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colour of drinking the king's health; all kinds of old cavalier rioting and debauchery revived; the appearances of religion which remained with some, furnished matters of ridicule to libertines and scoffers *: some who had been concerned in the former changes, thought they could not redeem their credit better than by deriding all religion, and telling or making stories to render their former party ridiculous. To appear serious, or make conscience either of words or actions, was the way to be accounted a schismatic, a fanatic, or a sectarian; though if there was any real religion during the course of this reign, it was chiefly among those people. They who did not applaud the new ceremonies were marked out for Presbyterians, and every Presbyterian was a rebel. The old clergy who had been sequestered for scandal, having taken possession of their livings, were intoxicated with their new felicity, and threw off all the restraints of their order. Every week, says Mr. Baxtert, produced reports of one or other clergyman who was taken up by the watch drunk at night, and mobbed in the streets. Some were taken with lewd women; and one was reported to be drunk in the pulpit ț. Such was the general dissoluteness of manners which attended the deluge of joy which overflowed the nation upon his majesty's restoration !

About this time died the reverend Mr. Francis Taylor, sometime rector of Clapham in Surry, and afterward of Yalden, from whence he was called to sit in the assembly of divines at Westminster, and had a considerable share in the annotations which go under their name. From Yalden Mr. Taylor removed to Canterbury, and became preacher of Christ-church in that city, where I presume he died, leaving behind him the character of an able critic in the oriental languages, and one of the most considerable divines of the assembly. He published several valuable works, and among others a translation of the Jerusalem Targum on the Pentateuch out of the Chaldee into Latin, dedicated to the learned Mr. Gataker, of Rotherhithe, with a prefatory epistle of Selden's, and several others, relating to Jewish antiquities. Among the letters to archbishop Usher there is one from Mr. Taylor, dated from Clapham, 1635. He corresponded also with Boetius, and most of the learned men of his time. He left bebind him a son who was blind, but ejected for nonconformity in the year 1662, from St. Alphage-church in Canterbury, where he lies buried.

• Kennet's Chron. p. 493.

f Life, part 2. p. 288. Dr. Grey questions the truth of the above charge. ' But whoever reads Mr. Baxter's account of the matter, and of the conduct of himself and some of his brethren on the report of it, which rang through the city, will scarcely doubt the fact. But there is force and candour in what Dr. Grey adds concerning the reply of Mr. Selden to an alderman of the long-parliament on the subject of episcopacy. The alderman said, “ that there were so many clamours against such and such prelates, that they would never be quiet till they had no more bishops." On this Mr. Selden informed the house, what grievous complaints there were against such and such aldermen; and therefore, by parity of reasoning, it was his opinion, he said, that they should have no more aldermen. Here was the fault transferred to the office, which is a dangerous error; for not only government, but human society itself, may be dissolved by the same argument, if the frailties or corruptions of particular men shall be revenged upon the whole body. Grey's Examination, vol. 3. p. 267.-ED.

CHAPTER V.

FROM THE RESTORATION OF KING CHARLES II. TO THE

CONFERENCE AT THE SAVOY. 1660.

Before we relate the conference between the Episcopal and Presbyterian divines, in order to a comprehension it will be proper to represent the views of the court, and of the bishops, who had promised to act with temper, and to bury all past offences under the foundation of the Restoration. The point in debate was, " Whether concessions should be made, and pains taken, to gain the Presbyterians ?” The king seemed to be for it; but the court-bishops, with lord Clarendon at their head, were absolutely against it: Clarendon was a man of high and arbitrary principles, and gave himself up to the bishops, for the service they liad done him in reconciling the king to his daughter's clandestine marriage with the duke of York. If his lordship

