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with such delight in Paris, that they were number of persons in France were zea. • almost eaten up with the enthusiastic ma lously devoied to Buonaparté; and they nifestation of public affection. Tben felt, as he did, that it would be better for came the Treaty of Fontainbleau, which him to run the chance of returning lo puzzled every one. The noble Jord de France, at some future period, rather than nied that the favourable terms given to by pertinaciously opposing the Allies, to Napoleon in this Treary, arose from any destroy all hopes of such an event. Now, misplaced feeling of generosity; but that it could not be supposed, when he left it was an act of necessity, dictated by the France under such circumstances, that, if unabated attachment of the French army , a favourable opportunity presented itself to their late ruler. Some persons, indeed, for his return, he would not be most had stated-he knew not whether their anxious to avail bimself of it. The noble information was correct, but that they lord contended, that, as the Treaty of possessed the means of obtaining accurate Funtainbleau was made with an indepen. intelligence, was indisputable that so dent sovereign, this country had no right great were the zeal and attachment of 10 watch him : that having gone to the the army to Napoleon, that, if favourable island of Elba, he had an unimpeachable terms had not, at the moment, been grant-right to proceed afterwards where be ed to him, the whole armed population of pleased, except to the coast of France. If France would have rallied round his ibis were the case, what security was standard. From this it would appear, there for his keeping the Treaty of Fon. that he stood upon very high ground, and tainbleau? If it were said, that his abdithat a civil war must have ensued, if he cation of the throne of France afforded were pushed to the utmost extremity. the necessary security, he must state, that Under these circumstances, then, the this argument would not serve the noble Treaty was, said to have been formed lord or his colleagues, who had all along and it was necessary to bear them in mind, I described Buonaparié as a person who in order to judge correctly of the conduct never would abide by a treaty prejudicial that ought subsequently to have been to his interests, if he possessed the means adopted.
and power of breaking it. But he did not Napoleon must have left France, well think the construction given to the Treaty knowing that his friends had arms in their l of Fontainbleau by the noble lord, was hands. He must also have been aware, the true one. On the contrary, he con. that a large proportion of the people ceived, that the right of watching and would view his departure with regret, detaining Buonaparté, under certain cirparticularly those who were proprietors cumstances, did arise out of the Treaty. of confiscated lands, and who, though | The spirit of the Treaty was not confined they might not have been much attached merely to his abdication of the throne of to Buona parté, must have viewed with France. What necessarily followed from apprehension the return of the Bourbons, I that stipulation? Assuredly, that he should as threatening the destruction of the te. I not be suffered, hereafter, to disturb the nure by which they held their property. peace and security of that country. No There was another point most material for one could suppose that, at Elba, Buona consideration. It was now admitted, that parlé could devise the means of invading the Treaty was founded in necessity- France, as those sovereigns might do, who that the strength of Buonaparté command possessed more extensive means. His ed it. , It was stated, that he possessed, hopes rested alone on the people and the at the time, a large force, and yet, in that army of France; and these engines could situation, he preferred negociation to re- not be rendered dangerous to the peace sistance. Now, it was impossible for any of that country, unless he was personally person, who knew these circumstances, present. His personal movements ough and was aware of the state of France at therefore, to have been watched with time, to entertain a doubt, that Buona- scrupulous jealousy, since it was by per. parté felt it better to cherish the future sonal exertions alone that he could effect coutingent hope of relurning back to any ambitious project. The Treaty, he France, instead of holding out to the last contended, gave us a right of remonstrance against the Allies, and thus putting all to and representation, and even an authority hazard. At the time the Treaty of Fon to watch Buonaparté. But, even if no tainbleau was signed, these several facts such right existed under the Treaty, and were known. It was known that a great although it might be considered defective
as providing no regulation on this subject, sity, described him to be a monster, not yet, the moment you made him an inde- / fit to be trusted with the custody of his pendent sovereign, you could have treated wife and child. There was another part with himn - you might have remonstrated of the conduct of the Allies, with respect with him-you might have procured con lo this Treaty, which, though not perhaps cessions from him. If it appeared that a direct violation of it, was certainly exthe Treaty was, in any degree, defective, tremely unjustifiable. He alluded to the you might have entered into stipulations non-performance of the stipulation rela. with him on that point. But, if bis sove. | tive to the duchies of Parma, Placentia, reignty were not of sufficient force to ad. and Guastalla. This was most important mit him to the right of treating with other | to Buonaparté, since it was the provision Powers, how did it exclude him from that for the wife and son of him who had eystem of watch, which, he contended, made such a distinguished figure on the ough to have been established, in order | continent of Europe. On this point, alto prevent him from endangering the most more than any other, good faith peace of France ?
