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bility of Buonaparte to continue the con. Paris, and our army in the south of France, test, still looking to the result and the we were armed with means amply sufficient importance of the object in view, he could to ensure our ultimate triumph, and comnot accede to this Treaty-for in pursuit pletely to secure the object in view that of such an object, no consideration of pre- / in fact we were in possession of advansent risk or immediate disadvantage should tages extremely difficult, perhaps never have induced him to overlook contingent likely, to be regained. Such, then, was difficulties or probable dangers. This, our condition; and yet we consented to indeed, was the principle which had treat with Buonaparté as an independent governed that House throughout the pro- sovereign, and really granted him such secution of the war; for their lordships terms as one independent sovereign might had never allowed any view of present be supposed to obtain from another with risks or immediate disadvantages to with- whom he was nearly on equal terms; the draw them from the pursuit of that which act of abdication being, in fact, a part of was necessary to the ultimate security and the terms or conditions of the Treaty. permanent tranquillity of this country and The noble marquis repeated his posithe world. But he was prepared to con. tions, first, that this Treaty was contrary to tend, that the relative situation of the policy; secondly, that it was unnecessary Allies and Buonaparté was not such as to to conclude it; and thirdly, that no due render it in any degree necessary to measures of precaution were taken to comply with the inconsistent demands of enforce its performance. But the whole that person : the Allies were, at the time proceeding was, according to his judge this objectionable Treaty was concluded, ment, radically wrong; and as to genein possession of 140,000 troops in the rosity, which had been very loftily spoken vicinity of Paris, and 30,000 cavalry were of in this transaction, it was quite a close upon Buonaparte's position; while mockery to pretend that any considerathat person commanded only 20,000 men, tion of generosity influenced the Treaty. as it was said, but at the utmost calcula. There was, in fact, no generosity, justice, tion not more than 30,000. We had also or policy, belonging to its character. He a large army in the south of France, would have granted a handsome, nay a under the command of an officer whose noble provision to. Buonaparté; but he military merit was the least distinguished would have taken care to make due provi. part of his distinguished character; for siop against his return to power.' There bis probity and magnanimity universally was not, however, one word in the Treaty conciliated the esteem and admiration, not on this point. No; this most material ob. only of his army, but of the people whom lject was totally overlooked. But he would be had subjected. Never, probably, in bave taken an effectual step on this subthe history of the world had any general ject. He would not however say, that in been so much adored by the people whom order to guard against the return of Buo. he had conquered; nay, perhaps, he might naparté to power, he should be disposed to say, never had any prince been so much commit the Allies in any engagement or esteemed by the people whom he govern- pledge, to wage war with a view to secure ed, as that general notoriously was by the the Bourbons on the throne of France, people in the South of France. Was this although in making such a proposition he a situation, then, in which we could be could not apprehend any serious difficulty rationally supposed under the necessity of on the other side of the House. But inconcluding any terms inconsistent with stead of making any arrangement whatour safety? Was this a state of things in ever to provide against the resurrection of which we had any risks to look to, that Buonaparté, the affair was left entirely should withdraw us from the pursuit of open; and therefore, when that person did any object' essential to that safety? Yes, return to France, a consultation with Conhe would repeat these questions, when gress was resorted to, in order to guard even to-morrow we might hear of a decla. against the consequences of an evil, to ration of war. Notwithstanding the con- avert which measures should have been temptuous sneer of the noble earl (Liver. taken in this Treaty. He would not, he pool) he contended, that no degree of risk repeated, with a view to exclude Buona. existed, or could be contemplated, that parte from power, pledge the Allies to should induce our accession to the terms war for the preservation of the French of the treaty on the table; that, on the throne to the Bourbons. No: much as contrary, with the Allies in possession of he felt for the sufferings-much as he respected the character and venerated the , a large establishment, which, of course, virtues of that meritorious family, he must furnish him with the means of prowould deprecate such a proceeding. But moting his return to power, while he was he would have made arrangements to to have an additional bond of attachment guard against the revival of Buonaparté's upon his followers and creditors in France. power, notwithstanding the Allies, in any It had been urged by the noble earl, that pledge with respect to the Bourbons. He Buonaparté had no right to complain of would not have concluded a treaty for the the non-fulfilment of this Treaty towards exclusion of Buonaparte from power, himself, although no payment was made without, as in the transaction under con him, because the allowance being prosideration, making any arrangements what.mised to him annually, a year had not yet ever to guard against its non-execution. expired since the Treaty had been con
