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tain Willing, who commanded the A. eruirers. Thus, in effect, the continere merican party, and who, although they tal credit in Europe' was principally upwere surprized and totally in his power, held by the fouthern colonies ; and they granted them every condition which they became the medium through which they required, for their present and future re received those supplies, that were not eurity. It seems by the account, as if only indispenfibly necessary to the supthis party had fallen down the Missisippi port of the war, but even to the conductby water ; but from what place is not ing of the common business and affairs specified. It is probable, and seems in of life. The recovery of Georgia, would some degree confirmed by subfequente. not only put an end to that quiet and vents, that the objects of this expedition security upon which so much depended, were not confined merely to the reduc but would open to wide a door into tion of the country in question, but were South Carolina, as could never be effecextended to the eitablishment of an in- tually closed whilft it was held by a vitimate correspondence with the Span- gorous enemy; at the same time, that the iards at New Orleans, and to further vicinity of Charlestown would constantly views upon Wett Florida.

expose it to his enterprize, and that the The state and circumstances of the fate of the whole colony inevitably hung war, as well as of the forces under his upon that of the capital. command, together with the winter sea All these important consequences, and fon, which reitrained, if it did not en. perhaps others, were fully comprehended tirely shut up enterprize, in the northern by the General; and the time and feaand central colonies, afforded an oppor fon serving, he entrusted the conduct of tunity to General Sir Henry Clinton, to the expedition in the land department, wards the clole of the year, to direct his fo far as it was undertaken from Newviews to the southward. The recovery York, to Colonel Campbell, a brave and of the province of Georgia, although in able officer, whofe "misfortune of being itself neither great nor powerful, was in taken with a part of his regiment on their various relpects a matter of the utmostpaffage to America, as well as his subimportance. Its products were indeed sequent fufferings under a long confineconfiderable, and rendered more fo, by ment near Boston, we have formerly seen. their being greatly wanted. In particu. The force appointed to act under this Bar, nothing could be more effential to gentleman's command, consisted of the the support of a feet and army, at fo 7zt

regiment of foot, two battalions of great à distance from their principal Heffians, four of provincials, and a de. fources of supply, than its staple commo

tachment of the royal artillery. dity, rice, which was now dedicated to The transports, with this force, failed the service of our enemies, whether in from Sandy Hook, on the 27th of No. Furope or America. The possession of vember 1778; being escorted by a small this province would alfo, by presenting squadron of ships of war, under the a new barrier to the enemy, relieve Eałt command of Commodore Hyde Park:r. Florida from those conftant alarms, in.' In the mean time, instructions had been cursions, and dangers, to which it had communicated to Major-General Probeen so long exposed. And the two vost, who commanded the troops in East Florida's, with this, would all together Florida, to collect all the force that could form such an aggregate establishment of possibly be spared, from the mere necelArength at the fouthern extremity of the fary defence of the fort and garrison of continent, as could not fail greatly to St. Augustine, and to second the views influence the future operations and for of the expedition, by a rigorous invasion tune of the war.

of the province of Georgia on that fide, Important as these objects were, this and by even endeavouring to penetrate acquisition held out one still greater. fo far, as to be able to co-operate immeThe southern colonies produced those diately with Col. Cainpbell, in his intend. commodities which were most wanted cd attack on the capital town of Savannah, and most valuable in the European inar It does not seem from any thing that kets. France took off a prodigious quan appears, that the Americans were aware tity of their staple products; and the of the object of this enterprize; or, pera quiet and security which they had hihaps, the greatness of the distance, pretherto enjoyed, admited so vigorous a vented their being able to take any mea. cultivation, that their export trade feem- fure for defeating its effect. The fleet ed little otherwise affected by the war, arrived at the island of Tybee, Dec. 234 than wbat it suffered from the Bricile nearthe mouth of the river Sa

