I'll not seek far Thy father's court? for thou shalt hear that I - (For him, I partly know his mind) to find thee Knowing by Paulina that the oracle

An honorable husband :- come, Camillo, Gave hope thou wast in being - have preserved And take her by the hand : whose worth and honMyself to see the issue.

esty Paul. There's time enough for that; Is richly noted, and here justified Lest they desire, upon this push, to trouble By us, a pair of kings. — Let 's from this place. — Your joys with like relation.— Go together, What?— look upon my brother :— both your parYou precious winners all : your exultation

dons Partake to every one. I, an old turtle,

That e'er I put between your holy looks Will wing me to some withered bough; and My ill suspicion.— This your son-in-law, there

And son unto the king (whom heavens directing), My mate, that's never to be found again, Is troth-plight to your daughter.— Good Paulina, Lament till I am lost.

Lead us from hence; where we may liesurely Leon. O peace, Paulina;

Each one demand and answer to his part Thou shouldst a husband take by my consent, Performed in this wild gap of time, since first s I by thine a wife: this is a match,

We were dissevered.-Hastily lead away. [Exeunt.

NOTES

-"ru give him my commission

and lower messes; those of lower condition sitting below the great To let him there a month, behind the gest

standing salt in the center of the table. Sometimes the messes were Prefixed for's parting.” — Act I., Scene 2.

served at different tables, and seem to have been arranged into fourg The term "gest” is derived from the French giste (which signifies

as is the case at present in the balls of the inns of Court. both a bed and a lodging-place). Gests were the names of the houses or towns where the king intended to lie every night during bis pro

When he, gress. They were written on a scroll, and probably each of the royal

Wufting his eyes to the contrary, and falling attendants was furnished with a copy.

A lip of much contempt, speeds from me.” — Act I., Scene 2.

This is a stroke of nature worthy of Shakspeare. Leontes had but -“ We should have answered heaven

a moment before told Camillo that he would seem friendly to PolixBoldly, 'Not guilty ;' - the imposition cleared, Hereditary ours.” -- Act I, Scene 2.

cnes, according to his advice; but on meeting him, his jealousy gets

the better of his resolution, and he finds it impossible to restrain That is, setting aside original sin, bating the imposition from his batred. - Mason. the offense of our first parents, we might have boldly protested our innocence.

-“There may be in the cup
* Grace to bont !

A spider steeped." — Act II., Scene 1.
of this make no conclusion; lest you say
Your quecn and I are devils.” - Act I., Scene 2.

That spiders were esteemed venomous, appears by the evidence of a

person who was examined in Sir Thomas Overbury's affair: “The “Grace to boot!” is an exclamation equivalent to "Give us grace.” Countess wished me to get the strongest poison that I could, &c. AcHermione calls for grace to purify and vindicate her own character cordingly, I bought seven great spiders and cantharides.” and that of the wife of Polixenes, which might seem to be sullied by a species of argument that made them appear to bave led their bus

Would I knew the villain, bands into temptation.

I would land dam him." - Act II., Scene 1. -“ Still virginaling

“ Land-dam” is probably one of those words which caprice brought Upon his palm?” —Act I., Scene 2.

into fashion, and which, after a short time, reason and grammar

drove irrecoverably away. It, perhaps, meant no more than “I will That is, still playing with her fingers, as a girl playing on the vir.

rid the country of him; condemu him to quit the land.” – Jouxson. ginals. Virginals were stringod instruments played with keys like a spionet, which they resembled in all respects but in shape; spinnets

The very thought of my revenges that way being nearly triangular, and virginals of an oblong square shape, like Recoil upon me: in himself too mighty; a small pianoforte.

And in his parties, his alliance." - Act II., Scene 3.

This passage is founded on a similar one in the novel of “ DORASTUS “ Thou want'st a rough pash, and the shools that I have,

AND FAWXIA:" "Pandosto, although he felt that revenge was a spur To be full like me." — Act I., Scene 2.

and that onvy always proffereth steel, yet he saw Egistus was “Pash" in Scotland signifies a head. Many words that are now not only of great pưissance and prowess to withstand him, but also used only in that country, were, perhaps, onco common to the whole had many kings of his alliance to aid him, if need should serve; for island of Great Britain, or at least to the northern part of England. he married the Emperor of Russia's daughter.” Shakspeare has

made this lady the wife of the Leontes of the play, - not of the Pol. " Affection! thy intention slabs the center." - Act I., Scene 2. ixenes: but it will be seen that Greene, the acknowledged classical " Affection” here means imagination. Intention is earnest consid scholar, exhibits as much indifference to chronology as the supposed

illiterate dramatist. eration, eager attention. It is this vehemence of mind which affects Leontes by making him conjure up unreal causes of disquiot; and

“ A mankind witch! Hence with her.” — Act II., Scene 3. thus, in the poet's language, “stabs him to the center.”

