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Oli. Pr'y thee, read i' thy right wits.


say, 't is not your seal, nor your invention : Clo. So I do, madonna; but to read his right You can say none of this : Well, grant it then. wits, is to read thus: therefore perpend, my prin- And tell me, in the modesty of honor, cess, and give ear.

Why you have given me such clear lights of favor; Oli. Read it

sirrah. [T. FABIAN. Bade me come smiling and cross-gartered to you,

To put on yellow stockings, and to frown
FABIAN reads.

Upon Sir Toby and the lighter people : “By the Lord, madam, you wrong me, and the world And, acting this in an obedient hope, shall know it: though you have put me into darkness,

Why have


suffered me to be imprisoned, and given your drunken cousin rule over me, yet have I the benefit of my senses as well as your ladyship. I have kept in a dark house, visited by the priest, your own letter that induced me to the semblance I put And made the most notorious geck and gull on; with the which I doubt not but to do myself much That e'er invention played on ? tell me why. right, or you much shame. Think of me as you please. Oli. Alas, Malvolio, this is not my writing, I leave my duty a little unthought of, and speak out of Though, I confess, much like the character my injury. “ THE MADLY-Used MALVOLIO.”

But, out of question, 't is Maria's hand. Oli. Did he write this?

And now I do bethink


it was she Clo. Ay, madam.

First told me thou wast mad : thou cam'st in Duke. This savors not much of distraction.

smiling, Oli. See him delivered, Fabian; bring him And in such forms which here were presupposed hither.

[Exit FABIAN. Upon thee in the letter. Pr'y thee, be content: My lord, so please you, these things further This practice hath most shrewdly passed upon thee; thought on,

But when we know the grounds and authors of it, To think me as well a sister as a wife,

Thou shalt be both the plaintiff and the judge One day shall crown the alliance on’t, so please of thine own cause. you,

Fab. Good madam, hear me speak; Here at my house, and at my proper cost. And let no quarrel nor no brawl to come Duke. Madam, I am most apt to embrace your Taint the condition of this present hour, offer.

Which I have wondered at. In hope it shall not, Your master quits you [To VIOLA); and, for your Most freely I confess, myself and Toby service done him,

Set this device against Malvolio here, So much against the mettle of your sex,

Upon some stubborn and uncourteous parts So far beneath your soft and tender breeding; We had conceived against him : Maria writ And since you called me master for so long, The letter, at Sir Toby's great importance; Here is my hand; you shall from this time be

In recompense whereof he hath married her. Your master's mistress.

How with a sportful malice it was followed, Oli. A sister ? — you are she.

May rather pluck on laughter than revenge ;

If that the injuries be justly weighed
Re-enter FABIAN, with MALVOLIO.

That have on both sides past.
Duke. Is this the madman?

Oli. Alas, poor fool! how have they baffled Oli. Ay, my lord, this same :

thee! How now, Malvolio?

Clo. Why, “Some are born great, some achieve Mal. Madam, you have done me wrong, greatness, and some have greatness thrown upon Notorious wrong.

them.” I was one, sir, in this interlude; one Sir Oli. Have I, Malvolio? no.

Topas, sir; but that 's all one: -“By the Lord, Mal. Lady, you have. Pray you, peruse that fool, I am not mad : "— But do you remember, letter:

madam, “Why laugh you at such a barren rascal ? You must not now deny it is your hand,

an you smile not, he's gagged:” And thus the Write from it, if you can, in hand or phrase; whirligig of time brings in his revenges.

But when I came to man's estate,

With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, 'Gainst knaves and thieves men shut their gate,

For the rain it raineth every day.

Mal. I'll be revenged on the whole pack of you.

[Exit. Oli. He hath been most notoriously abused.

Duke. Pursue him, and entreat him to a peace : He hath not told us of the captain yet; When that is known, and golden time convents, A solemn combination shall be made Of our dear souls. — Meantime, sweet sister, We will not part from hence.— Cesario, come; For

you shall be, while you are a man; But, when in other habits you are seen, Orsino's mistress, and his fanoy's queen. [Exeunt.

But when I came, alas! to wive,

With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, By swaggering could I never thrive,

For the rain it raineth every day.

But when I came into my beds,

With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, With toss-pots still had drunken heads,

For the rain it raineth every day.

Clown sings.
When that I was a little tiny boy,

With hey, ho, the wind and the rain, A foolish thing was but a toy,

For the rain it raineth every day.

