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Note.--16 square rods make 1 square chain; 10 square chains, or 100,000 square links, make an acre. Flooring, roofing, plastering, &c., are frequently estimated by the “square,” which contains 100 square feet.

A hide of land, which is spoken of by ancient writers, is 100 acres.

OBS. 1. A square is a figure which has four equal sides, and all its angles right angles, as seen in the diagram. Hence,

A Square Inch is a square, whose sides are each a 9 sq. ft.=1 sq. yd. linear inch in length.

A Square Foot is a square, whose sides are each a linear foot in length.

A Square Yard is a square, whose sides are each a linear yard, or three linear feet in length, and contains 9 square feet, as represented in the adjacent figure.

2. Square measure is so called, because its measuring unit is a square. The standard of square measure is derived from the standard linear measure. Hence,

A unit of square measure is a square whose sides are respectively equal, in length, to the linear unit of the same name.


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258. Cubic Measure is used in measuring solid bodies, or things which have length, breadth, and thickness ; such as timber, stone, boxes of goods, the capacity of rooms, ships, &c.

1728 cubic inches ( make 1 cubic foot, marked cu. ft. 27 cubic feet

1 cubic yard,

cu. yd. 40 feet of round, or

1 ton, or load,

50 ft. of hewn timber
42 cubic feet

1 ton of shipping,


1 foot of wood, or 16 cubic feet


a cord foot,
8 cord feet, or
1 cord,

128 cubic feet
A pile of wood 8 feet long, 4 feet wide, and 4 feet high, contains 1 cordo
For, 8X4X4=128.


QUEST.--Obs. What is a square? What is a square inch? A square foot ? A square yard? 258. In what is Cubic Measure used ? Recite the Table.

Obs. 1. A Cube is a solid body bounded by six equal sides. It is often called a hexaedron. Hence,

A Cubic Inch is a cube, each of whose sides is a square inch, as represented by the adjoining figure.

A Cubic Foot is a cube, each of whose sides

is a square foot.

2. Cubic Measure is so called, because its measuring unit is a cube. It is often called solid meas

The standard of cubic measure is derived from the standard linear



A unit -of cubic measure, therefore, is a cube whose sides are respectively equal in length to the linear unit of the same name.

3. The cubic ton, sometimes called a load, is chiefly used for estimating the cartage and transportation of timber. By a ton of round timber is meant, such a quantity of timber in its rough or natural state, as when hewn, will make 40 cubic feet, and is supposed to be equal in weight to 50 feet of hewn timber.

The cubic ton or load, is by no means an accurate or uniform standard of estimating weight; for, different kinds of timber, are of very different degrees of density. But it is perhaps sufficiently accurate for the purposes to which it is applied.

Note.-For an easy method of forming models of the Cube and other regular Solids, see Thomson's Legendre's Geometry, p. 220.


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259. Wine Measure is used in measuring wine, alcohol, molasses, oil, and all other liquids except beer, ale, and milk. 4 gills (gi.) make 1 pint,

marked pt. 2 pints

1 quart,

qt. 4 quarts

1 gallon,

gal. 314 gallons

1 barrel,

bar, or bbl. 42 gallons

1 tierce

tier. 63 gallons, or 2 barrels 1 hogshead,

hhd. 2 hogsheads

1 pipe or butt,

pi. 2 pipes

tun. Obs. 1. In England, 10 gallons make 1 anker; 18 gallons, 1 runlet; 2 tierces, or 84 gallons, 1 puncheon.

2. Liquids are generally bought and sold by the gallon or its subdivisions, as

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1 tun,

QUEST.- Obs. What is a cube? What is a cubic inch ? A cubic foot ? What is meant by a ton of round timber? 259. In what is Wine Measure used ? Recite the Table.

the quart, pint, &c. Cider and a few cheap articles are bought and sold by the barrel. The capacities of cisterns, vats, &c., are sometimes estimated in hogsheads, and the quotations or prices-current of oils in foreign markets, are usually made in tuns. But the tierce, and the pipe or butt are never used, as such, in business transactions; their contents are given in gallons, quarts, &c.

260. The standard Unit of Liquid Measure adopted by the United States, is the Wine Gallon of 231 cubic inches, which is equal to 58372.1754 grains of distilled water, at the maximum density, weighed in air at 30 inches barometer, or 8.339 lbs. avoirdupois, very nearly. *

Obs. The British imperial standard measure of capacity, both for liquids and dry goods, is the imperial gallon, which is equal to 10 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water, at 62° therinometer and 30 inches barometer, and contains 277.274 cubic inches. It is equal to 1.2 gal. wine measure U. S.



261. Beer Measure is used in measuring beer, ale, and milk. 2 pints (pts.) make 1 quart,


at. 4 quarts

1 gallon,

gal. 36 gallons

1 barrel,

bar. or bbl. 11 barrels, or 54 gallons 1 hogshead,

hhd. Obs. 1. In England, 9 gallons make 1 firkin ; 2 firkins, 1 kilderkin; 2 kilderkins, 1 barrel.

