5. A lady went a shopping with 1357 dollars in her purse; she paid 17 de dollars for silk, 35 dollars for trimmings, 374 dollars for a shawl, and 14 dollars for a muff: how much money had she left ? 6. A man having 1563 dollars, spent 3657 dollars, and lost 5621 dollars : how much had he lift? 7. What will 563 sheep cost, at 24 dollars per head ? 8. What cost 748 barrels of flour, at 7 dollars per barrel ? 9. What cost 3781 yards of cloth, at 4 dollars per yard ? 10. What cost 1121 lbs. of tea, at 5 shillings per pound ? 11. What cost 430 gallons of oil, at 13 dollar per gallon ? 12. What cost of an acre of land, at 150 dollars per acre ? 13. A man worth 25000 dollars, lost of it by fire: what was the amount of his loss ? 14. A garrison had 856485 pounds of flour; after being blockaded 60 days, it was found that 1}of it were consumed : how many pounds of flour were left ? 15. At 171 dollars per ton, what cost 1031 tons of hay? 16. How many bushels of corn will 1153 acres produce, at 314 bushels per acre ? 17. What cost 6751 tons of iron, at 45% dollars per ton ? 18 If a ship sails 140* miles per day, how far will she sail in 492 days? 19. If a Railroad car should run 413 miles per hour, how far would it go in 12 days, running 101 hours per day? 20. A young man having a patrimony of 12234 dollars, spent of it in dissipation : how much had he left ? 21. At of a dollar per yard, how many yards of satinet can be bought for 124 dollars ? 22. How many pounds of tea, at of a dollar a pound can you buy for 131 dollars ? 23. How many gallons of molasses, at of a dollar per gallon can you buy for 235 dollars ? 24. At 8 pence a pound, how many pounds of sugar can you buy for 1633 pence ? 25. At 57 pence a yard, how many yards of lace can be bought for 279 pence ? 26. A dairy-man has 2293 pounds of butter which he wishes to pack in boxes containing 81 pounds each : how many boxes will it require ? 27. A farmer wishes to put 384 bushels of apples into barrels, each containing 27 bushels : how many barrels will it require ? 28. If 4 yards of cloth make a suit of clothes, how many suits will 141+ yards make ? 29. One rod contains 57 yards : how many rods are there in 210 yards ? 30. A merchant paid 2145 dollars for 57 yards of cloth: how much was that per yard ? A grocer sold 50 barrels of flour for 311} dollars : what did he get per barrel ? 32. A merchant wishes to lay out 6571 dollars for wheat, which is worth 1} of a dollar a bushel : how much can he buy? 33. At 189 cents a dozen, how many dozen of eggs can you buy for 877 cents ? 34. A grocer sold 154 pounds of coffee for 93 cents : how much was that a pound ? 35. A shopkeeper sold 165 yards of satin for 1637 shillings: how much was that per yard ? 36. Bought 19 sacks of wool for 250f dollars : what was that 31. per sack? 37. Paid 5750 dollars for 967 yards of cloth : what was the cost per yard ? 38. Paid 15651 dollars for iron, valued at 374 dollars per ton: how many tons were bought ? 39. Paid 13155 dollars for the transportation of 1286 barrels of pork : what was that per barrel ? 40. Bought 3751 pounds of indigo for 652 dollars : what was the cost per pound ? 41. Paid 16793 dollars for 475 kegs of lard : how much was that per keg ? 42. If an army consumes 5637 pounds of meat per day, how long will 150000 pounds supply it? 43. The cost of making 25} miles of Railroad was 8562351 dollars: what was the cost per mile ? SECTION VIII. COMPOUND NUMBERS. Art. 243. Numbers which express things of the same kind or denomination, are called Simple Numbers. Thus, 3 oranges, 7 books, 12 chairs, &c., are simple numbers. Numbers which express things of different kinds or denominations, as the divisions of money, weight, and measure, are called COMPOUND NUMBERS. Thus, 15 shillings 6 pence; 10 bushels 3 pecks, &c., are compound numbers. Obs. The origin of Compound Numbers is ascribed to the wants and necessities of the earlier ages of the world. Their divisions and subdivisions are generally irregular, and seem to have been suggested by the caprice, or the limited business transactions of the rude ages of antiquity. It is much to be regretted, both on account of simplicity and their adaptation to scientific purposes, that their different denominations were not graduated according to the law of increase in the decimal notation. Note.-Compound Numbers, by some authors, are called Denominate Numbers FEDERAL MONEY. 244. Federal Money is the currency of the United States. The denominations are, Eagles, Dollars, Dimes, Cents, and Mills, 10 mills (m.) make 1 cent, marked ct. 10 cents 1 dime, d. 10 dimes 1 dollar, doll. or $. 10 dollars 1 eagle, E. OBs. 1. Federal money was established by Congress, Aug. 8, 1786. It is based upon the principles of the decimal notation. The law of increase or radix, is the same as that of simple numbers, and it is confessedly one of the most simple and comprehensive systems of currency in the civilized world. Previous to its adoption, English or sterling money was the principal currency of the country. QUEST.