A great while ago the world began,

With hey, ho, the wind and the rain,
But that's all one, our play is done,
And we'll strive to please you every day.



" That instant was I turned into a hart.”— Act I., Scene 1. “A galliard" -" The back-trick."-"A coranto.”—“A sink a-pace "This image,” says Johnson, “ evidently alludes to the story of Ac- (or, cinque-pace).” — Act I., Scene 3. teon, by which Shakspeare seems to think men cautioned against too Names and terms of, or relating to, favorite dances of the day. great familiarity with forbidden beauty. Acteon, who saw Diana naked, and was torn in pieces by his hounds, represents a man, who,

Mistress Mall's picture." -- Act I., Scene 3. indulging his eyes, or his imagination, with the view of a woman that he cannot gain, has his heart torn with incessant longing. An inter

A noted woman of the day; the worse than Lady Barrymore of her pretation far more elegant and natural than that of Sir Francis Ba- time, famous for a variety of low and boisterous vices. Her popular con, who, in his . WISDOM OF THE ANTIENTS,' supposes this story to

cognomen was Moll Cutpurse; and her real name, Mary Frith. She warn us against enquiring into the secrets of princes, by shewing that

is the heroine of the “ ROARING GIRL," of Middleton and Decker, which those who know that which for reasons of state is to be concealed, is represented in man's clothes, with a drawn sword in her right

was printed in 1611, with a full-length portrait of her, in which she will be detected and destroyed by their own servants."

hand, and a pipe of tobacco, which she is smoking, in her left. She « Thou shalt present me as an eunuch to him.” — Act I., Scene 2.

is, also, one of the characters in Nathaniel Field's comedy, “ AMENDS

FOR LADIES,” first printed in 1618; and is a favorite theme of allusion “When,” says Malone,“ the practice of castration was adopted first, with most of the old dramatists, whose audiences doubtless enjoyed solely to improve the voice, is uncertain. The first regular opera any reference to her notorious and anti-feminine practices. One of was performed at Florence, in 1600. Till about 1653, musical dramas her daring exploits was the robbing, or assisting in the robbery, of Fere only occasionally performed in the palaces of princes, and con- General Fairfax, on Hounslow Heath; for which offense, she was sequently before that period eunuchs could not abound. The first committed to Newgate, but, for some unknown reason, she was subeunuch that was suffered to sing in the Pope's chapel was in 1600. sequently liberated without trial. She was comparatively rich, lived So early, however, as 1604, eunuchs are mentioned by Marston in his in a house of her own in Fleet-street, and, being a loyalist, left £20, at MALCONTENT,' as excelling in singing. “Yes, I can sing, fool, if you 'll her death, for the conduit to run wine upon the (then expected) bear the burden; and I can play upon instruments scurvily, as gen- return of Charles II. She died of dropsy, in 1659, at the age of 75, tlemen do. O, that I had been gelded! I should then have been a fat and was buried in what is now called St. Bride's church. fool for a chamber, a squeaking fool for a tavern, and a private fool for all the ladies.'»

“ SIR TOBY. Were we not born under Taurus ?

SIR AND. Taurus! that's sides and heart. He plays o'the viol-de-gambo." — Act I., Scene 3.

SIR. TOBY. No, sir; it is legs and thighs." — Act I., Scene 3. The viol-de-gambo is an instrument, sometimes of five and sometimes

This, of course, alludes to the old system of medical astrology, of six strings, somewhat similar in shape to, but much smaller than, which is still preserved in some of the almanacs, and which refers the the violoncello. Although now nearly obsolete, it was formerly much in affections of particular parts of the body to the predominance of cer. rogue in the musical world. With the player, its position, as its name

tain constellations. implies, was the same as that of the violoncello.

Needs to fear no colors." — Act I., Scene 5. * He's a coward and a coystril, that will not drink to my niece till his brains turn o' the toe like a parish top.— Act I., Scene 3.

This is a common saying in the writings of the old dramatists, and

appears to be satisfactorily enough explained by Maria herself. Coystrils was a term applied to certain menial servants formerly the usual attendants upon the body-guard of the monarch. A coy.

“ Points.” — “ Gaskins." — Act. I., Scene 5. stril, or kestrel, in falconry, is also the name of a worthless, mongrel kind of hawk. The “parish top” was a large top, formerly kept in

Points were hooks by which the gaskins, hose, or breeches, wore every village, for the peasants to whip by way of exercise and amuse

unfastened. ment.