Jannah, in fomething under a montla. gave such exact information, of the G. On the following day, the Commodore, tuation of two row gallies, which had with the greater part of the transports, been armed for the defence of the river, got over the bar, and anchored in the as afforded means after for cutting off river, within the Light House of Tybee; their retreat, by any of those numerous but, from some unavoidable circumstaná creeks which intersect that country. ces of delay, it was not until the 27th that Upon this intelligence, the command. they were there joined by the rest of the ers determined to lose no time in the profleet. The commanders being totally secution of their enterprize. Colonel ignorant of the force of the enemy, and Campbell had already leized the opporof the state of defence which they were tunity afforded hy the delay, in making to encounter, seized this opportunity of a new and advantageous arrangement delay, in endeavouring to procure in with respect to part of his force. He telligence. For this purpose, a coinpa

had formed two corps of light infantry, ny of light infantry, with a naval officer which were drawn from the provincial and failors, were dispatched, in two flat battalions, and attached one of these to boats, up one of the creeks, and had the Sir James Baird's light company of the sit fortune of seizing and bringing off two (Highlanders) and the other to Capmen, who afforded the most fatisfactory tain Cameron's company, of the same information. The commanders were regiment. A measure excellently calcu. now acquainted, that the batteries which lated to transfuse the spirit, vigour, and had been construited for thie defence of confidence of veteran troops, equally the river, had been so much neglected, inured to danger and to victory, to those as to be grown out of repair and condi- who, being yet raw, were diffident of tion ; and, that there were very few their own powers, from mere ignorance troops in the town, but that re-inforces of their effect. ments were daily expected. They also

(To be continued.)


From tbe INDEPENDENT CHRONICLE, printed at Boston.
E cannot look back, without terror, finances, the oppreffive absurdity of our mode

upon the dangers we have escaped of taxation, and from the aftonihing enthufi. Our country has stood upon the verge of ruin. asm and perversion of principles, among the Divided against itself; the ties of common people. It is not extraordinary that commounion dissolved; all parties claiming autho tions have been excited. It is strange, under rity, and refufing obedience; every hope of the circumstances which we have been dis. fafety except one, has been extinguished ; and cussing, that they did not appear sooner and thac has reited solely upon the prudence and terminate more fatally. For let it be refirmness of our rulers. Fortunately, they marked, that a feeble government produces have been uninfected with the frenzy of the morc factions than an oppressive one. That times. They have done their duty, and have want of power first makes individuals preshewn themselves the faithful_guardians of tended legislators, and then active rebels. liberty, as well as of power. But much re Where parents want authority, children are mains to do. Sedition though intimidated, wanting in duty. It is not poffible to advance is not disarmed. It is a period of adversity. further in the same path. Here the ways di.. We are in debt to foreigners : Large fums vide : The one will conduct us first to anarare due internally. Our publick debt is for chy, and next to foreign or domestick tyranmidable: The taxes are in arrear, and are ny: The other, by the wife and vigorous exaccumulating : Manufacturers are destitute ertion of lawful authority, will lead to per. of materials, capitals and skill. Agriculture manent power, and general prosperity. I am is despondent : Commerce bankrupt. These no advocate for despotism; but I believe the are themes for factious clamour, more than probability to be much less of its being in. fufficient to rekindle the rebellion. The troduced by the corruption of our rulers, combustibles are collected the mine is pre than by the delusion of the people. Expepared--the smallest fpark may again produce rience has demonstrated that new maximns of en explosion.

administration, are indispenfible. It is not This is a crifis in our affairs, which requires however, by fix penny retrenchments of faall the wisdom and energy of government : Jaries, nor by levying war against any profesFor every man of sense must be convinced fion of men ; nor by giving fubitance and exthat our disturbances have arisen, more from istence to the frothy efences and fantastick the want of power, than the abuse of it; from forms of speculation; nor is it by paper morelaxation, and almost annihilation of our ney, or an abolition of debts ; nor by implifederal government; from the feeble unsyste cit submission to the insolence of ignorant matick, temporising, inconstant character of conventions ; nor by the temporary expediour own State; from the derangeinent of our ents of little minds, that authority can be

rendered stable, and the people prosperous. od the writer may be reduced by his zeal for A well digested, liberal, permanent system the stability of the government, or by his vaof policy is required : And when adopted, nity, to attempt it. must be supported, in spite of fa&ion, against But in the mean time, he would warn his every thing but amendment. And when a.

countrymen, that our Commonwealth stands mendment should be given, let not the Con. upon its probation. If we make a wise ure federation be forgot.

of the advantages which, wich innumerable While the bands of union are so loose, we mischiefs, the rebellion has afforded, our are no more intitled to the character of a na.

