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PROPER TIME FOR CUTTING TIMBER, &c. Timber includes all kinds of felled and seasoned wood. Of all the dif. ferent kinds known, oak is considered the most valuable for building, and even when it lies exposed to air and water, there is none equal to it. The goodness of timber not only depends on the soil and situation in which it stands, but likewise on the season in which it is felled. People disagree very much in this: some are for having it felled as soon as the fruit is ripe; others, in the spring season, and many in the autumn. As the sap and moisture of timber is certainly the cause that it perishes much sooner than it otherwise would do, it seems evident that timber should be felled when there is the least sap in it, or when the sap is most susible or in a liquid
The ancients chiefly regarded the age of the moon in felling timber : their rule was to fell it in the wane, or four days after the new. An Amherst, Massachusetts, cooper states, that he formerly furnished three oil mills in that vicinity with casks made from oak felled in June; because, he says, timber felled in winter, being more porous, would not contain oil; and oak and walnut cut in June would not powder-post. That the moon has influence on the sap, no one who has paid attention has occasion to doubt: the liber or inner bark is less adhesive at this stage of the moon, the ligneous or woody matter being in a more fluid state. It has been ascertained by various experiments, that the woody part of oak in full vegetation is only four-tenths of the whole: air constitutes one-fourth of it, and the rest consists in sap. Light woods have still a much less quantity of solid matter; but the season of the year and age of the tree occasion considerable variation. Timber should be cut when of a proper age, for when it is either too young or too old, it will not be so durable. They should be cut in their prime, when almost fully grown, and before they begin to decay; and this will depend upon the dryness and moistness of the soil where the timber grows. The time of its commencement to decay, or when it is going past its prime, is when the concentric circles are less and less, as may be seen in the oak, beech, walnut, &c. These circles yearly enlarge the trunk by the formation of a new alburnum or soft wood, which the next succeeding year becomes the lignum or hard wood. The wood of the north side of all trees which grow in this climate is the weakest, and that of the south side is the strongest. The heart of a tree is never in its centre, but always nearer to the north side, and the concentric circles, or annual coats of wood, are thinner on that side. In conformity with this, it is the general opinion of carpenters, that timber is strongest whose annual plates are thickest. The air vessels makes the visible separation between the annual plates. Therefore, when these plates are thickest they contain a greater proportion of the woody fibre.
Timber, after being felled and sawed, must be seasoned > not by standing upright, but lie one piece upon another, only kept apart by blocks or small sticks interposed to prevent a certain mouldiness which they will contract in sweating on one another. Some advise plank or other timber to lie in water a few days, in order to extract the sap, and afterwards to dry in the air: hy this means they will be prevented from cracking or chápping: Some scorch and season them in the fire, such as piles, posts, &c., which are to stand in water or earth. They are charred and seasoned by burning them round in a strong, violent flame, until a black, coaly crust is formed ; the internal part of the wood is thereby so hardened, thai neither earth nor water can damage it for a long time afterwards. An excellent preservation of wood by charcoal, especially applied to eare-troughs and water-spouts, is, first to lay on a coat of drying oil, then immediately dust it over with a thick layer of charcoal, finely powdered, and contained in a muslin bag. After two or three days, when the oil is thoroughly dried, brush off the loose particles of charcoal, and cover that which adheres with a coat of paint, and in a few days after, a second; the whole will become a fine solid crust, and is said to preserve the wood sound for many years.
Some advise to season the timber before it is cut down, by taking off the bark a year before it is cut : the sap is expelled, and the alburnum is converted into wood in the course of the year. 'Sills and sleepers for out-buildings should have a free circulation of air to save them froin decay.--S. W.J. --Alb. Cultivator.
PREPARATION OF SEED CORN. The following is the result of an experiment made in planting corn the past season. Having seen statements of the benefits derived from steeping in a solution of the sulphate of iron, (copperas,) as securing it against the rayages of birds and the cut-worins, I resolved upon giving it a trial. Mr. J. K. (with whose crop the experiment was tried) procured a few ounces, dissolved it in hot water, and poured over the corn. After remaining in the solution from six to eight hours, the corn was taken out, rolled thoroughly in plaster, and planted. And rows of the same kind of corn were plantea in the middle of the field, without steeping the seed, but jnst as it came from the cod. The field was likewise planted with pumpkin-seeds, also without preparation. After the corn and pumpkins had come up, I observed that man of the latter were cut off by the worms, but could not see a single stalk of ... disturled, until I examined the rows (for I had marked
them) the seed of which had not been prepared. Here I found the wormis at work, nearly a tenth part of which they had destroyed : the birds had likewise taken some. The steeped corn was of a greener and more healthy color than the other, grew faster, wita stouter stalks, while that from the unprepared seed could readily be pointed out by its more yellow and dwindling appearance; neither was ihe yield so great as ne other.
