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nations of the same language, of similar, doubtless of the most perfect right to jus'. manners, of almost the same laws, the one tice and humanity, entitled like all other being a country of overflowing population, men to resist oppression, undisturbed, in and the other of a boundless extent of regulating their internal concerns, or their vacant land to receive it: the two first ordinary quarrels with each other, rather maritime states in the world, the one to be considered as subjects of their own habitually belligerent, under the necessity chiefs, than as directly amenable to the of manning her prodigious navy by very paramount authority of the territorial rigorous means; the other disposed to com- sovereign; they had still, in all treaties remerce and neutrality, alluring seamen by specting America, been considered as vase every temptation of emolument into her sals and dependents, bound by the stipula. growing mercantile marine. Never was, tions of their superior state. However there such a dangerous conflict between undefined this character might be, whats the rigorous principle of natural allegi- ever doubt might be entertained of the oriance, and the moral duty of contributing ginal justice of such treaties, it was not now to the defence of a protecting government. / for Great Britain to deny the existence of To reconcile these jarring claims by general rights which she had herself exercised, reasoning, or by abstract principles, was and which she had solemnly ceded to the a vain attempt. To effect a compromise United States ; and once more, if the between them, would be an arduous task Indians were her independent allies, it was for the utmost caution, and the most con. disgraceful in the highest degree to surciliatory spirit. Yet it must be tried, unless render them at last into the hands of the we were willing that in every future war enemy. Never was a proposal in fact so America should necessarily become our inhuman made under pretence of philanenemy.
thropy. The western frontier of North He proceeded to examine the causes of American cultivation is the part of the delay after the Congress was assembled at globe in which civilization is making thre Ghent. These were all reducible to one, most rapid and extensive conquests on the
a pretension set up by the British ne wilderness. It is the point where the race gociators, to guarantee what was called of men is most nrogressive. To forbid the the independence of the savages whom we purchase of land from the savages, is to had armed, and to prohibit the Americans arrest the progress of mankind it is to from purchases of land from them. The condemn one of the most favoured tracts first remark on this pretension was, that it of the earth to perpetual sterility, as the ought never to have been made, or never hunting-ground of a few thousand savages. abandoned. If honour and humanity to. More barbarous than the Norman tyrants, wards the Indians required it, our deser- who aftorested great tracts of arable land tion of it is an indelible disgrace. It is for their sport, we attempted to stipulate' abandoned. The general words of the that a territory twice as great as the Treaty are of no value, or amount to no British Islands should be doomed to be an more than the Americans were always eternal desert! We laboured to prevent ready to grant. Having been abandoned, millions of millions of freemen, of Chrisit can have been made only as a philan- | tians, of men of English race, from coming thropic pretext for war.
into existence. There never was such an But, in truth, it was utterly untenable, attempt made by a state to secure its own and it must have been foreseen that it was to dominion by desolation, to guard by, be abandoned. It amounted to a demand deserts what they could not guard by for the cession of the larger part of the strength. To perpetuate the English auterritory of the United States, of that thority in two provinces, the larger part territory which is theirs by positive of North America was for ever to be a treaty with Great Britain. Over the whole wilderness. The American ministers, by of the American territory, even to the their resistance to so insolent and extrava-' Pacific Ocean, the Crown of Great Britain gant a demand, maintained the common formerly claimed the rights of sovereignty. cause of civilised men--and the English, By the Treaty of 1783 the United States suc- who by advancing so monstrous a pretenceeded to the rights of the British Crown. sion protracted the miseries and the blood. The Indian tribes, who hunted in various shed of war, who had caused the sad parts of that vast territory, became vassals defeat of New Orleans and the more disof the United States as they had been vas. graceful victory of Washington, had rena' sals of the King of Great Britain. Possessed dered themselves accountable to God and (VOL. XXX. )
their country for all the accumulation of principle of the maritime rights they never evils which marked the last months of an could depart; but they had never refused unfortunate and unnatural war.--For these to go into any question of modification. reasons he heartily concurred in the If the frontier could be established, it amendment of his right hon, friend.