" A "mankind-woman" is said to be a term used in some counties -“ Mine honest friend,

to designate a female, violent, ferocious and mischievous. Mr Tollet Will you take eggs for money ?”- Act I., Scene 2.

suggests that “mankind" may signify one of a wicked aud pernicious

nature; from the Saxon man, mischief or wickedness and kind. This seems to have been a common proverbial expression, used when a man sees himself wronged, and makes no resistance. Its ori- “ Thou dolard, thou art woman-tired." - Act II., Scene 3. gio is uncertain.

To be “woman-tired” is to be pocked by a woman. The phrase is _6 Lower messes,

taken from falconry, and is often employed by writers contemporary Perchance are to this business purblind." — Act I., Scene 2. with Shakspeare. So in Decker's "MATCH ME IN LONDON :" The term "messes" here significs degrees or conditions. The com.

"The vulture tires pany at great tables were divided according to their rank in to higher

Upon the eagle's heart."

615

to war,

Unvenerable be thy hands, if thou

Look thee, a bearing-cloth for a squire's child." Takost up the princess by that forced baseness."

Act III., Scene 2 Act II., Scene 3.

A “bearing-cloth” is the fine mantle or cloth with which a child Leontes had ordered Antigonus to take up the bastard.” Pau- is usually covered when it is carried to the church to be baptized. lina forbids him to touch the princess under that appellation. “ Forced” is “ false," – uttered with violence to truth.

It was told me I should be rich by the fairies: this is some changeling."

Act III., Scene 3. -“ Fur 't is a bastard,

That is, some child left behind by the fairies, in the room of one So sure as this beard's grey.- Act II., Scene 3.

they bad stolen. Leontes probably means the beard of Antigonur, which, perhaps, both here and on a former occasion, it was intended he should lay

They are never curst but when they are hungry." hold of.

Act III., Scene 3. “Curst" signifies mischievous. Thus the adage:-“Curst cows have short horns."

The climate's delicate ; the air most sweet ;
Fertile the isle.-- Act III., Scene 1.

-"Imple it not a crime The Temple of Apollo at Delphi was not in an island, but in Phocis,

To me, or my swift passage, that I slide on the continent. In this instance, also, as in many others, Shaks

O'er sixteen ycars.” — TIME, as Chorus. peare followed the language of his original. In the novel, the qucen desires the king to send "six of his noblemen whom he best trusted, This trespass in respect of dramatic unity, will appear venial to to the Isle of Delphos.” The writer was probably thinking of Delos, those who have read the once famous Lily's “ ENDYMION” (or, as he an island of the Cyclades. The geographical blunder, in considering himself calls it in the prologue, bis “ MAN IN THE Mooon“). Two sets Bohemia a maritime country, is copied from Greenc’s narrative. of this piece comprise the space of forty years; Endymion lying

down to sleep at the end of the second, and waking in the first scene The time is worth the use on 'l." — Act III., Scene 1. of the fifth, after a nap of that unconscionuble length. Lily bas,

likewise, been guilty of much greater absurdity than Shakspeare That is, if the event prove fortunate to the queen, the time which we have spent in our journey is worth the trouble it hath cost us.

committed; for he supposes that Endymion's hair, features, and per. Nearly the same expression is found in Florio's translation of Mon

son, were changed by age during his sleep, while all the other per

sopages of the drama remained without alteration.-STEEVENS. taigue’s Essays:-" The common saying is, the time we live is worth

Malone states, that, in the comedy of “ PATIENT GRISSEL" (by the money we pay for it.”

Decker, Chettle, and Haughton), Grissel is in the first act married, .How he glisters

and soon afterwards brought to bed of twins, a son and a daughter; Thorough my rust! and how his piety

and the daughter, in the fifth act, is produced on the scene as a Does my deeds make the blucker." — Act III., Scene 2.

woman old enough to be married.