Now, whether this difference in yield is to be attributed to the copperas or to the plaster, os to both, I have yet to learn; but think the copperas prevented the birds and worms from committing depredations, as we have frequently rolled seed corn in plaster, but have nover found that a security against either birds or worms.-The above is at your service : you will please to pardon errors in cumposition, as my province is behind the plough and not the pen.-R. Foster.-Alb. Cultivator.
CULTURE OF RUTA BAGA: Addressed to the Editor of the Farmer's Monthly Visiter. DEAR SIR- Believing ruta haga to be of great value to the stock farmers, and as the season (May 5th) for sowing is at hand, I send you ar extraci from my farm journal, relative to my mode of culture the first year, though, as it was sy first experiment, I am far from thinking it to be the best mode. However, as I was pretty accurate, it may be of use to my lirother farmers, hy inducing some one, better acquainted with its culture than myself, to point out the errors in my process.
In the fall of 1836, I broke up three acres of green sward, the soil a stiff luam; and in 1837 planted with potatoes, there being nothing peculiar in the management, or extraordinary in the crop. In the spring of 1938, I carted on sixty loads of well-rotted manure, which I ploughed iv so soon as the ground was sufficiently dry, and on the 27th of May I again ploughed, harrowed, and after rolling smooth, marked it into squares of 18 inches, and planted by dropping two or three seeds in each intersection, which was done by taking the seed from a box, with a single hole in the top. I sowed from thie ist to the 4th of June; on the 23d began to weed, thinning out where the plants were too crowded, and setting out where deficient, which I contin.
ued to do occasionally when other work did noi press, till the 28th July On the zith Octoher, I began to pull and cut, finishing on the 911 of November. They were pulled by hand, the plants lası pulled as uninjured as the first, although they had been exposed to frost. When pulled," two plants were struck together to shake off the dirt; the tops were then twisted off and carted. The root was handied three times over; they went into the cellar in a tolerably clean state. Having heard of their not keeping well in cellars, I stored in one cellar 1500 bushels without injury; I have now (May 51h) more than 100 bushets, as fair as when placed there. The cellar was 30 fret square ; | inch timhers were placed, covered with plank. The whole was divided into two bins, with one foot between the bins, and one between the bins and wall. ! fed out my 1200 bushels to my sheep, 650 horned cat
tle, and the remainder to my horses. They all ate with avidity, preferring them to potatoes. For my horses and cattle, they were merely cut with a spade; for the sheep, they were passed through a vegetable cutter. The whole weight was seventy-seven tons. Respectfully yours, L.J. Claremont, N. H., May, 1839.
CULTURE OF THE GRAPE.
Addressed to the Editor of the Genesee Farmer. MESSRS. EDITORS-A correspondent in the fourth number of the Farmer wishes to know the best method of raising the grape. My way is to trim those vines that have been growing some years in the winter, so as to prevent the sap from running in the spring, which is apt to retard their growth. When the buds begin to start, I rub all from the old part, leaving those on the last year's growth only which will produce grapes. After they have grown to the size of shot, I clip the ends of the vines, and free them from branches, to prevent them from having too large a quantity of wood, leaving a few of the thriftiest, which I keep free from hranches, so that in the fall I have a number to raise a crop from the next scason. By the middle of August I take the leaves from the vines that have grapes on, and try this means get them ripe before the frost takes them. If the buds have not been taken off when they first started, the surplus branches of the present year's growth may be clipped off in the fore part of June. By pursuing this course, my grapes ripen without being frozen.
C. Port Gib., N. Y.
MILKING Cows. Good cows need milking regularly three times every twenty-four hours. In fact, if this practice were adopted, our farmers would
have more good cows than they now do. We see it stated that a gentleman near Philadelphia, who has adopted the practice of milking thrice a day, has a short-horned Durham cow that yielded an average of 331 quarts a day during the first week in June.
A TABLE OF INTEREST PER DAY, at 6 per cent.,
On any number of Dollars from One to Twelve Thousand. Prin. Int. Prin. Int. | Prin. Interest. Prin. Interest. Prin. Interest. Dol. m. Dol. m. Dol. a. C. m.