would have been a great object; but with Lord Castlereagh said, he had purposely all its importance, it never occurred to abstained from rising at an earlier period them to make it an object of war. The of the debate, from a wish to hear what great end they had in view was one that objections could be made to the conduct atfected the honour of the country, that of of his Majesty's ministers, before he en- protecting those who had fought and bled tered on their justification. They must all with us. We owed to the Indians to feel, that at the close of a transaction which replace them in a state of peace, and in was happily wound up in peace, it would the enjoyment of such possessions as they not be advisable to argue it in any feeling had before. This was done, and the calculated to disturb the amicable rela- result was at least so far advantageous to tions that at present subsisted. But it was the Indians, as to make their interests an hard that ministers should have to defend object of regulation to a country which themselves against a disclosure on the part was capable of protecting them. Besides, of the American Government, made under the negociation was almost exclusively circumstances wbich it would now be inju- occupied in discussing questions that ori. dicious to argue. The right hon. member ginated with the Americans themselves. who had examined the discussion of the Nothing had been stated that could im. negociators, guided by the result, was peach the Treaty itself, or render the such an economist in point of time as to House and the country dissatisfied with its take advantage of events which, having provisions. In the conduct of the nego. subsequently taken place, ought not to be ciation every thing was done by this applied to the negociations by which they country to facilitate those amicable regu. were preceded. But would the right hon. lations which it was the wish of Government member undertake to say that it was not to establish. Even our military exertions right to send a force then disposable into were made with a view to peace. Seeing America, in the month of May? If he that the war could be concluded at that would now do so, it should be recollected period, we had concluded it; and he that he did not do so at the time. The trusted that, from all these considerations, concessions on the part of this country were the House would be disposed to reject the all made at the period when our successes | Amendment, and agree to the Address. were most conspicuous; and such was the Sir James Mackintosh, having been ac. spirit of conciliation on our part, that we cused of sacrificing justice and humanity even agreed to an arrangement by which to his sanguine views of progressive civi. his Majesty's Government was bound, lization, observed, in explanation, that if while it was left to the discretion of the in the year 1600 any European Powers at American Government to agree or not. war with England, onder pretence of huSo far was the desire of peace exemplified manity for the Indians, and of the injustice on our part. As to the mediation of the which they always suffered from Euro. emperor of Russia, it was declined, not peans, had compelled us to promise by from any doubt of the liberality of that ireaty that we should make no purchases monarch, but on the ground that England of land from these Indians, the whole of was the best and only competent judge of North America would at this day have her own rights. With respect to the contained fifty thousand cannibals, instead charge of delay, he could state, that down of ten millions of British freemen, who to the 9th of last August, the American may be numbered among the most intellicommissioners had no instructions from gent, the most moral, the bravest, and the their Government on the subject of the most happy of the human race. Sentence maritime rights; and he had no hesitation of desolation and barbarism would have in admitting that it was his wish, and the been passed on a considerable portion of wish of those with whom he acted, that the the globe. Our ministers in this proposal transactions which had taken place in had tried to doom to the same fate all that Europe should be known in America. yet remained to be reclaimed. Another circumstance worthy of remark Mr. J. P. Grant supported the Amend. was, that bis Majesty's negociators had ment, on the ground of the delay with stated all their objects at once. From the which the negociators of this country were chargeable. The mediation of the em- | the necessity of limiting their inquiry to peror of Russia might, he thought, have those points which were capable of being been accepted without the surrender of | ascertained, conceived that the parishes, any right.
I which are comprehended in the Bills of Mr. Robinson supported the Address, and Mortality, would afford a tolerable cri. contended that no unnecessary delay had terion to enable a judgment to be formed, been occasioned by the the British com- as to the comparative number of parish missioners. With respect to the attack on apprentices bound near home and at a Washington, as that event took place in distance, and as to the advantages or disthe month of August, and the first meeting advantages resulting from the latter plan. of the commissioners was on the 8th of This was the more practicable, as by that month, the event would have equally the Act passed in the 2d and 7th years of taken place, if they had concluded the his present Majesty, some humane regu. trealy ihe first day of their meeting. lations were made in the management of The House then divided :
parish apprentices in those parishes; and For the Amendment ............ 37 by the latter Act, in certain of those Against it ......................... 128 parishes, namely, the seventeen parishes
Majority .................. -91 without the walls of London, the twentyThe Address was then agreed to. three in Middleses and Surrey, being
within the Bills of Mortality, and the RePORT FROM THE COMMITTEE ON ( liberty of the Tower of London, and the Parish APPRENTICES. The following ten parishes witbin the city and liberty of Report was presented to the House : Wesiminster, a list of poor children bound
apprentices was direcied to be delivered REPORT.