“ For what says Quinapulus.” - Act. I., Scene 5. “ Castiliano vulgo." - Act I, Scene 3.

Which of the classics” the learned Festo quotes, under the name The commentators interpret this to mean Castiliano volto; that is of Quinapulus, it is not of much consequence to determine; but the to say, “ Put on your Castilian face;” the Castilians being distin- commentators say, Sir Thomas More. guished for their gravity of aspect.

Cucullus non facit monachum.”- Act I., Scene 5. “ I pray you, bring your hand to the battery-bar, and let it drink.”

Act I., Scene 3. “ The cowl does not constitute the monk." The meaning of Maria is, that Sir Andrew's hand is not that of a

Bird-bolts.”_" Leasing." _“Pia mater.” — “A squash.lover, of which “ a moist palm” is the understood characteristic: of

Act I., Scene 5. this, they who have in their memory the fourth scene of the third act of " OTHELLO” will not need to be reminded.

Bird-bolts were short arrows (shafts, or bolts) shot at birds from a

cross-bow; they were also called butt-shafts, being likewise used to Shakspeare's time; or, perhaps, to the rhodomontade of certain apocstrike a mark, or butt.- Leasing is the old word for lying, of which ryphal published “ Travels” of the day. honorable profession Mercury was the god.- The “ piu-mater" is the membrane immediately covering the brain.— A squash is an incipient

For thy leman.”—“A testril." —“ Sneck up!"-"A nayword." peascod.

" Possess us, possess us." — Act II., Scene 3.

A leman is a sweetheart; a testril is a sixpence; a sneck up! is as “ He says, he 'll stand at your door like a sheriff's post."

much as to say, "go, hang yourself;" a nayword is a byeword; and Act I., Scene 5.

possess us, means, inform us. It was formerly customary for the sheriff to have large posts set up

I did impeticos thy gratility; for Malvolio's nose,” &c. at his door, to which posts the royal proclamations, and other public

Act II., Scene 3 documents, were originally affixed, for popular perusal.

Sir Andrew tells the Clown that he sent him sixpence for bis mis“V10. 'Tis poetical.

tress, and the Clown says that he gave it to her — that he “ impettiOLI. Il is the more likely to be feigned.” — Act I., Scene 5. coated the gratuity;" adding, that Malvolio's nose, being no whip“ The truest poetry is the most feigning,” observes the philosophic not punish him for it. He also eulogizes his lady's hand; and re

stock, although it might smell out the scandalous transaction, could Touchstone. (** As YOU LIKE IT,” act iii., scene 3.)

marks, that the houses of myrmidons (officers of justice) are no places

for merrymaking. All this learned interpretation of the passage is Lady! you are the cruelest she alive,

derived from the various profound commentators that have preIf you will lead these graces to the grave,

ceded us. And leave the world no copy."-Act 1., Scene 0.

Malvolio's a Peg-a-Ramsay," &c.- Act II., Scene 3. The thought expressed in these lines, runs through the first seventeen of the great poet's exquisite sonnets.

“Peg-a-Ramsay” is the name of an obscene old song, preserved in

Durfey’s “ PILLS TO PURGE MELANCHOLY;” and, also, of an indecent "I am no fee'd post, lady." -- Act I., Scene 5.

dance, performed to the tune of the song. The ballada, and scraps of

ballads, in this and in other parts of the play, are quotations of and “I am no paid messenger."

from popular songs of the day, many of which will be found entire in

Percy's " RELIQUES OF ANCIENT ENGLISH POETRY." “ Ourselves we do not owe." — Act I., Scene 5.

Coziers' catches." — Act II., Scene 3. To owe, here, and frequently in the text of our poet, as in that of his great contemporaries, signifies to own, to possess, as well as to be A cozier (from the French coudre, to sew, or stitch) is a cobbler, or indebted to.

botcher of any kind; but a reverend commentator, of the name of Francis Peck, thinks that the phrase may possibly allude to certain old Irish Festivities, called Casherings, which are thus amusingly described in a pamphlet, published in 1624, entitled " A NEW IRISH PROGNOSTICATION, or Popisu CALENDAR, describing the disposition, &c.,

of the Irish:” — “ A good company of men and women being drawn The proper false.How will this fadge ? "- Act II., Scene 2.

together, a-feasting, between the meales their rhymers and harpers The fair deceitful.- How will this suit?

entertain them with songs, chiefly in commemoration of theft, mur

der, rebellion, treason, invented of purpose to stir up their hearts to “ Diluculo surgere, thou knowest.”. Act II., Scene 3.

imitate their ancestors; making repetition how many cows they had

stolen, how many murders they have committed, and the like." Diluculo surgere saluberrimum est: “'T is healthiest to rise early.” This well-known adage Shakspeare found in Lily's grammar; and

Dost thou think, because thou art virtuous, there shall be no more there are few schoolboys who will not now recognize it as a familiar

cakes and ale 7" — Act II., Scene 3. of that of Eton.