government may laft. This is the tide in tion, than the hordes of vagabond traitors. our affairs, which, if taken at the flood, will Reason has ever condemned our paltry pre lead to glory. If we neglect it, ruin will be judices upon this important subject : Now inevitable. It is in vain to expect security that experience has come in aid of reason, in future, merely from the general conviclet us renouce them. For what is there now tion, that government is necessary, and that to prevent our subjugation by foreign power, treason is a crime. It is in vain to depend but their contempt of the acquisition ? It is upon that virtue, which is said to furtain a tiine to render the federal head supreme in Commonwealth. This is the high-flown the United States. It is also time to ren nonsense of political enthusiasm which expe. der the General Court supreme in Massa. Prience daily refutes. It is still more absurd, chusetts. Conventions have too long, and to expect to prevent commotions by conforme indeed too unequally, divided power. Until ing the laws to popular humours, fo that this is effected, we cannot depend upon the fa&tion shall have nothing to complain of, Success of any plans of reformation. When and folly nothing to ask for. this is done, we ought to attempt the reviv. There is in nature, and there must be in al of publick and private credit. . With what the administration of government, a fixed decency, can we pretend, that Republicks rule and ftandard of political conduct. And are supported by virtue, if we presume, upon that is the greatest parmanent happiness of the foulest of all motives, our own advan the greatest number of the people. If wa tage, to release the obligation of contracts ? subticute to the maxims the wild projects

Some measures to provide for the common which fascinate the multitude in daily suc. fafety and defence are necessary. It ought cession, we may amuse ourselves with extol. to be considered how far and in what manner, ling the nice proportions and splendid archthis may be accomplished, by perfecting the itecture of our Republican fabrick. But it discipline of the militia, or by calling them will be no better than a magnificent temple into actual service by rotation. Taxation is of ice, which the first fog of fedition, will a subject of the greatest nicety and difficulty. demolish. When men of the first information, have de Anarchy and government are both before vised a plan, experience only can give it the us, and in our choice. If we fall, we fall ftamp of excellence. The established mode by our folly, not our fate. And we shall eis despicable in the extreme. It is arbitrary, vince to the astonished world, of how small uncertain and unequal; the smallest possible influence to produce national happiness, are tum is taken out of the pockets of the people, the faireft gifts of Heaven ; a healthtul clie and it is kept the longest possible time out of mate; a fruitful foil, and inestimable laws, the trealury of the Commonwealth. when they are conferred upon a frivolous,

These important subjects deserve a distinct perverse and ungrateful generation. investigation. Perhaps at some future peri



Observations on the Manufactures of France,
SONS. de Voltaire says, in 1669, ed, and a multitude of toys and trifles,

forty four thousand looms for ten millions. An English writer gives weaving cloths were computed in that a detail of the export of French manuKingdom. The manfactures of filk be factures to England, and Holland alone, ing brought to great perfection produced when her commerce was at its height, aa commerce of £4,500,000. Mons. mounting in the whole, to £-7,692,000, de Boulainvilliers asserts, that the con This vast exportation to Holland is fumption of gold and silver, in the manu. greatly lessened; but then they have one factures of laces, amounted in 1754 to to the West Indies, Spain, Portugal, and two millions. Another writer says, the especially the Levant, which at that time manufacturers of Lyons fend abroad e. did not exist. It is likewise supposed, very year as many different sorts of work by the lowest calculation that France con. manship in silk, as sell for fifteen mil. tains fixteen or seventeen millions of Jions, and Paris supplies foreign countries people, the home consumption of many. in goldsmith work, jewelry, clocks, factures among whom, with a consideravatches, gold.and lilver lace embroider. ble exportation, must altogether amoure

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to a prodigious annuai total, and forms a ness. Thus in Portugal, where the soil system of industry of great importance in is richest, as on the northern banks of the commerce of Europe,

the Duero, there the inhabitants, are The fagacious Machiavel seems to pooreft. Nature with a small variation think that a rich soil tends to lessen the of more or less, has been almost equally industry of the people, that inhabit it; bountiful to all her induftrious children and if a nation like that of the Switzers in all places. I lay some stress on the is contented with the portion of land it word induftrious ; because it is evident enjoys, and meditates no further ac that the richest soils in themselves, if quittion of territory, than a tract of the cultivator is indolent, and inatten. earth, which yields its productions with tive, do not always produce the largest fome difficulty, will, in the long run, and best crops. In this sense, let us make its inhabitants a wealthy, happy compare England and Sweden, with I. and powerful community. A rich foil, taly and Louisiana, and we shall soon easy to be cultivated, naturally inclines find that the scale preponderates in fathe inhabitants to indolence and remiff. vour of art and labour.