As to the particulars of this Treaty, it cluded. The argument of the noble earl, would appear from the official translation he thought extremely weak at the time it laid before the House, that skill in trans. was urged. For no indication whatever lation was not deemed necessary to diplo- of a disposition to pay Buonaparté the matists. For according to the original sum mentioned in the Treaty having Treaty it was agreed that the crown dia. shewed itself, it could not be pretended monds should belong to France, that is to that that provision of the Treaty was fulthe French sovereign whoever that sove- filled; and he fancied that the learned reign might be therefore it was pre- lord on the woolsack would not, in equity, scribed ihat “ tous les diamants de la be satisfied with a similar argumeni, reCouronne resteront à la France ;” but specting the non-fulfilment of any similar their lordships would be surprised to find engagement. But the fact was, that the how this article was translated, namely, noble earl was under an egregious mis. " that all the crown diamonds shall remain conception as to the provision upon which in France.” Now, as he apprehended he undertook to animadvert. For that that the greater part of these diamonds provision did not refer to a revenue to be were out of France, it would follow from paid annually, as the noble earl had stated, the English version of the article alluded | but as the article in the Treaty expressed to, that England being a party to this it “ de rentes sur le grand livre de France, Treaty, if it were to be fulfilled, these produisant un revenu annuel, net, et dédiamonds should be made good to France, duction faite de toutes charges, de deux and therefore we might happen to find in millions,” that is, two millions in the the next budget the proposition of a grant stocks. Therefore, Buonaparté was to be to buy a new crown and sceptre for at liberty, like any other public creditor, Buonapartė (a laugh.) But other provi- to dispose of the property which the sions equally objectionable were to be | Treaty proposed to secure to him. He met with in this Treaty. The most impro. did not mean to say that the non-fulilvident parts of the Treaty, however, were ment of this provision furnished a justifi. those which referred to the provision for-cation to Buonaparté for discarding the Buonaparté himself, and his wife and Treaty altogether; but he must contend family, together with those respecting a that the case was not such as the noble gratification to his followers and the pay. earl had stated. Now, on the other hand, ment of household debts. These parts, if the Treaty were not fulfilled, how were too, were guaranteed by the Allies, and the French soldiers attached to Buona. surely the House must see the monstrous parté likely to feel? The House might improvidence of such an arrangement. I judge from the statement of our minister The main object ought to be to provide at Paris, as to the tenacity of the French against the resurrection of Buonaparté's oficers to make provision for Buonaparté, power. Yet by this Treaty that person in satisfaction of their personal honour. himself was to be allowed a splendid So much then as to the egregious improestablishment.all his family to be placed vidence of this transaction. in a state of opulence-his followers to He had heard it reported that the person be granted a gratification, and his debts in question bad afforded some grounds for paid by France. This arrangement, then, the non-fulfilment of the Treaty; but if appeared to the noble marquis to place he had afforded grounds which would the Allies in a most improvident dilemma. bave justified the non-payment of the If the Treaty were fulfilled, Buonaparté stipulated allowance to him, à departure and all his family would be possessed of from the Treaty in other respects would
also have been justifiable. Without presso | filled, it must have had the most injurious ing that point further, be should take it for effect upon the French army, who congranted ibat the noble earl had meant to ceived their honour pledged to the fulfil. state that grounds had been afforded for ment of those articles, to the advantage of with-holding the payment, though, accord. their former chief and his family, which ing to his notions of the Treaty, it had not they had obtained. been violated. The next point to which | The next point to which he should draw he should advert was the disposal of the their lordships attention, was the qualified duchies of Parma, Placentia, and Guas. accession which we had given to the talla; and he should buldly affirm that | Treaty in question, by which the hopes there was never an engagement concluded wbich had risen from the termination of by any goveróment more disgraceful in the struggle had been frustrated. It would principle, or more hostile to justice, than appear on the examination of the Treaty, the grant of those States to the wife and that the consent of our Government had son of Napoleon. The legitimate heir to been given to the very articles to which those duchies was living, and bad as good our assent should not have been given, a claim to his States as the sovereign of As a treaty had been concluded with any other State in Europe. He was not Buonaparıé by which he had been sta. an adherent of those who held that at the tioned in the island of Elba, the great obtermination of a conflict, avowedly