annually from each parish to the clerk of The Committee appointed to examine the company of Parish-clerks, to be bound
into the number and state of Parish up and deposited with that company. Apprentices, bound into the country | To those lists your committee have had from the parishes within the Bills of
access, an abstract having been made by Mortality, and to report the same, I the clerk of the Committee ; and it apwith their observations thereon, 10
pears from them that the whole number the House :-Have examined the
of apprentices bound, from the beginning matter to them referred, and agreed of the year 1902 to the end of the year upon the following Report:
1811, from these parishes, amounts to · Your Committee have to observe, that 5,815; being 3,416 males, and 2,369 the attention of Parliament has for some females. Of these were bound to trades, time been called to this subject, and that watermen, the sea-service, and to houseso long ago as the session of 1811, a bill hold employment, 2,428 males, and 1,361 was brought into the House, to amend the females, in all 3,789 ; fifteen of whom laws in respect to Parish Apprentices, and were bound under eight years of age, 493 to make certain regulations, with the view between eight and eleven years, 483 beof ameliorating their condition ; but was tween eleven and twelve, 1,656 between withdrawn, in order that some information twelve and fourteen, and 1,102 between might be procured which was conceived fourteen and eighteen. Though not imto be wanting.
mediately applicable to the subject of - A committee was in consequence ap. inquiry, it may not be altogether irrelepointed, which set on foot an inquiry. | vant to mention, that of this gross number This inquiry has since been prosecuted of children amounting 10 3,789, there with as much perseverance as was required were bound 10 the sea-service, to walerby a subject of so much importance to the men, lightermen, and fishermen, 484; to happiness and well-being of a large class household employments, 528; and to of the community, though hitherto but various trades and professions, 2,772 : little made an object of the attention of the remaining children amounting to Parliament.
2,026, being 1,018 males, and 1,008 feIt would have been obviously an im- males, were bound to persons in the practicable task to have attempted to country ; of these, 58 were under eight ascertain the number of parish appren- years of age, 1,008 between eight and tices bound, from various parts of Eng. eleven, 316 between eleven and twelve, land, to a distance from their parents ; | 435 between twelve and fourleen, and 207 and the committee being therefore under between fourteen and eighteen, besides two children whose ages are not men-1 become bankrupts .................. 433 tioned in the returns from their parishes. Before they enter on ihe subject of what
2026 has become of these children, your Com
Of the number comprised under the mittee beg leave to observe, that from all
last head, consisting of 433, some few of the parisbes within the city of London,
the masters have sent a return, but without only eleven apprentices have been seni
* I giving an account of the wbole of the to masters at a distance in the country; that of the five parishes in Southwark,
apprentices; so that it may be fairly
judged that one third of these cannot be only one (Saint George's) has sent any
accounted for at all. considerable number;-that in Westoin.“
Your Committee having abstracted the ster, the parish of St. Anne, has not sent
whole list of parish apprentices bound any since the year 1802; those of St.
into the country, might make this Report Margaret and St. John, since the year
more full, by enumerating the particular 1803; and the largest and populous parish
returns made by each master or by the of St. Pancras has discontinued the prac
overseer, as well as the names of such tice since the year 1806. From those of
masters as have not given any answers Newington, Shadwell, Islington, and se.
at all, or unsatisfactory ones; but they veral others, no children have at any time
conceive ihat it might be invidious to do been sent.
so, especially as those details would The Committee directed precepts to be
make no difference in the state of the sent to the various persons in the country
question which it is their object to bring to whom the parish apprentices, to the
ne before the consideration of the House. amount of 2,026, were bound, directing
They therefore abstain from inserting any them to make returns, stating what bad,
' such returns in their Appendix, satisfied become of them, to the best of their know-libat the House will give them credit for ledge. These returns bave in general
the reason of such omission. They think been complied with, but in some instances
it right, however, to state generally, that have not, owing probably to the bank.
of the children bound in ten years, the ruptcy or discontinuance io business of the ci
following is the proportion of the different parties to whom these children were apprenticed; and in some cases the infor
trades and employments : mation required has been furnished by Silk Throwsters...................... 118 the overseer of the poor, to whoin the Silk Manufacturers ............... charge of assigning the apprentices de. volved, on the failure of the master. | Flax Dressers ..................... 21 The general Classification may be made
Flax Spinners ........................
de Flax Manufacturers ................ as follows:
Sail-cloch Manufacturers ......... Now serving under indenlure ......... 644
175 Served their time, and now in the Woollen Manufaclurers ......... • same employ........................... 108 Worsted Spioners................... 2 Served, and settled elsewhere ......... 99 Worsted Manufacturers ......... 146 Dead ...................................... 80. Carpet Weavers .................... 2 Enlisted in the army or navy .......... 86 Quitted their service, chiefly run Frame-work Knitters ............ · away ...................................... 166 Earthenware Manufacturers ..... Not bound to the person mentioned Colon Spinners .................... 353 in the return kept by the company
Cotton Weavers ................... 07 of Parish-clerks ....................... 58 Colton Manufacturers ............ 771 Sent back to their friends ............ 57 | Cotton Twist Manufacturers ...... Transferred 10 tradesmen in different Calico Weavers......................