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On the DUTCH LOAN. From a late New-York Paper.

ed States of America, by their High Migh-
are indebted to the respective kings of tinefies the Lords States General of the U.
France and Spain for monies loaned during nited Netherlands, &c. &c. in quality as ef-
the late war, and it has been supposed and af pecially qualified and are authorised by the
ferted by some perfons, that they are also in above mentioned States of America to raise
debted to their High Mightinelles the Lords a loan with any person or persons, states or
the States General of the United Netherlands companies, with subjoined allurance in good
this opinion is erroneous. The United faith to ratify and fulfil all that shall be done
States are indebted to private money, lenders in this reípe&t by him, honourable appear-
in Holland, to the amount of seven millions er, in his above mentioned quality, and by
of florins; but the sovereign of the United virtue of the above mentioned authority.
Netherlands has no interest or concern in This original power being exhibited to the
this debt, excepting such as originates from notary, with authentick copy and translation
the relation which exists between the fove. of the same in behalf of the money lenders,
reign and the subjects I do not remember to be hereafter named, their succetfors or al-
to have seen the publication of either of the signs, and deposited in the custody of the no-
contracts formed by Mr. Adams with the tary, Peter Galenus Van Hole, in Amster-
individuals who loaned these monies the dain.
publick curiosity may be gratified in seeing And the honourable appearer acknowledg-
them; and at this juncture, when our nation ed himself in his aforesaid quality, and thus
has cause to fear the total loss of their credit, in the name and on the part of the United
with the sacrifice of their honour, those who States of America, to be duly and lawfully
read them, and at the same time remember indebted to, and in behalf of Messieurs Wild
the debts we owe to France and Spain, may hem and Jan Willink, Nicolaas and Jacob
be led to reflect on the cofequences to which Van Staphorst, and de la Lande and Fynje,
the want of established revenue, will incvi. a sum of two millions of guilders Dutch cur-
tably expose the ftates in confederacy: rent money, arising from and on account of

The first contract was formed on the 11th so much ready money, received to his perfect day of June 1782, and thereby the United satisfaction, by him the honourable appearer States are bound to repay a loan of five mil in his above mentioned quality, and therelions of florins by certain inftalments, with fore expressly and formally disavowing the an annual interest-the second and last for excuse, de nummis non numeratis, of untold motwo millions of florins, which substantially nies, and thus the whole to be performed on resembles the first, is subjoined, together the following conditions and limitations : with the racitication thereof by Congress, That for the said capital of two millions

of guilders thall be paid annually an interest Tbe original is written on a

at the rate of four in the hundred, the said framped piece of paper of cigbt

interest beginning with the firit day of FeShillings

bruary of this year, until the actual liquida

tion and final accomplishment, on the terms Copy (L. S.) RENDON. and limitations to be hereafter mentioned

and appointed. ON the ninth day of Mareh, in the year That the above mentioned gentlemen, of our Lord one thousand seven hundred and Mefliuers Wilhem and Jan Willink, Nicotighty-four, appeared before me Lambert Jaas and Jacob Van Staphorst, and de la Sythoft, notary publick, duly admitted and Lande and Fynje, shall have the liberty, and, {worn by the honourable Court of Holland, so far as it is neceffary, are hereby empowerdwelling at the Hague, and in presence of ed to divide the above mentioned capital, the underwritten witnesses,

and distribute the same under their firm or The Hon. John Adams, Esquire, Mini fignature, and dispose of to odlers two thou. Aer Plenipotentiary on the part of the Unit land obligacions or bonds of participation,

Feb. 10.

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being numbered 1 to 2000, inclusive, and at. With the obligations,
tested by a notary publick in Amsterdam, distributed in 1793, 100,000
thall be of the same power and value as the
engrossed copy itself.