It was the custom, on saints' and other holidays, to eat ginger cakes Did you never see the picture of we three?” — Act II., Scene 3. and quaff ale, in their honor; and Malvolio, sometimes affecting to

be, as Maria says, " a kind of Puritan," may be supposed to have cenAn allusion to an old print, formerly a favorite ornament of the

sured this very laudable and Catholic practice. room-walls of country alehouses; it represented two only; but, underneath, the rustic connoisseur read this complimentary inscription,

Rub your chain with crumbs." - Act II., Scene 3. “ We three are asses; or the more refined and metrical one“We three

Stewards in great houses formerly wore a chain round their necks, Loggerheads be.”

as a badge of their office: the mode of cleansing this was rubbing it

with cruinbs. The fool has an excellent breast." — Act II., Scene 3.

Good night, Penthesilea." -" Call me Cut!-- Act II., Scene 3. An excellent natural, or breast-voice; voce di petto. Breast is a term very commonly used by the old writers for voice, or breath.

Penthesilea was a celebrated queen of the Amazons, politely slain, In the oldest of our extant regular English comedies, the “ RALPH

in single combat, by Achilles. Cut (a dorked, or curtail horse) is a Royster DOFSTER" of Nicholas Udall, which was produced as early low slang term of contempt, very commonly used by the old dramatic as about the year 1550, is the phrase of “A breast to blow out a can

writers. So, in the curious old comedy of "GAMMER GURTON'S NEEDLE,” dle;" (act i., scene 2).

(act iii., scene 3), “ Thou slut! thou kut!”

" In sooth, thou wast in very gracious fooling last night, when,” &c.

Some faror." — Act II., Scene 4. Act II., Scene 3.

Some face; some countenance. Of“ Pigrogomitus," " the Vapians," and " the equinoctial of Queu

She sat, like Patience on a monument, bus," which the “ Vapians” passed, we, as well as Dr. Johnson, have

Smiling at grief."— Act II., Scene 4. been able, after no little traveling, to discover nothing. The Clown's “ fooling," so " gracious” in the estimation of Sir Andrew, might pos- This celebrated passage is equalled, if not surpassed, in beauty, by sibly allude to the jargon of the various puppet-shows, so popular in a very similar one in “ PERICLES," (act v., scene 1);

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“Thou dost look

had been committed for two very orthodox offenses -- assaulting & Like Patience gazing on kings' graves, and smiling

magistrate, and insulting a constable. Extremity out of act.

- Be curst and brief." _“At the cubiculo." — Act III., Scene 2. Rascally sherp-biter."— * Lady of the strachy.Hang thee, brock!" — " The stannyel checks at it." -- " Sorter.” — Daylight and

Be snappish and abrupt. - At the lodging-house. champian.”—Tray-trip.”—TV the gates of Tartar."— Act I., Scene 5.

The youngest wren of nine.” — Act III., Scene 2. By " sheep-biter," is meant, we presume, a fellow who, as is still the horrible common practice, converts young rams into wethers with his The smallest and sprightliest bird of the brood. tweth.- The word "strachy" much puzzles the commentators; some of whom (confirmed in their conjecture by the fact, that in the old He does smile his face into more lines than are in the new map, with copies the word is printed in italics, and with a capital S) insist that

the augmentation of the Indies.” — Act III., Scene 2. we should read," the lady of Trachy,” or Thrace; but what " lady of Thrace" it was who married a "yeoman of the wardrobe,” they do An allusion to a map published in 1598, with a translation of Dot inform us. Others surgest that we should read, “ lady of the

“ Joux HUGH VAN LINSCHOTENS VOYAGES TO THE EAST INDIES.” This starchy," or starchery; the superintendence of the starchery depart

map is remarkable for its many-lined appearance. ment of the laundry being an important and highly respectable charge in Sbakspeare's day, when frills and ruffy were starched of no less “ Why dost thou smile so, and kiss thy hand so ofl ;--Act III., Scene 4. than five different colors, and lessons were given in the art by Dutch professors of it. – A brock is a badger.— A stannyel is a hawk, which, -- FAULTS, AND NOTHING but Faults,” (1606): — " And these · Flowers