2. The beer gallon contains 282 cubic inches, and is equal to 10.1799321 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water, at the maximum density. In many places milk is measured by wine measure.


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232. Dry Measure is used in measuring grain, fruit, &c.
2 pints (1.)
make 1 quart,

marked qt.
8 quarts

1 peck,

pk. 4 pecks, or 32 qts.

1 bushel,

bu. 8 bushels

1 quarter,

97. 32 bushels, or 4 qrs.

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1 chaldron,


QUEST.—260. What is the standard unit of Liquid Measure of the United States ? How many cubic inches in a wine gallon? 261. In what is Beer Measure used ? Recite the Tabie. 262. In what is Dry Measure used ? Repeat the Table.

* Reports of the Secretary of the Treasury, March, 1831, and June, 1832. Also, Hassler on Weights and Measures.

OBs. In England flour is often sold by weight. A sack is equal to 280 bs., and contains about five imperial bushels.

The following denominations, are sometimes used, viz: 2 quarts make 1 pottle; 2 bushels, 1 strike; 2 strikes or 4 bu., 1 coom; 2 cooms or 8 bu., 1 quarter; 5 quarters, 1 wey or load; 2 loads, \ last.

In London 36 bushels of coal make a chaldron, but in New Castle 793 bushels are said to be allowed for a chaldron. But coal in England and in this country, is now usually bought and sold by weight.

Note.- Wine, Beer, and Dry Measures are often called capacity measures, and are evidently a species of cubic measure.

263. The standard Unit of Dry Measure adopted by the United States, is the Winchester Bushel, which is equal to 77.627413 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water, at the maximum density, weighed in air at 30 inches barometer, and contains 2150.4 cubic inches, nearly.

The Winchester bushel is so called, because the standard measure was formerly kept at Winchester, England. By statute, it is an upright cylinder, 184 inches in diameter, and 8 inches deep.

Obs. 1. The imperial bushel of Great Britain is equal to 80 lbs. avoirdupois of distilled water, at 620 Fahrenheit, and 30 inches barometer, and contains 2218.192 cubic inches; consequently, it is equal to 1.032 bushel U. S., nearly. It is an upright cylinder, whose internal diameter is 18.789 inches, and its depth 8 inches.

The use of heaped measure was abolished by Act of Parliament, in 1835.

2. The standard. bushel of the State of New York, is equal to 80 pounds avoirdupois of distilled water, at the maximum density, at the mean pressure of the atmosphere, and contains 2218.192 cubic inches.*

It is customary, at the present day, to determine capacity measures by the weight of distilled water which they contain. This is evidently more accurate than the former method of measurement by cubic inches.

3. In buying and selling grain, when no special agreement as to measurement or weight, is made by the parties, a bushel, in the State of New York, by Act of 1836, consists of 60 lbs. of wheat, 56 lbs. rye or Indian corn, 48 lbs. of barley, and 32 lbs. of oats.

There are similar statutes in most of the other States of the Union. This is the most impartial method by which the value of grain can be estimated.

QUEST.-263. What is the standard unit of Dry Measure adopted by the Government?

* By the same Act it was declared, that the standard liquid gallon should be 8 lbs., and the standard dry gallon 10 lbs, avoirdupois of distilled water, at its maximum density. But this part of the statute was subsequently repealed, and the previous standard gallon in the office of the Secretary of State, was continued in use.






1 civil year,


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TIME. 264. Time is naturally divided into days and years; the for. mer are caused by the revolution of the Earth on its axis, the latter by its revolution round the sun. 60 seconds (sec.)

make 1 minute, marked 60 minutes

1 hour,

hr. 24 hours

1 day,

d. 7 days

1 week,

wk. 4 weeks

1 month, 12 calendar months, or

yr. 365 days and 6 hrs., (nearly,) The following are the names of the 12 calendar months into which the civil or legal year is divided, with the number of days in each. January, written (Jan.)

the first month, has 31 days February,


28 March,


(Apr.) fourth

30 May, (May) fifth

31 June, (June) sixth

30 July,


(Aug.) eighth

31 September,


30 October,


(Nov.) eleventh

30 December, (Dec.) twelfth

31 The number of days in each month may be easily remembered from the following lines:

Thirty days hath September,
April, June, and November;
February twenty-eight alone,
All the rest have thirty-one ;
Except in Leap year, then is the time,

When February has twenty-nine." Obs. 1. A Solar year is the exact time in which the earth revolves round the sun, and contains 365 days, 5 hours, 48 minutes, and 48 seconds.

2. Since the civil year contains 365 days and 6 hours, (nearly,) it is plain that in four years a whole day will be gained, and therefore every fourth year must have 366 days. This day was originally added to the year, by repeating the sixth of the Calends of March in the Roman calendar, which corresponds with

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QUEST.–264. How is time naturally divided ? Recite the Table. Obs. What is a solar year? low is leap year occasioned ? To which month is the odd day added.

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