With a gratification of 8 per cent. 28,0co
I'hat for the advantage of the perfons who
are participators in the above mentioned ob. On tbe FirA of February, 1806,
ligations or bonds of participation, a certain Shall be redeemed 250,000
number of obligations or bonds, each of one With the obligations,
thousand guilders, yielding, likewise, an in. diftributed in 1795, 120,000

370,009 terest of four in the hundred in the year, thall be distributed at the undermentioned With a gratification of 9 per cent 33,300 periods, as premiums to the bearers of such numbers as thall have a right and be entitled On the First of February, 1807 thereto, by a drawing, which is to be thrce Shall be redeemed 500,000 months before, in the presence of a notary

With the obligations, publick and witnefies.

distributed in 1797, 200,000 700,000 First of February CAPITAL. 1985, Fifty obligations in all Florins 50,000 With a gratification of 30 per cent. 70,000 1797, Sixty do.

60,000 1789, Seventy do.

70,000 That for the payment of the yearly inter1791, Ninety do.

90,000 eft and the redeemings or liquidations to be 1793, One hundred do.

100,000 done in confequenceof the above-mentioned 1795, One hundred and twenty do. 120,000 drawing, of which a due publication shall be 1797, Two hundred do.

200,000 made by advertisement in the publick newsThat the obligations on bonds arising papers, the Honourable Appearer in his afrom this drawing, shall be likewise figned foresaid quality, and thus in the name or the by Meffieurs Wilhem and Jan Willink, Ni United States of America, promises and encolaas and Jacob Van Staphorst, and de la gages to remit the necessary monies thereto Lande and Fynje, or the successors of the to the abovementioned gentlemen, Wilhelm said gentlemen, for the time being, and duly and Jan Willink, Nicolaas and Jacob Van attested by a notary, unless the United State's Staphorst, and de la Lande and Fynje, and of America might chuse to pay off and dif their fucceffors, in good bills of exchange, charge in ready money the premiums thus products of America, or in ready money, drawn fix months after the drawing, to do without any abatement or deduction. which the honourable appearer, by these pre That this obligation shall likewise never be fents, reserves the liberty for the above men Subject to any impoft or taxes imposed, or yet tioned States of America.

to be imposed, in the United States of America, That the redeeming the above mentioned or any of them, and there shall also never be obligations or bonds of participation, as also made' or formed by the aforefa United States of the premiums falling thereto, in confe of America, or any of them in particular, any quence of a drawing to be done annually in refolution or convention whereby the exethe presence of a notary publick and wit cution and performance hereof should in any nefles, shall be accomplished at the following manner be prejudiced or hindered, though periods :

it even were, which the Almighty forbid, On the First of February, 1801, that any war, hostility or alienation might as Shall be redeemed 250,000

rise between the United States of America, With the obligations,

or any of them, on the one hand, and the distributed anno 1785, 50,000 300,000 States of these Lands, or any of them, on

the other hand, but on the contrary, that With a gratification at 4 per cent. 12,000 in all circumstances, without any exception,

the contents of these presents shall be puncOn the First of February, 1802, tually performed and executed. Shall be redeemed 250,000

Finally, that the Honourable Appearer, in With the obligations,

his above written quality, promises and en. distributed anno 1787, 60,000

310,000 gages, that this obligation or bond, shall be

as fpeedily as possible ratified and approved With a gratification of 5 per cent. 15,500 by the above-mentioned United States of

America in Congress assembled, and that On the First of February, 1803, the original act of this ratification and apShall be redeemned 250,000

probation with an authentick copy, tranna. With the obligations;

tion of the fame, together with an engrossed diftributed 1789, 70,000 320,COo copy hereof, fhall be deposited in the custo.

dy of a Notary Publick in Amsterdam, to With a gratification of 6 per cent. 19,200 be there kept altogether, for the satisfaction

and security of the money, lenders, and to On the First of February, 1804, remain there fo long until the capital and in. Shall be redeemed 250,000

tereft of the borrowed monies, as likewise the With the obligations,

obligations or bonds arising from the draw. distributed in 1791, 90,000 340,000 ing, as is heretofore appointed and limittec,

be perfectly acquitted and discharged. With a gratification of 7 per cent. 23,800 On failure of a punctual discharging or

acquitting of the capital as well as the interOn tbe First of February, 1805, eft at the appointed periods, the whole capi. Shall be redeemed 250,0QQ

tal, or that part of the same which thall at

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