insti- ject which this country should have had, tuted for the support of the existing powers was to throw in the way of his return to of Europe, those States only were to be the country which had been the seat of respected who were powerful [hear, bear!), his power, all the obstacles which our and that tbe others were to be thrown into means afforded us. What were the obsta. the consolidated fund of spoliation (bear, cles that we had thrown in the way of his bear!), to be paid by be knew not what escape? We had agreed to that article of cashier to the orders of the greater Sove the Treaty by which he was recognized reigns. He could not conceive that a as independent Sovereign of Elba, by note to pay to the order of the Em. which it became impossible to watch his peror of Russia two millions of souls, 'motions with that strictness which we or to pay to the order of some other mo might otherwise have employed, either by narch so many thousand souls, was a valid land or by what had been called in antransfer of independent States, Such pro other place, naval police. The other article ceedings and such principles were repug. to which we had given our assept was the nant, not to the vested rights of sovereigns transfer of the Duchies of Parma and Plaalone, but to the paramount rights of the centia, to which the highest objections bad people; for though he was not one of been made, and which, if it was to be ful. those who said all governments were of filled, was most contrary to good faith and and from the people, yet he could not to the principles of that great man, now submit to say that all governments were no more, who had so long conducted the not for the people, and that the vested affairs of this nation, and who had always rights of the people were the strongest, made it his object to protect the legitiBut these unfortunate ducbies were taken mate righis of ancient sovereigns, and to out of this fund of spoliation to be spo foster that spirit of attachment in people liated in a still more extraordinary man- | towards their own dynasties which this ner, and they were excepted from the article insulted or disregarded. On the general arrangements of the Congress; other hand the non-fulfilment of the article their sovereign was deprived of his rights, was pregnant with evil from the personal the people of the sovereign to whom they bold which it gave Napoleon on the French had probably been accustomed to look up; army, which was pledged to maintain the an insult had been offered to the Crown Treaty. It was a faial and lamentable of Spain, to whom the sovereign of these fact, to which he supposed the noble earl States was allied, and to the illustrious had alluded, when he had spoken of some House of Bourbon, from which he was convulsion which might arise before the descended, for the sake of gratifying the | affairs of Europe permanently settled into feelings of Austria, by an article, of which tranquillity, that even if Buonaparté bad that power, however, had made no exer- not returned to France, a spirit existed in tion io obtain the fulfilment. The article that country which would have given rise would have been improper, monstrous and to a civil war. There were in France two onjust, if fulfilled; but as it was not ful great. parties-those who had been the ancient Jacobins, and who had termed in their hands, of watching the 'movements themselves Liberales, after the Spanish use of that person, should be made use of to of the term--and the Constitutionalists, a the utmost; and this duty was enhanced party which professed to be well disposed in proportion to the mischievousness of the to good order and to the Bourbons, but articles. It had been said by the noble under more severe restrictions than they earl, that the whole fleet of England could bad been subjected to in the times of the not have effectually blockaded the island old monarchy. Besides these a third party of Elba; but when the danger threatened consisted of the purchasers of forfeited by the escape of Napoleon, and the diffi. property, or national domains : and a culty of preventing it were considered, fourth, and most important party, was the they should rather have been incentives army. The French army was not to be to diligence in attempting to prevent it. regarded in the same light as any other The noble earl seemed to consider all army in the world, or any that had ever matters of state as matters of facility; he, existed. Its numbers gave it a vast supe (the marquis W.) on the other hand, had riority in influence, and it was besides in- always been taught to consider them, as timately connected with almost every well as all other transactions of human family in France, for every family had life, as the choice of difficulties. Because afforded it officers or soldiers. The very all the fleet of England could not protect severity with which the conscription had us against the possibility of an escape, the been put in force produced that effect, noble earl had come to the rapid concluand habit had made it so familiar to the sion, that no protection whatever was to minds of the inhabitants, and so fixed it, be afforded against that event that beas it were, in their nature, that many cause protection was difficult and impor. families considered the conscription as the tant, that he would not protect us. It had means of providing for their children; and not been said that instruction had been in many cases when the young conscripts given to any one commander, but it had had been returned to their homes, they had been said, that there was some understand. felt that dismission as an evil.