should have been inviolably kept with On the other hand, those who entered Buonaparié; and if, as it was rumoured, into a treaty with him, ought strictly to a scheme was proposed in Congress for have abided by it. And, he would ask, the purpose of giving another direction had the Treaty of Fontainbieau been to this part of the Treaty, he could not faithfully observed by those who entered conceive any thing more unjust or impointo it? The first violation of that Treaty, litic, since it tended to excite resentment was one which, perhaps, technically, in the minds of those military chiefs, who, might be questioned-but, as to the mean. at the period of the signing of the Treaty, ness of the conduct pursued, no doubt pledged tbeir honour to see its provisions could be entertained. He alluded to the fulfilled. stipulation by which a certain annual The only other point on which he salary was to be paid to Buonaparié. | meant to touch, was one of very great imHere a technical objection had been portance. It was said-and, if it were made, that it was to be paid annually, and not the fact, it ought to be disproved could not justly be called for before the on the best authority-that, during the expiration of the stated period. But this discussions in Congress, a scheme was was an objection, which ihose who admi. proposed for the removal of Buonaparıé nistered the affairs of France, ought to from the island of Elba, and placing him have blushed to resort to. They ought in St. Helena or St. Lucia. He did not not to have suffered him to borrow money rashly pledge himself to a fact that cerfrom the traders and bankers of Genoa tainly could not come within his knowand, by this means, to have assisted in ledge ; but that some intention of reweakening the affections of the people of moving Buonaparté did exist, might be Genoa towards the Allies. Another aro gaihered from several publications. In ticle of the Treaty he conceived to be proof of this assertion, the bon. gentleman violated, when the wife and son of Buona. read extracts from a proclamation, issued parté were separated from him. His by general Dessolles, at Paris, on tbe 7th family, it was true, wished to leave France, l of March, the day after the news of Buobut it was not contemplated, by the naparte's landing in France had reached Treaty, that they should be placed in a that capital; he also alluded to the austate of captivity. From the first mo.thority of persons holding situations under ment, however, it appeared, that an in.) the present French Government, who tention existed to violate this article. I pledged themselves that such an intention And he should be glad to know, on what had existed; and, with a similar view, the authority (Buonaparıé being an indepen. hon. gentleman quoted passages from a dent, sovereign) bis wife and child were proclamation published by Louis the 18th kept from him? It was a circumstance | at Ghent, and from the defence of sir almost without example, and it was the Neil Campbell, recently given to the more remarkable, because the marriage public through the medium of the newswith Maria Louisą was negociated by that papers. Whether the removing of Buocelebrated statesman, prince Talleyrand, naparié would or would not have been a who considered it a very advisable mea-wise measure, be should abstain from sure, in the time of Buonaparie's pro- discussing. But, if this Government knew sperity-but who, in his period of adver-that such a project was contemplated, was (VOL. XXX.)
it not a strong argument for increased J. “ That an humble Address be previgilance on their side?
sented to bis royal bighness the Prince Now, if he had at all established the Regent, that he will be graciously pleased fact, that, under the Treaty of Fontain: to give directions that there be laid before bleau, we had a right to watch Buona- this House, copies or extracts, or substance parié; and if that individual had suc- of any instructions wbich may have been ceeded to the utmost of his hopes and given by his Majesty's Government 10 wishes, in again placing himself on the any of his Majesty's naval commanders, ihrone of France, he conceived that a respecting Napoleon Buonaparté and tbe suflicient case was made out, to induce the island of Elba. House to inquire whether every necessary 2. “ That an humble Address be preprecaution had been taken by his Ma- / sented to his royal highness the Prince jesty's ministers to prevent the occurrence Regent, that he will be graciously pleased of ihis event. The hon. and learned 10 give directions that there be laid before gentleman ridiculed the argument whicb this House, copies or extracts, or subs had been made use of by the noble lord, stance of any information which his Ma. “ that the whole navy of England could jesty's Government may have received not hermetically seal up the island of respecting the design of Napoleon BuonaElba.” Was it just reasoning to say, parté to escape from the island of Elba, “ because we cannot hernietically seal up 1 iogether with the date of the reception of this island, we ought, therefore, to have the said information.” no watch upon it?" English vessels Lord Castlerengh said, that with respect might have gone every day into the Elbese to that part of the hon. member's speech, ports; and, if that privilege were refused, which related to the alleged violation of our cruisers might have applied for infor- the Treaty of Fontainbleau, it was suffi. mation to the sbips of those Powers that cient to observe, that Buonaparté, at the were adoriited. It was said, ihat France time he quilted the island of Eiba, did should have watched Buonaparté. But, if not complain of any breach of that Trealy. the Government of that country did not That iudividual took a more dignified choose to do so, we bad sufficient inte- course--a course, at least, more worthy - rest at stake to impel us to look towards of his character. He put his proceeding him with jealous