had been a friend to moderate measures, the greatest part of the Presbyterians might have been gained; but he would not disoblige the bishops; the reasons of whose angry behaviour were, “1. Their high notions of the episcopal form of government, as necessary to the very essence of a Christian church. 2. The resentments that remained in their breasts against all who had engaged with the long-parliament, and had been the cause of their sufferings. 3. The Presbyterians being legally possessed of most of the benefices in church and state, it was thought necessary to dispossess them; and if there must be a schism, rather to have it out of the church than within it;" for it had been observed, that the half conformity of the Puritans before the war, had, in most cities and corporations, occasioned a faction between the incumbents and lecturers, which latter had endeavoured to render themselves popular at the expense of the hierarchy. 4. Besides, they had too much influence in the election of representatives to serve in parliament; therefore, instead of using methods to bring them into the church, says bishop Burnett, they resolved to seek the most effectual ones for casting them out. Here was no generosity, or spirit of Catholicism, no remembrance of past services, no compassion for weak or prejudiced minds, but a fixed resolution to disarm their opponents at all events; so that the ensuing conferences with the Presbyterians were no other than an amusement to keep them quiet, till they could obtain a law for their utter expulsion.

* He lost his sight by the small-pox: but pursued his studies by the aid of others who read to him. His brother, who was also blind, he supported, and took great pains to instruct and win over to serious religion, but not with all the success he desired: he was a man of good abilities, and noted for an eloquent preacher : and his ministry was much valued and respected. He did not long survive the treatment he met with, in being seized and carried to prison ; but was cheerful in all his afflictions. Palmer's Nonconformists' Memorial, vol. 2. p. 57, 58.-Ed.

+ Vol. 1. p. 259, 260, 12mo.

The king was devoted to his pleasures, and had no principles of real religion; his grand design was to lay asleep the former controversies, and to unite both

Protestant and Papist under his government; with this view he submitted to the scheme of the bishops, in hopes of making it subservient to a general toleration; which nothing could render more necessary, than having great bodies of men shut out of the church, and put under severe penal laws, who must then be petitioners for a toleration which the legislature would probably grant; but it was his majesty's resolution, that whatsoever should be granted of that sort should pass in so limited a manner, that Papists as well as other sectaries should be comprehended within it. The duke of York and all the Roman Catholics were in this scheme; they declared absolutely against a comprehension, but were very much for a general toleration, as what was necessary for the peace of the nation, and promoting the Catholic cause.

The well-meaning Presbyterians were all this while striving against the stream, and making interest with a set of men who were now laughing in their sleeves at the abject condition to which their egregious credulity had reduced them. They offered archbishop Usher's model of primitive episcopacy as a plan of accommodation; that the surplice, the cross in baptism, and kneeling at the communion, should be left indifferent*. They were content to set aside the assembly's confession, and let the articles of the church of England take place with some few amendments. About the middle of June, Mr. Calamy, Dr. Reynolds, Mr. Ashe, Mr. Baxter, Dr. Wallis, Dr. Manton, and Dr. Spurstow, waited upon the king, being introduced by the earl of Manchester, to crave his majesty's interposition for reconciling the differences in the church; that the people might not be deprived of their faithful pastors. Honest Mr. Baxter told his majesty, that the interest of the late usurpers with the people, arose from the encouragement they had given religion; and he hoped the king would not undo, but rather go beyond, the good which Cromwell or any other had donet. They laid a good deal of stress on their own loyalty, and carefully distinguished between their own behaviour and that of other sectaries, who had been disloyal and factious. The king replied, that "he was glad to hear of their inclinations to an agreement; that he would do his part to bring them together, but this must not be by bringing one party over to another, but by abating somewhat on both

Kennet's Chron. p. 173. VOL. III.

+ Ibid. p. 182.