Some remarks by Dr. Johnson, on the subject of time, in dramatic This vehement retraction of Leontes, accompanied with the confes representations, may be here appropriately introduced : – sion of more crimes than he was suspected of, is agreeable to our “ By supposition, as place is introduced, time way be extendel. daily experience of the vicissitudes of violent tempers and the erup- The time required by the fable elapses, for the most part, between the tions of minds oppressed with guilt. — Joenson.

acts; for, of so much of the action as is represented, the real and

poetical duration is the same. If, in the first act, preparations for That did but shew thee of a fool, inconstant,

war against Mithridates are represented to be made in Rome, the And damnable ungrateful." -Act III., Scene 2.

event of the war, may, without absurdity, be represented in the cashewed thee first a fool, then inconstant and ungrateful.” Damnablc nor Pontus; that neither Mithridates por Lucullus is before us. – This, by a mode of speech apciently much used, means, “It tastrophe as happening in Pontus. We know that there is neither

war nor preparation for war: we know that we are neither in Rome is here used adverbially.

The drama exhibits successive imitations of successive actions; and

why may not the second imitation represent an action that happened Though a devil

years after the first, if it be so connected with it that nothing but Would have shed water oul of fire ere done 'l."

time can be supposed to intervene? Time is, of all modes of existAct III., Scene 2.

ence, most obsequious to the imagination; a lapse of years is as That is, a devil would have shed tears of pity, ere he would have easily conceived as a passage of hours. In contemplation, we easily committed such an action.

contract the time of real actions, and, therefore, willingly permit it

to be contracted when we only see their imitation.”
-“ I am sorry for 'l:
Au faults I make, when I shall come to know them,

I have missingly noted he is of late much retired from court." I do repent." — Act III., Scene 2.

Act IV., Szene 1. This is another instance of the sudden changes incident to vehe

Meaning, probably, I have observed him at intervals; not conment and ungovernable minds." - Johnson.

stantly or regularly, but occasionally.

There lie ; and there thy character."- Act III., Scene 3. By “character" is meant the writing afterwards discovered with Perdita.

The red blood reigns in the winter's pale." — Act IV., Scene 2. That is, the red, the spring blood, now reigns o'er the parts lately under the dominion of winter. The "English pale," and the “ Irish pale," were frequent expressions in Shakspeare's time; and the words red and pale were used for the sake of the antithesis.

A savage clamor! Well may I get aboard! - This is the chase.” – Act III-, Scene 3.

This clamor was the cry of the dogs and hunters: then seeing the bear, Antigonus exclaims, – “This is the chase," or the animal pur. sued.

Every 'leven wether - lods; every tod yields-pound and add shilling," &c. – Act IV., Scene 2.

To tod is used as a verb by dealers in wool. Thus, they say,–

« Twenty sbeep ought to tod fifty pounds of wool," &c. The meaning, “ Pins and poking-sticks of steel.” — Act IV., Scene 3. therefore, of the Clown's words is, "Every eleven (wethers) tods; i. These " poking-sticks” were used to set the large ruffs so much in e. will produc a tod, or twenty-eight pounds of wool; every tod fashion. Stowe states, that " about the sixteenth year of Queen Elizyields a pound and odd shilling; what then will the wool of fifteen abeth, began the making of steel-poking-sticks; and until that time, hundred yield ?"

all laundresses used setting-sticks made of wood or bone.”

" Three-man song men all." — Act IV., Sceno 2.

They call him Doricles; and he boasts himself That is, singers of catches in three parts.

To have a worthy feeding." — Act IV., Scene 3.

A“worthy-feeding," probably signifies a tract of pasturage not inA fellow, sir, that I have known to go about with trolmy-dames." considerable," which the old shepherd considers not unworthy of his

Act IV., Scene 2.

supposed daughter's fortune." This is probably a corruption of the French term, trou madame ;

Here's another bollad, Of a fish that appeared upon the coast,” &c. the game much resembles that called bagatelle. The old English title

Act IV., Scene 3. of this sport was “pigeon-boles," as the arches in the machine, through which the balls are rolled, resemble the cavities made for In 1604, was entered on the books of the Stationer's Company,“ A pigeons in a dove-house.

strange reporte of a monstrous fish, that appeared in the form of a

woman, from her waist upward, seene in the sea.” To this it is “ Jog on, jog on, the fool-path way,

highly probable that Shakspeare alludes. In Sir Henry Herbert's And merrily hent the stile-a."- Act IV,, Scene 2.

office-book, which contains a register of all the shows of London,

from 1623 to 1642, is entered, " A license to Francis Sherret, to show The lines in the text form part of a song first printed in “ An An. a strange fish for one year, from the 10th of March, 1635." tidote against Melancholy, made up in Pills, compounded of witty Ballads, jovial Songs, and merry Catches” (1661). To "hont the Thal have made themsclves all men of hair.” — Act IV., Scene 3. stile,” is to take the stile; from the Saxon henlan.