vigilance. Besides, if on this broad ground, that he withdrew the French Government had sent out ves from France for a temporary purpose, and sels for that purpose, the loyalty of their that he had returned to claim his indubi. crews would have been put to a very table right to the throne of that country. severe lest; and it was very probable Lalterly, however, he had set up the plea that Buonaparté would have escaped. Ill of breach of treaty. The hints on that was necessary, therefore, that the House point, he had received in the course of should know what instructions had been ihe discussions, to which recent events bad given to our naval commanders, in the given rise; and certainly a very copious neighbourhood of Elba-what informa. brief was afterwards sent into this country, tion ministers had received with respect the composition of Moos. Caulaincourt, ig to the intended project of Buonapartem which the argument of breach of treaty and the precautionary steps which they was pushed to its utmost extent. The took in consequence thereof. And here hon. and learned gentleman, and those he must observe, that he totally con- with whom he acted, were always either temned the trash published by a person too early or too late, in the moment which of the name of Playfair, which he con- they selected for the discussion of public ceived to be allogether unworthy of questions. Nothing appeared so abhorrent notice; but, he believed, that ministers to their nature, as to discuss a measure, at had, on a variety of occasions, received the period when it ought to be entertained. information, which ought to have excited | The wisdom of the Treaty of Fontainbleau the utmost exertion of their vigilance. It they were fully prepared to argue agaiost was right that the House and the public at the time; and they were equally preshould know whether they had performed pared dow to arraign the conduct and acts their duty properly, aye or no; and for of the Congress, although that transaction that purpose it was expedient that they was not at present in a state in which it should be furnished with the most exten- could be argued. But the honourable sive information. The hon. and learned member wished to know whether this gentleman concluded by moving,
| Treaty was a measure to which his Majesty's ministers had made themselves a Louisa were arrangements of pure geneparty. He would say for himself, that the rosity, and could not be considered as a moment he (lord C.) was brought to look clains of right. From the moment when at that question, he was convinced that Buonapartéreclaimed the brone of France, the arrangement could not be otherwise from that moment the Treaty of Fontainthan carried into effect, without flying in bleau had ceased to have any obligation the face of the Government of France; in any of its bearings or relations. Great and that it was perfectly impossible for Britain, was, however, answerable for this country to have opposed even a feeble nothing more than giving facilities to resistance to it at that period. When he Buonaparlé for occupying those territorial found that a distinct assurance had been possessions which had been granted to given by the Emperor Alexander to Buo- him, and as to the rest those parties must naparté, respecting the tenour of that be answerable who were accessory to the Treaty, he did not think it was any longer acts. He would not deny that there had a subject to which this country ought to been plans in agitation respecting some hesitate to lend its approbation. The change in the territories allotted 10 Maria arrangement, as he had stated formerly, Louisa; but these were subjects connected was not one of his making; at the time with the occupation of ihose duchies, when he first saw it, it had assumed a very which made it a question whether it would grave and serious, if not a conclusive not have been wise on her part to accept shape; and, if it had been rejected, it an equivalent for them; and with regard would have been the means of placing to the residence of the Empress at Vienna the Allies in the most odious Tight. He instead of attending Buonaparte to Elba, was convinced that if such counsels had that was a point which depended solely been adopted, there was not one of the upon her own choice. There was nothing ministers of the Allied Powers who would on the face of the Trealy which placed have ventured to look such a calamity in the Alliez in a situation to watch Buonathe face. But what was the real footing parlé. It only authorized them to grant on which this question now stood? If the him a free escort from France. His lord. hon. member complained of the conduct ship denied that any such project had of foreign states, he (lord C.) must enter ever been indulged by Congress as send. his protest against being bound to answering Buonaparlé to St. Helena or to St. for that conduct, or that ministers should | Lucie; on the contrary, he had done be obliged to make that justification for every thing in his power to procure the them which they could make for them. exact ful6lment of the Treaty, that no selves were they here. It was not right ground of cavil inight be afforded; and that the ingenuity of gentlemen should be even so late as bis passage through Paris, employed to blacken the conduct of those on his return to England, he bad reprePowers with whom we were in alliance. sented to the French Gorernment the ne. He trusted that that new principle of ( cessity of paying the sum stipulaied in the logic lately introduced would not be gene. Treaty to Buonaparié. Upon the ques. rally adopted; namely, that any thing tion of what precautions this country had which might be asserted by a French used to prevent the escape of Buonaparte, general should be deemed conclusive, he had no objection to state, that although unless the French Government should conjectures might be indulged as to the think proper to contradict it, Conclusions resigns of