E

sides, and meeting in the midway; and that if it were not accomplished it should not be his fault; nay, he said, he was resolved to see it brought to pass *.” Accordingly, his majesty required them to draw up such proposals as they thought meet for an agreement about church -government, and to set down the most they could yield ; promising them a meeting with some episcopal divines in his majesty's presence, when the proposals were ready. Upon this they summoned the city ministers to meet and consult at Sion-college, not excluding such of their country brethren as would attend, that it might not be said afterward they took upon themselves the concluding so weighty an affair f. After two or three weeks' consultation they agreed upon a paper to the following purpose, drawn up chiefly by Dr. Reynolds, Dr. Wortlı, and Mr. Calamy, which, together with archbishop Usher's reduction of episcopacy, they offered to the king, with the following address :

“ May it please your most excellent majesty, “We, your majesty's most loyal subjects cannot but acknowledge it is a very great mercy of God, that immediately after so wonderful and peaceable restoration to your throne and

government (for which we bless his name) he has stirred up your royal heart, as to a zealous testimony against profaneness, so to endeavour a happy composing of the differences, and healing the sad breaches which are in the church. And we shall, according to our bounden duty, become humble suitors to the throne of grace, that the God of peace, who has put such a thing as this into your majesty's heart, will, by his heavenly wisdom and Holy Spirit, assist you herein, that you may bring your resolutions to a perfect effect and issue.

*« In humble conformity to your majesty's Christian designs, we, taking it for granted that there is a firm agreement between our brethren and us in the doctrinal truths of the reformed reli-gion, and in the substantial parts of divine worship, humbly desire,

First, “ That we may be secured of those things in practice of which we seem to be agreed in principle; as,

1. “ That those of our flocks that are serious in matters of their salvation may not be reproachfully handled by words of scorn, or any abusive language, but may be encouraged in their duties of exhorting and provoking one another in their most holy faith, and of farthering one another in the ways of eternal life.

2. “ That each congregation may have a learned, orthodox, and godly pastor, that the people may be publicly instructed by preaching every Lord's day, by catechising, by frequent administering the Lord's supper and baptism ; and that effectual provision by law may be made, that such as are insufficient, negligent, or scandalous, may not officiate.

• Kennet's Chron. p. 183.

+ Baxter, part 2. p. 232.

3. " That none may be admitted to the Lord's supper till they personally own their baptismal covenant by a credible profession of faith and holiness, not contradicted by a scandalous life. That to such only confirmation may be administered; and that the approbation of the pastor to whom the instructing those under his charge doth appertain, may be produced before any person receives confirmation.

4. “ That an effectual course be taken for the sanctification of the Lord's day, appropriating the same to holy exercises both in public and private, without any unnecessary divertisements."

“ Then for matters in difference, viz. church-government, liturgy, and ceremonies, we humbly represent,

“ That we do not renounce the true ancient primitive episcopacy or presidency, as it was balanced with a due commixtion of presbyters. If therefore your majesty, in your grave wisdom and moderation, shall constitute such an episcopacy, we shall humbly submit thereunto. And in order to an accommodation in this weighty affair, we desire humbly to offer some particulars which we conceive were amiss in the episcopal government as it was practised before the year 1640.

1. “ The great extent of the bishop's diocess, which we apprehend too large for his personal inspection.

2. “ That by reason of this disability the bishops did depute the administration, in matters of spiritual cognizance, to commissaries, chancellors, officials, whereof some are secular persons, and could not administer that power that originally belongs to the officers of the church. 3. “ That the bishops did assume the sole power

of ordination and jurisdiction to themselves.

4. “ That some of the bishops exercised an arbitrary power, by sending forth articles of visitation, inquiring unwarrantably into several things; and swearing church wardens to present accordingly. Also many innovations and ceremonies were imposed upon ministers and people not required by law.

“ For remedy of these evils we crave leave to offer, 1. “ The late most reverend primate of Ireland, his reduction of episcopacy into the form of synodical government.

2. “ We humbly desire, that the suffragans, or chorepiscopi, may be chosen by the respective synods.

3. “ That no oaths, or promises of obedience to the bishops, nor any unnecessary subscriptions or engagements, be made necessary to ordination, institution, or induction, ministration, communion, or immunities, of ministers, they being responsible for any transgression of the law. And that no bishops or ecclesiastical governors may exercise their government by their private will or pleasure, but only by such rules, canons, and constitutions, as shall be established by parliament.

Secondly, Concerning liturgy. 1. “ We are satisfied in our judgments concerning the lawful.

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