Dol. d. c. m. Dol. d. c. m. 016 25 411 49
808 73 1 200 97 1 595 2 033 26 427 50
822 74 1 216 98 I 611 3 049 27 444 51
839 75 1 233 99 1 627 066 28 460 52
249 100 11 644 082 29 477 53
266 200 3 288 6 099 30 493 54
888 78 1 282 300 41 932 115 31 510 55
904 79 1 299 400 6 575 8 132 32 526 56
921 80 I 315 500 8 219 9 143 33 542
937 81 1
600 9 863 10 164 34 559 58
953 82 1 318 700 11 507 11 181 35 575 59
970 83 1 364 800 13 151 12 197 36 592 60
381 900 141 795 13 214 37 608
1 003 85
397 1000 16! 433 14 230 38 625 62 1 019 86
414 2000 32 877 15 247 39 641 63 1 036 87
430 3000 491 315 16 263 40 658 64 1 052 88
447 4000 651 753 17 269 41 674 65 1 068 89 1 463 5000 82 192 18 279 42 690 66 1 085 90
479 6000 981 680 19 312
1 496 7000 15 068 20 329 44 723 68 1 118
8000 1 31 507 21 345 45 740 69 1 134
1 529 9000 47 945 362 46 756
545 10000 641 384 23 378 47 773 71 1 167 95 1 562 11000 1 801 822 24 395 48 789 72 1 184 96 1 578 120001 971 260
N. B. Many persons do not readily understand the above Table; we give the fol. lowing Examples. What is the interest on 735 dollars for ono day at 6 per cent ? Against 700 dollars
,11507 and against 35 dollars
575 Which added are cents, the
,12082 answer. What is the interest on 735 dollars for 200 days?
200 Twenty-four dole. sixteen cts. and 4 mills 24,16,400 answer.
A TIN TRUNK PEDLER.
BREACH OF PROMISE CASE. SCENE: Parlor; Mother and three A charming business-like young, mil.
duughters seining--a loud rap is heard liner, who had always been in the habit at the door-enters a pedler with two of stepping into a bank for her small tin trunks-without further ceremony change, made her usual visit, the other he displays their contents.
day, and says, “Good morning, Mr. "Oh, ma'am!" says a daughter, “this is Cashier; I have come for five dollars' a beautiful ring!" "What handsome gold worth of your small change again.” ear-rings !" crics another. “Buy me them “I am sorry to say, Miss
that we heads !" cries the third. “Silence, girls, cannot accommodate you," was the reply. ani let me examine the articles first. AF
“ But here is your promise to pay on ter pulling on her spectacles, the following deinand." conversation ensues.
"I cannot help that." Mrs. Sharp. Is this ere ring goold? "Then you break, do you ?"!
Pedler. Yes, ma'am, it is the real jew “ Certainly,—to be sure. Our charter ellers' goold.
allows-" Mrs. S. Don't know any thing about “Allows you to make as many promises your jewellers' goold—is it the real goold? as you please, and break them when you
Pedler. Yes, ma'am--I will warrant it please ?! the best kind.
“It may be so construed." Mrs. S. Will you warrant it? that's "Ah, dear me, how I wish I was a bank enough;--what do you ask?
and had a charter." Pedler. Why, I generally get two “Why go?" dollars; but you may have it for one dol Because, I have made a promised lar three quarters
promise, not to pay a five dollar note, Mrs. S. I can get 'm cheaper than which I should blush to break-but a prothat at the stores---they don't ask but a mise of my very self to one I do not love.", dollar for the same kind.
“Why don't you break it then ?" Pedler. It's impossible they cannot Ah, ah, Mr. Cashier, there's the rub. be real gold; but I am a great way from Unlike your bank, I have no charter, and home, and want to sell; you may take it, should be sued for breach of promise, and but it cost me more.
heavily fined."-Chi. Dem. Mrs. S. No, I'll give you seventyfive cents.
WHY AND WHEREFORE. Pedler. O! that's too cheap-it cost
A Quaker, as it is recounted, me exactly that; say eighty conis- I want
Was always on a good steed mounted; to make a little profit.
Mrs. S. No, seventy-five cents is the But getting married, he was seen most I can, and I don't at that price, un- upon a nag more dull and lean
His wife being seated by his side, loss you 'U take some old silver spoons.
Upon the horse he used to ride. Pedler. Silver, you know, is very A neighbor meeting him one day, low now--but if I can make a trade with Said, ” John, my friend, inform me, pray, you, I'll take what you have. Mrs. S. Well, here is some good thick Should always ride the better horse ?"
Why she, who weaker is of course, ones;---what will you gide for them, and
“Friend," quoth the Quaker, "why and pay me in your articles ?
wherefore Pedler. (Taking them in his hand.) Would take too long to tell thee-thereHere is about seven ounces; new silver is
fore worth half a dollar an ounce-bul old is Do thou get married, and ne'er doubt it, not worth near so much. I suppose I can Thou 'll know at once, friend, all about allow you about two dollars for the lot, but that is a great price for such kind of Bilver. (Enter Farmer Sharp.)