This fantastical custom is taken notice of by Barnaby Rice, in in falconry, is said to check, or fly at, a thing. - Sowter is the name of a hound.-Champian is the open country.--Tray-trip, or three-and

of Courtsie,' as they are full of affectation, so are they po less formal trip, is a school-game.- Tartar is Tartarus, the classical hell.

in their speeches, full of fustian phrases, many times delivering such

sentences as do betray and lay open their masters' ignorance: and they 0, for a stone bow, to hit him in the eye ! ” — Act II., Scene 5.

are “so frequent with the kisse on the hand,' that word shall not passe

their mouthes, till they have clapt their fingers over their lippes.” A stone-bow was a cross-bow, from which stones were sometimes shot; but we have heard it insisted upon that this passage should be

Am I made ?" --- Act III., Scene 4. read thus: “0, for a stone, now, to hit him in the eye!”

“We would read “maid,” to the convicting of Olivia of a pun; otherHaving come from a day-bed.” — Act II., Scene 5.

wise, the question appears pointless. Day-beds, or couches, were a luxury among the rich in Shakspeare's time; and, according to a line of Spencer:

We will bring the device to the bar, and crown thee for a finder of

madmen.” — Act III., Scene 4. "Some for untimely ease, some for delight.”

Juries sitting in inquest upon cases of lunacy were formerly called “ Wind up my watch.” — Act II., Scene 5.

“finders of madmen.” Pocket watches were first brought from Germany about the year 1580, so that in Shakspeare's time they were very uncommon.

He is knight, dubbed with unhacked rapier, and on carpet consider

ation."— Act III., Scene 4. “ Yellow stockings." -- Act II., Scene 5.

He is a carpet-knight; not dubbed in the field, after a bloody fight, Before the civil wars, yellow stockings were much worn.

but on a carpet, after a festivity, and with sword unhacked in any battle.

By the duello." -Act III., Scene 4.

By the laws of dueling. * Enter Clown, with a tabor."— Act III., Scene 1. * Tarleton, the celebrated fool or clown of the stage before Shaks- “ Empty trunks, o'erflourished by the devil." — Act III., Scene 4. peare's time, is exhibited in a print affixed to his jeste (1611) with a

Trunks, which are now furniture for the bed, dressing, or lumber. tabor. Perhaps,” says Malone, “ in imitation of him, the subsequent chamber, were, in Shakspeare's time, appertainments to parlors, and dramatic clowns usually appeared with one."

other company-rooms; were mounted upon feet, and richly orna

mented on the top, at the ends, and along the sides, with scroll-work, “ A cheveril glove.”—The haggard." - Act III., Scene 1.

and emblematic devices of all kinds. A cheveril glove is a kid-glove; caprillus being the Latin, ciaverello the Italian, and chevereul the French word for a kid. “Cheverel consciences” is an expressive phrase of Decker, in his “OLD FORTUNATUS." A haggard is an ill-trained hawk, or one that is utterly untameable.

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I proy thee, foolish Greek," &c.— Act IV., Scene 1. I would play Lord Pandarus of Phrygia,&c.— Act III., Scene 1. Greek, was as much as to say bawd or pander. We understood the

This passage will be fully understood after the perusal of “ TROILUS Clown to be acting in that office. A brothel was called Corinth, and AND CRESSIDA."

frequenters of it Corinthians, which words occur frequently in Shaks

peare, especially in “ TIMON OF ATHENS," and “HENRY IV.” “ A Brownist." — Act III., Scene 2.

Get themselves a good report, after fourteen years' purchase.The Brownists were an innovating, religious sect, in the reign of

Act IV., Scene 1. Elizabeth, which eoct subsequently merged into that of the Independ. ents. Their founder was Robert Brown, whose family was nearly al- “This,” says Warburton,“ seems to carry a piece of satire upon lied to that of the Lord Treasurer Cecil. His career of opposition to monopolies, the crying grievance of that time. The grants generally the established church commenced in 1510; but he returned to its were for fourteen years; and the petitions being referred to a comcommunion some time previously to his death. After a life of licen-'mittee, it was suspected that money gained favorable reports from tious turbulenco, he died in 1630, in Northampton jail, to which he thence.”



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