Buonaparıé, (with the exception were drawn from late transactions which of Mr. Playfair's statement), it never came could not be deduced on any foundation in the knowledge of ministers that any from the conduct of the Allied Powers. deliberate design of escape was on foot; The good faith of this country had been and, therefore, even had they been pracin no degree violated. The British Go- ticable, no additional precautions had been vernment had not even gone to the extent adopted. It seemed to him perfectly idle of guaranteeing the stipulations in the to talk of any other security than oneTreaty of Fontainbleau, respecting the that security to which every rational man territorial arrangements; it was, therefore, in this country looked for, the preservation perfectly unnecessary to enter upon any of the family of Buurbon, and for the justification on their account. From the continued banishment of Buonaparte from time Buonaparté withdrew from Elba, the France. That security was the general Treaty of Fontainbleau had ceased to sentiment of the French people, and even exist. The arrangements respecting Maria of the army, expressed most unequivocally
on the arrival of their legitimate Sovereign. throw odium on the Government. As the It was not to be believed that the same recurn to the Address, if granted, would nation that had so cordially hailed ibebe nil, and as the only object would be to King within so short a period, would throw an undeserved censure on the Gorestore that man whom they had expelled vernment, he was confident that the good as a tyrant, and submit their necks to that sense of the House would induce them to yoke which they had declared was so in- give the motion a direct negative. tolerable. On that broad ground he jus. Mr. Elliot lamented the unbappy pretified the Treaty of Fontainbleau, and the dicament in which the country bad been steps that had been taken to carry it into placed by the extraordinary events which execution. As to any negligence in not had so unexpectedly taken place. He properly securing the person of Buona- considered that the first duty of the House, parté, the House must be sensible that it under existing circumstances, was to was not practicable to draw a naval cordon strengthen the hands of the Executive round the island of Elba. Certainly, it Government, in order tbat the evils by was in the power of this Government to which we were threatened might be station many cruizers around the island ; avoided as much as possible; but this but if the only advantage to be derived done, he thought the House was bound to from such an extraordinary expense was I inquire, by whose conduct we had been the difference between the landing of placed in this perilous situation, and to Buonaparte with his small force of guards, examine into the circumstances which led or alone, which could not be prevented by to the frustration of those flattering hopes, any exertions on our part, he admitted which two months ago had been so fondly that no such vigilance existed on the part entertained. He had listened with attenof the Government, and no such instruction to the speech of his noble friend; but tions had been given to the naval officers he confessed, the explanation he had in the Mediterranean. With regard to heard had not at all solved the doubts he the information which had been given to entertained upon this subject, or extethe Government as to the intended escape nuated the conduct of his Majesty's Goof Buonaparté, it had been of so general vernment. After the negociations at Chaand vague a nature, that they had not tillon, it was declared by the Allies, that thought themselves called on to take any it was impossible to enter into any relasteps in consequence of it. He thought lions of peace or amity with the indivino presumptive case bad been made out | Jual who then presided over the Governagainst bis Majesty's Government: the ment of France. The first object to be events which had taken place were not obtained asier this declaration was his reasonably to be apprebended. If those exclusion from that Government; and if events had been apprebended more than this was so, it was natural to conclude that they were, the existence of the Govern. it was in the contemplation of the Allies to ment of France would have been trusted get him into their power, so as to prevent to its own strengib, and not to any police his regaining so formidable a situation. It regulations adopted by a foreign power. I was said, that this was a measure to which What would have been said by the hon. his Majesty's Government had given no and learned mover, if a large item had previous consent. He would ask, bad we been placed in the estimates for a naval no diplomatic agent with the army at the police around Elba, while Buonaparte period when the Treaty of Fontainbleau might have laughed us to scorn, as he was concluded? What had become of lord would have been perfectly able to bave Cathcart? Had he no instructions upon escaped at any time, either in a merchant this subject? Did he, or did he not, assist vessel of the island, or even in his own in forming the Treaty ; and if not, did he ship? The charge brought against the protest against it? If he did, it was formed Government for want of foresight, was an in utter defiance of the British minister. after-discovery of the hon. and learned [Lord Castlereagh here said across the gentleman. The gentlemen on the oppo- table, that lord Cathcart was not present.) site side of the House had been more Then (continued Mr. Elliot) it appeared liberal of their approbation on the Treaty that there was no minister with that imof Fontainbleau and the Convention of portant department of the army at that Paris than those who formed them; and crisis of affairs; when the peace and now they attempted, by taking advantage safety of Europe was to be restored, there of extraordinary and unforeseen events, to was no diplomatic agent whatever preseus