198 parts of the kingdom ............... 246 Fustian Manufacturers ............ 71 Incapable of service...................... 18 Cotton Candlewick Makers...... 24 Not accounted for or mentioned ...... 5
1493 In parish workhouses ................... 26 Manufacturers (supposed to be Not salisfactorily or intelligibly ac. Cotton) .........
28 counted for by the persons to whom they were bound, or by the
2026 overseers where the masters have
It appears by the returos from the me-, gisters kept as above mentioned, afforded tropolis, that ihe children bound to ma for that purpose. nufacturers in the country have generally in the populous districts of England, been apprenticed on the same day, in whether that population is caused by numbers of from five or six to forty or manufacturers or by other employments, fifty. They have not unfrequently been the same causes which produce it provide zaken back to their parents, and some support for the inhabitants of all ages, by times after having been bound, have been various occupations adapted to their means. assigned to another master. In the parish | Thus in manufacturing districts, the cbilof Bermondsey, out of twenty-five ap-dren are early taught to gain their subprenticed to manufacturers, sixteen, it is sistence by the different branches of those said, did not go, but no reason is given manufactures. In districts where collieries for it; and in several instances, after the or other mines abound, they are accus. children have been taken into the country, tomed almost from their infancy to emthey have been returned to the parish, in ployments under ground, which tend to consequence of the surgeon having pro- | train and inure them to the occupation of nounced them unsound. It appears also, their ancestors: but in London the lower that of the whole number of parish ap. class of the population is not of that naprentices included in the above returns, ture, but is composed of many different no less a proportion than three-fourths descriptions, consisting of servants in and have been bound to masters connected out of place, tradesmen, artisans, labourers, with the cotton manufacture. Most of widows, and beggars, who being frequentthe remarks, therefore, wbich they con-lly destitute of the means of providing for ceive it their duty to make, will be more themselves, are dependent on their padirecıly applicable to that branch of emrishes for relief, which is seldom bestowed ployment; though many of their general without the parish claiming the exclusive observations, as to the impolicy of re- right of disposing, at their pleasure, of all moving children to a considerable distance the children of the person receiving refrom their parents, as well as from those lief. The system of apprenticeship is whose duly it is to see that they are pro- therefore resorted to of necessity, and perly taken care of and treated, are with a view of getting rid of the burtben equally applicable to all professions of supporting so many individuals; and
In considering this subject, it is neces. as it is probably carried to a greater cx. sary to advert more particularly to the tent there than any where else, for the causes and circumstances attending the reasons here stated, your Committee has original appointment of a committee. A been enabled to form an opinion, without Bill having been brought into the House ihe necessity of referring to any other four sessions ago, at the desire and under part of the kingdom, whether it could be the direction ot one of the most populous discontinued, without taking away from manufacturing districts of this kingdom, the parishes the means of disposing of the professed object of which was to pro- their poor children. It certainly does hibit the binding of parish apprentices to appear to your Committee, that this pur. above a certain distance froin the abode pose might be attained, without the vioof their parents, and making other regulation of humanity, in separating children Jations in the management of them, some forcibly, and conveying them to a dis. of the parishes of the metropolis menaced tance from their parents, whether those an opposition to the Bill, as taking from parents be deserving or undeserving. thein the means of disposing of the chilo The peculiar circumstances of the medren of the poor belonging to them, in the tropolis, already alluded to, may at first manner in wbich they had before been seem to furnish an argument in favour of accustomed to do. It was therefore a continuance of this practice; but it can judged expedient to ascertain the extent hardly be a matter of doubt, that apprenof the practice which had prevailed, in tices, to the number of two hundred, order to form a judgment of the necessity which is the yearly number bound on the of continuing it; and with that view, as average of ten years before mentioned, well as for the reasons before mentioned, mighi, with the most trifling possible these returns were called for. There was exertion on the part of the parish officers, also another reason for confining the re- be annually bound to trades and domestic turns to the metropolis and its vicinity, employments, within such a distance as exclusive of the facility which the re- to admit of occasional intercourse with a