-243. What are simple numbers ? What are compound numbers ? 244. Wha is Federal money? Recite the table. Obs. When and by whom was it established ? 2. The names of the coins or denominations less than a dollar, are significant of their value. The term dime, is derived from the French disme, which signifies ten; the terms cent and mill, are from the Latin centum and mille, the former of which signifies a hundred, and the latter a thousand. Thus, 10 dimes, 100 cents, or 1000 mills, make 1 dollar. .3. The sign ($), which is prefixed to Federal money, is called the Dollar mark. It is said to be a contraction of “U. S.," the initials of United States, which were originally prefixed to sums of money expressed in the Federal currency. At length the two letters were moulded or merged into a single character by dropping the curve of the U, and writing the Sover it. Thus, the sum of seventy-five dollars, which was originally written “ U. S. 75 dollars,” is now written $75. 245. The national coins of the United States are of three kinds, viz: gold, silver, and copper. 1. The gold coins are the eagle, half eagle, and quarter eagle. The eagle contains 258 grains of standard gold; the half eagle and quarter eagle like proportions. * 2. The silver coins are the dollar, half dollar, quarter dollar, the dime, and half dime. The dollar contains 4123 grains of standard silver; the others, like proportions.* 3. The copper coins are the cent, and half cent. The cent contains 168 grains of pure copper; the half cent, a like proportion.* Mills are not coined. Obs. The fineness of gold used for coin, jewelry, and other purposes, also the gold of commerce, is estimated by the number of parts of gold which it contains. Pure gold is commonly supposed to be divided into 24 equal parts, called carats. Hence, if it contains 10 parts of alloy, or some haser metal, it is said to be 14 carats fine; if 5 parts of alloy, 19 carats fine; and when absolutely pure, it is 24 carats fine. 246. The present standard for both gold and silver coin of the United States, by Act of Congress, 1837, is 900 parts of pure QUEST.--25. Of how many kinds are the coins of the United States ? What are they? What are the gold coins? The silver coins ? The copper? Obs. How is the fineness of gold estimated ? Into how many carats is pure gold supposed to be divided ? When it contains 10 parts of alloy, how fine is it said to be? 5 parts of alloy? 246. What is the present standard for the gold and silver coin of the United States ? What is the alloy of pold coin? What of silver coin ? * According to Act of Congress, 1837. metal by weight to 100 parts of alloy. The alloy of gold coin is composed of silver and copper, the silver not to exceed the copper in weight. The alloy of silver coin is pure copper. Note. The original standard for the gold coin of the United States by Act of Congress, 1792, was 22 parts of pure gold to 2 parts of alloy; the alloy consisting of 1 part silver and 1 part copper. The original standard for the silver coin was 1489 parts of pure silver to 179 parts of alloy; the alloy being of pure copper. The eagle by the same act contained 270 grains of standard gold. The dollar contained 416 grains of standard silver. The cent contained 11 pennyweights, or 264 grains of pure copper. STERLING MONEY. 12 pence S. qrs. 1 d. 247. English or Sterling Money is the national currency of Great Britain. 4 farthings (gr. or far.) make 1 penny, marked d. 1 shilling, 20 shillings 1 pound, or sovereign, £. 21 shillings 1 guinea. OBS. 1. It is customary, at the present day, to express farthings in fractions of a penny. Thus, 1 qr. is written ; d.; 2 qrs. $ d.; 3 2. The Pound Sterling is represented by a gold coin, called a Sovereign. According to Act of Congress, 1842, its value is 4 dollars and 84 cents. Hence, the value of a shilling is 24} cents; that of a penny 2 cents, very nearly. 3. The letters £. s. d. and q. are the initials of the Latin words, libra, solidus, denarius, and quadrans, which respectively signifiy a pound, shilling, penny, and farthing or quarter. The mark I, which is often placed between shillings and pence, is a corruption of the longs. Note.-1. Sterling money is supposed by some to have received its name from the Easterlings, who it is said first coined it; others think it is so called to distinguish it from stocks, &c., whose value is nominal. 2. The pound is so called, because in ancient times the silver for it weighed a pound Troy. A pound Troy of silver is now worth 66 shillings, or £3, 6s. The Guinea is so called, because the gold of which it was originally made, was brought from Guinea, on the coast of Africa. 248. The following denominations are frequently met with, viz: the Groat=4d.; the Crown=58.; the Noble=6s. 8d.; QUEST.--247. What is Sterling Money? Repeat the Table ? Obs. How are farthings usually expressed ? How is a pound sterling represented? What is its value in dolları and cents ? |