“Men of hair" are hairy mon or satyrs. A dance of satyrs was

do unusual entertainment in the middle ages. At a great festival “ But that our feasts

celebrated in France in 1392, the king and some of the nobles persone In every mess have folly, and the feeders

ated satyrs dressed in close habits, tufted or shagged all over, to imiDigest it wilh a custom, I should blush

tato bair. They began a wild dance, and in the tumult of their To see you so attired; sworn, I think,

merriment, one of them went too near a candle, and set fire to his To shew myself a glass." — Act IV., Scene 2.

satyr's garb; the flame ran instantly over the loose tufts, and spread Perdita probably means, that the prince, by the rustic habit he itself to the dress of those that were next him ; a great number of wears, seems as if he had sworn to shew her, as in a glass, how she the dancers were cruelly scorched, being neither able to throw off ought to be dressed, instead of being " 80 goddess-like pranked up:"their coats nor extinguish them. The king had set hijnself in the lap and were it not for the license and folly which custom had made fan of the Duchess of Berry, who threw her robe over him and saved him. miliar at such feasts as that of sheep-shearing, when mimetic sports

The dress of the rustic dancers mentioned in the text was, perwere allowable, she should blush to see him so attired.

haps, made of goat's skin. Cervantes mentions, in the preface to his

plays, that in the time of an early Spanish writer, Lope du Rueda, " For you there's rosemary and rue; these keep

"all the furniture and utensils of the actor consisted of four shopSeeming and savor all the winter long :

herds' jerkins with the wool on, and adorned with gilt leather trim. Grace and remembrance be to you both.”

ming; four beards and periwigs, and four pastoral crooks: little moro Act IV., Scene 3.

or less." Probably a similar shepherd's jerkin was used in Shaks

peare's theatre. Ophelia distributes the same plants, and accompanies them with similar expressions :-“ There's rosemary, that's for remembrance.

I was not much a feard,&c. — Act IV., Scene 3. There's rue for you; we may call it herb of grace.” The qualities of The character of Perdita is here finely sustained. To have made retaining “ seeming and savor" appear to form the reason why these her quite astonished at the king's discovery of himself, had not bo plants were considered emblematical of grace and remembrance. come her birth; and to have given her presence of mind to have

made this reply to the king, had not become her education. - WAR. “ The fairest flowers of the scason, Are our carnations and streaked gillyflowers, Which some call nature's bastards." — Act IV., Scene 3.

Some hangman must put on my shroud, and lay me

Where no priest shovels-in dust. ” — Act IV., Scene 3. The variegated gillyflowers, or carnations, being considered as a pro

Before the reform of the burial-service in the time of Edward VI., duce of art, were properly called nature's bastards; and being it was the custom for the priest to throw earth on the body in the streaked white and red, Perdita considers them a proper emblem of a form of a cross, and then sprinkle it with holy water. painted or immodest woman.

"The which shall point you forth, at every silling,
—“ Pale primroses,

What you must say." --- Act IV., Scene 3.
That die unmarried; ere they can behold
Bright Phæbus in his strength.” — Act IV., Scene 3.

“Every sitting” means, at every audience you shall have of the

king and council: the council days being formerly called, in common The reason why the primrose is said to " die unmarried” is, accor- speech, the sitting. Howell, in one of his letters, says:-—"My lord ding to Warton, “because it grows in the shade, uncherished or un. president hopes to be at the next sitting in York." seen by the sun, who was supposed to be in love with some sort of flowers."

I think affliction may subdue the cheek,

But not take in the mind." — Act IV., Scene 3. “ He so chants to the sleeve-hand, and the work about the square on't." To “ take in ” anciently meant to conquer, to get the better of.

Act IV., Scene 3.

As in " ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA :The “ sleeve-hand” was the cuff or wristband; the “square" signi

“ He could so quickly cut the Ionian seas, fied the work about the bosom.

And take in Toryne."

BURTON.

“ Not a ribbon, glass, pomander," &c.— Act IV., Scene 3. " A piece many years in doing, and now newly performed by that

rare Italian master, Julio Romano." — Act V., Scene 2. A “pomander" was a little ball of perfumed paste, worn in the pocket, or in various parts of the person as an antidote to infection. Painted statues appear to have been not uncommon in Shakspeare's Various recipes for making them may be found in old books of day. In Ben Jonson's “MAGNETIC LADY," Doctor Rut says, – housewifery.

—“All city statues must be painted, As if my trinkets had been hallowed.” — Act IV., Scene 3.

Else they be worth dought in their subtle judgments.” This alludes to the custom of selling beads, &c., as made particu- “ Would beguile nature of her custom." — Act V., Scene 2. ularly efficacious by the touch of some relic.