THINGS TO BE REMEMBERED. Farmer S. Wife, what does this fel Out of every dollar you get, save one low want?
half if you can, certainly one third. Mrs. S. Don't speak so harsh, my dear; If you hope for independence, keep out you will offend the gentleman: he is puro of debt. The honor, the roputation, and chasing these old spoons-they are of no the liberty of the debtor lies at the mercy use to us, you know.
of the creditor. Farmer s. Have I not told you to Be just before you are generous : never keep clear of these prowling miscreants ? waste, nor get into debt to mike entertain Fellow! pack up your trumpery and be ments. "Fools make feasts and wise off; and beware how I catch you within men eat them." my territories again.
Plenty is but a degree short of profu. Pedler and trumpery vanish--the sion. Decent frugality is the best method girls &kulk-the Farmer looks sour~ to attain the confidence of wise men. Dame Sharp throws the
Never be in bed at six in the morning, cupboard, and the door is closed upon or out of it at ten at night.
The early visages bluck as thunder.--Eve. Tran. riser is always in time with business,
while the sluggari runs after it all the Enough for self, and some to give
To such day, and never can overtake it.
souls as need it. Credit is often a dangerous templation,
I'll drain and fence, and the means of destroying itself. Like
Nor grudge expense health, it is only to be preserved by pru. To give my land good dressingdence and moderation.
I'll plough and sow,
Or drill in cow,
And hope from Heaven a blessing.
Alej. Niess. Let no repugnance to a single state Lead' to a union with a worthless mate, Although 't is true you 'll find full many a Confession.--A female, confessing he. fool sins, among other things, ackuowledged
For Would make old maids the butt of ridi that she were rouge. (Painted.) cule;
what purpose ?" asked the priest. A single lady, though advanced in life, make me appear more captivating," was
the answer. "But does it make you look Is much more happy than an ill-match'd wife.
more beautiful ?" * At least, holy con
fessor, I think it does !” The priest look Lion.-A yoimg upstart once boasted the penitent out of the confessional, into in company i hát lie was the lion of the light, and gazing steadfastly at her, exday. You must acknowledge,” said claimed, “Madam, you may paint with one present, “that you are not yet old out offence, for you are still very ugly.” enough to be the lion ; but we are all wil. ling to allow that you are a rohelp.”
“ Milk is so dear," exclaimed a young
widow to her milk-man, “I wish I cuuld Gold.-Ile who loves gold is a fool; he afford to keep a cow of my own." who fears it, a slave; he who adores it,
“Would n'ı it be cheaper, ma," replied an idolater; he who hoards it up, a dunce; her little daughter, archly, “to keep a he who uses it, is the wise man.
milk-man of our own ?" "Lowe my success in business chiefly Somebody asked Baron Rothschild (the to you,” said a stationer to a paper-ma. Jew) to take venison. “No!" said the ker, as t ey were settling a large account ; Baron, “I never eatsh venshon; I don't "but let me ask how a man of
think it ish coot ash mutton." "Oh!"
your caution came to give credit freely to a beginner said the Baron's friend, “I wonder of with my slender means ?" “ Because,
your saying s0; if mutton were better replies the paper-maker, "at whatever
than venison, why does venison cost so hours in the morning I passed to my busi
much more ?” “ Vy," replied the Baron, ness, I always observed yoù without your
“ I vill tell you vy-in dish world do peocoat at yours.”
ples alvaysh prefer vat ish deer lo vat ish
sheep." THE FARMER.-A SONG. A farmer's life is the life for me,
The man who lives in vain, lives worse
than in vain. He who lives to no pur. I own I love it dearly; And every season, full of glee,
pose, lives to a bad purpose.
Curious thing it is indeed,
Hundred thousands chew a weed,
Egregious filthy-still how sweet,
With some, a quid 's a precious treat. "'T will bring me health and cash, sir."
I do not think it-tell you why,
No swine will chew it- wet or dry !
Great folks may eat it-but not I.
'Tis not an evil thing I know,
Only me in yonr mouth to stow-
But puff and burn me, reason knows,
As well as put me up one's nose,
Cuts 'cross the grain-dear me, forbear! In reason's spite
Chew'd, burnt and snuff'd, I do declare, Maintain it's right
O ne is too much-but three-O dear. And dearly earn his fee, sir.
Osro, Obser. The doctor's styled a gentlemany, Some time since, an odd young man,
But this I hold but humming, For, like a tavern waiting man,
who was no great favorite with the feTo every call “he's coming."
males, very modestly asked a young lady Now here, now there,
“if she would let him spend the evening
with her ?" "No," she angrily replied, Must he repair,
“that's what I won't." "Why" replied Or starve, sir, by denying; Like death himself,
he, “you need n't be so fussy-- did u':
mean this evening, but some stormy one, Unhappy elf,
when I can't go anywhere else.» He lives by others dying. A farmer's life, then, let me live, A young man, desirous of engaging in Oblaining, while I lead it,
matrimony, once asked a philosopher what