ing with the captain of a frigate. He had With the knowledge of these facts be- | never heard, however, that that underfore them, their lordships might conceive standing was understood-[a laugh). But how greatly the danger to be apprehended even supposing that this frigate had been from Buona parté was enhanced by the destined to watch any movements in Elba, non-execution of any part of the Treaty, it was needless to say how inadequate a which might give him a claim on the co single frigate was to such a task. How, operation of a soldiery which constituted then, could bis Majesty's Government so large a part of the kingdom. There justify themselves (and if they had any was great reason for supposing, that before suspicion that an attempt would have been any attempt had been made on the part of made by Buonaparté, that justification Buonaparté, something in the nature of an would be still more impracticable), if so insurrection had been organized in France. | small an effort had been made to prevent In fact, instead of considering Buonaparte that return of the person in question to the prime mover of the insurrection, it was France which had involved the country in more probable that that insurrection bad so many difficulties? Indeed, there could been planned by others, who had pitched not be a greater contrast than between the on him as the chief under whom the attempt alarm which the escape of that person had would have a greater chance of success, created, and the efforts which had been and who would be more likely to effect made to avert the consequences of it, and their purposes. While affairs were in this the minute efforts which had been made state, what we had done was to give him to prevent the return of that plague of a good cause among the people of France, Europe. in addition to the other causes which in Another singular fact respecting the duced those persons to call on bim. The Treaty was, that as England recognised poble marquis then said, that even when the sovereignty of Elba without necessity, we had placed ourselves in this unfortunate so France did not accede to the provision situation, that we had to apprehend the for the payment of the allowance, which return of Napoleon to the seat of that was to be paid out of the funds of that power which he bad formerly wielded, it kingdom. The sum was granted by the was essentially the duty of our Govern. Allies, and the payment guaranteed by ment, that the small power which was left them, and they had engaged that it should
be guaranteed by France; but he appre- marquis had made on the Treaty of Fonhended no such guarantee had been given tainbleau, as being utterly destitute of either by the provisional or the established wisdom-as not being justified on any government of France. The Allies were principle of policy. Certain contingenbound to procure the payment to be made, cies, the noble marquis observed, ought to but they so little cared to fulfil their en have been foreseen and provided against, gagements, that the royal French Govern- at the time this Treaty was agreed to. ment was said to have refused to make any The attack was made, as if this were a such payment; at any rate it was clear new transaction, that had never been that no measures had ever been taken to heard of before. Whereas, every man pay any part of the sum stipulated for. who walked this town-every man in Now, whether it was to be expected that every town of Europe, was apprised of under these circumstances some attempt the fact long since. Twelve months ago, was to be made on the part of Buonaparté, the Treaty was published in every newsand should have been provided against, he paper in this city. Not merely the prinshould leave their lordships to judge; but ciple of the Treaty, but all its details. it was also reported, that some communi. When the Treaty of Paris was last session cation had been made to his Majesty's laid before the House, they never heard Government, in which some information any objection to the principle of the respecting it had been given. He was not Treaty of Fontainbleau, which was so aware of the nature of that communication, nearly connected with it. He would go but he wished to know what the informa- farther, and say, that although the Treaty tion was, and what steps had been taken of Fontainbleau, article by article, must upon it, supposing such information had have been well known to the noble marbeen given." " Viewing, as he did, the im. quis, the attention of the public having providence of the Treaty, which afforded been strongly called to it, yet the noble no security to Europe, the danger from marquis had made no observation, either the independence of Buonaparte in Elba, on the impropriety of its principle, or the and the folly of engagements, which could impolicy of its details. Now, if it were a not be fulfilled with safety, nor violated measure so fraught with danger, that the without danger and dishonour, or the noble marquis conceived no man who semblance of dishonour; and the insuffi.deserved the name of a statesman could cient efforts which had been made under look to it without apprehension, why did these disadvantages, with the means we he not exercise a sound discretion, why still possessed; he should move, as a pre- did he not perform that which was maniliminary to a more serious inquiry, an festly his duty, and call the attention of humble Address to his royal highness the the House to a transaction, which was a Prince Regent, for, "1. Copies or extracts, complete matter of notoriety. Their lordor substance of any instructions. which ships would probably be inclined to be. may have been given by his Majesty's lieve, that the fears of the noble marquis Government, to any of his Majesty's naval (who, whether he last year thought the commanders, respecting Napoleon Buona. | Treaty wise or not, certainly did not apparlé, and the island of Elba. 2. Copies pear to apprehend any danger from it) or extracts, or substance of any informa. were only excited since the occurrence tion which his Majesty's Government may of those events that had recently taken have received, respecting the design of place. Napoleon Buonaparté to escape from the Having said thus much on the course island of Elba, together with the date of pursued by the noble marquis, he now the reception of the said information.” came to the consideration of the Treaty
The Earl of Liverpool said, he could itself. The noble marquis had made an assure the noble marquis, that any inti- attack, not only on the Government of mation of surprise, which might have this country, but on the whole of the escaped from him in the course of his Allied Powers, with respect to the line of speech, did not arise from want of civility conduct they had adopted. Now, the towards him, but was occasioned by a first question was, what was the situation strong sensation, produced at the moment, of the Allied Powers at the time the by what he conceived to be the extra. Treaty was concluded? Were they to ordinary propositions which the noble treat with Buonaparté as a prisoner, or as marquis had advanced. He alluded par- a person perfectly at liberty. That was ticularly to the attack which the noble the point on which the whole question