That is, of her trade; would draw nature's customers from her. “ A great man, I'U warrant: I know by the picking on's teeth.

Let boors and franklins say it, I'll swear it." - Act V., Scene 2 Act IV., Scene 3.

A“franklin" was a freeholder, or yeoman; a man above & villain, It seems that to pick the teeth was, at this time, a mark of some

but not a gentleman. pretension to greatness or elegance. Falconbridge, speaking of the traveler, says, –

T'U swear to the prince, thou art a tall fellow of thy hands." “ He and his toothpick at my worship's mess."

Aet V., Scene 2 In Sir Thomas Overbury's "Characters" we find, -"If you find not The phrase, “tall fellow” was used to signify a bold, courageous a courtier here, you shall in Paul's, with a toothpick in his hat, a fellow. “Of his hands," probably meant, skillful in the use of his cape-cloak, and a long stocking.”

hands.

The hottest day prognostication proclaims." — Act IV., Scene 3. “ Come, follow us; we'l be thy good masters.” — Act V., Scene 2. That is, the hottest day foretold in the almanac. Almanacs were, The Clown conceits himself already a man of consequence at court. in Shakspeare's time, published under this title:-“ An Almanac It was the fashion for an inferior or suitor to beg of the great man, and Prognostication made for the year of our Lord God, 1595." after his humble commendations, that he would be a good master" to

him. Many ancient letters run in this fashion. Thus Fisher, Bishop “ Being something gently considered, I'll bring you where he is aboard." of Rochester, when in prison, in a letter to Lord Cromwell (in the

Act IV., Scene 3. time of Henry VIII.), says:-"Furthermore, I beseech you to be

good master unto one in my necessities; for I have neither shirt nor Autolycus means, “ I, having a gentlemanlike consideration given suit, nor yet other clothes that are necessary for me to wear." me, (i.e. a bribe), will bring you,” &c.

The fixure of her eye has motion in 't.” — Act V., Scene 3.

The meaning is, though her eye be fixed, yet it seems to have mo—“What were more holy,

tion in it: that tremulous motion which is perceptible in the eye of Than to rejoice the former queen is well ?

a living person, how much soever one endeavors to fix it.

Act V., Scene 1. By “well,” is here meant dead. In “ ANTONY AND CLEOPATRA,". the phrase is said to be peculiarly applicable to the dead :

In the novel of “ DORASTUS and FAWNIA," the King of Sicilia, whom “Mess. First, madam he is well.

Shakspeare named Leontes, is called Egistus; Polixenes, King of Bo. Cleo. Why, there's more gold; but sırrah, mark:

hemia, — Pandosto; Mamillius, Prince of Sicilia, - Garinter; Florizel, We use to say, 'The dead are well;' bring it to that,

Prince of Bohemia, - Dorastus; Camillo, - Franion; Old Shepherd, The gold I give thee will I melt, and pour

Porrus; Hermiono,- Bellaria; Perdita, – Fawnia. The parts of AnDown thy ill-uttering throat."

tigonus, Paulina, and Autolycus, are of the poet's own invention; And in “ ROMEO and JULIET," Balthazar speaking of Juliet, whom

but many circumstances of the novel are omitted in the play.he imagined to be dead, says,

STEEVENS. “ Then she is well, and nothing can be ill.”

The old shepherd which stands by, like a weather-bitten conduit."

Act V., Scene 2 The “WINTER'S TALE” is as appropriately named as the “ MIDSUMConduits representing the human figure were formerly not uncom

MER NIGHT'S DREAM.” It is one of those tales which are peculiarly calmon. The same image is found in “ ROMEO and JULIET :"

culated to beguile the dreary leisure of a long winter evening; which

are even attractive and intelligible to childhood; and which, ani“ How now? a conduit, girl? what, still in tears !

mated by fervent truth in the delineation of character and passion, Evermore showering?”

invested with the decoration of a poetry lowering itself, as it were, “Weather-bitten” was in the third folio changed to "weather to the simplicity of the subject, transport even manhood back to the beaten;" but there does not seem to be any necessity for the change. golden age of imagination. The calculation of probabilities has nothHamlet says, -" The air bites shrewdly;" and the Duke, in “Asing to do with such wonderful and fleeting adventures, ending at last You Like It,” speaking of the wind, says, –“When it bites and in general joy: and accordingly, Shakspeare has here taken the greatblows upon my body.” Weather-bitten, therefore, means corroded

est liberties with anachronisms and geographical errors, - SCULIGEL by the weather.

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