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cannot then without great difficulty be attained. Much experience and reflection have led the writer of this book to ask whether it is not possible to carry on simultaneously a training in English and in Latin Grammar. To the inflections there is no royal road. These may be taken up at a very early age : and whilst the first study of English is familiarising the boy's mind with the elementary ideas of grammar, he may, by practice in Latin accidence, be gaining retentiveness of memory and a habit of verbal accuracy. It is at this point that the general plan of teaching advocated in the present work may with advantage be employed. Amidst much divergence in detail, the main principles of construction are common to Latin and to English. The experienced teacher, who knows a boy's marvellous faculty for extending and misusing rules, will seek rather to instil principles into his mind—those principles, namely, which are comprised in what is now generally known as the analysis of sentences. Boys of nine or ten show themselves perfectly capable of understanding the different parts of an easy sentence and their relations to one another; and the differences between Latin and English may be so used by the judicious teacher as to give clearness to the rules laid down, and to enable the pupil to avoid misconceptions, which are almost inevitable as long as he has knowledge of one language only, and tests everything by that one standard. When a principle has been explained, the more highly inflected language will foster a habit of precision in the application of the principle, whilst the systematic comparison of English examples will lighten the difficulties presented by the Latin sentences.

a

The plan of this work, then, is briefly this—Teach Latin by means of the General Principles of Analysis. It is not supposed that this plan can claim anything of novelty ; for experience in dealing with similar difficulties may naturally lead to the independent adoption of similar methods. In the absence, however, of a suitable Construing Book, it is very difficult to carry out satisfactorily any such principle. Though many First Books in Latin have been published in this country, not one, as far as I am aware, has been written with the same view, or systematically arranged on the same principle as this. Mr. Mason's Analysis of Sentences Applied to Latin is a book of different scope, being intended to furnish practice in analysis by means of Latin sentences. In fact, it requires no inconsiderable knowledge of Latin, even in the first exercise. This Delectus is intended for those who have only mastered the Latin inflections; and

: its aim is to teach Latin by means of the principles of Grammatical Analysis. I feel sure that in the use of this method will be found a great saving of time, and a great gain of power; that thus the teaching on some familiar points may be made much more scientific; and that great light will be thrown on the mysteries of ordinary parsing. For instance, in the sentence, Balbus factus est rex, it seems to me much preferable to speak of rex as "Nom., Complement to factus est, agreeing with Subject Balbus," or as “Nom., in complementary agreement with Balbus," than to quote the time-honoured rule about “Neuter and Passive Verbs," &c. Again, in the sentence, Affero tibi fratris tui librum, it is surely better for a boy to speak of tibi as “Dative, indirect object to affero;” of fratris as “Possessive Genitive, adjunct to librum ;of librum as “Accusative, direct object to affero ; ” than of tibi as “Dative, governed by affero;" of fratris as “Genitive, depending

, on librum ;” and of librum as “Accusative, governed by

affero.

I am satisfied that a boy, after carefully working through a book of this kind, will attack a Latin author with such skill, vigour, and success as cannot be so speedily and surely attained in

any
other

way, and that he will thus obtain such a mastery over the machinery of language generally as will be of incalculable service to him in the study of other languages, living and dead.

I may say, in conclusion, that it is my intention to use this book at The Leys School, and that I anticipate the happiest results from this course.

W. F. MOULTON.

THE LEYS, CAMBRIDGE.

AUTHOR'S PREFACE.

I HAVE been led to the compilation of this Delectus, partly by the great inconvenience that I have experienced in my own teaching from the want of some such book, and partly by the request of friends whose wishes and judgment have great weight with me, and who think that a work of this kind will prove acceptable to some of those engaged, like myself, in the difficult work of teaching and training the young The first four pages are of home manufacture.

The rest of Parts I. and II. consists of passages selected by myself from various Latin authors.

In the preparing of this work there has been no intention of setting forth a rationale of grammatical analysis, much less of teaching Syntax. All this has been left to the Teacher, who can consequently follow his own plan, and use what grammar he pleases. At the same time, while quite anticipating that the views of many will differ from my own on points of detail, I have thought it convenient to give a table of Elements and Adjuncts, and to add a few examples of the detailed Analysis of Sentences in Latin and English.

I have followed Madvig in calling sum an incomplete Predicate, and the predicative noun &c. its Complement, instead of calling them Copula and Predicate.

The ordinary relations expressed by the oblique cases have been given first, and the other relations brought in subsequently, or, in some instances (Genitive of Reference or Relation, Dativus Ethicus, Greek Accusative, &c.), not noticed at all, except in the notes.

It has not been thought desirable to follow a strictly logical order in the arrangement of the sections; but an endeavour has been made throughout to consult the convenience of the Teacher. Thus, before Simple Sentences have been fully dealt with, Adjective Sentences have been brought in, in order both to lengthen the examples themselves, and also to avoid too long a delay in the introduction of the Relative.

From the Vocabulary have been excluded almost all meanings not called for by the Delectus itself. This has been done, partly to avoid perplexing beginners by the difficulty of selecting suitable meanings, and partly to keep the book within due compass.

In order to the attainment of this latter object, some names of men have been omitted, if the Nominatives are quite clear; as have also those Participles of Verbs and Comparatives and Superlatives of Adjectives and Adverbs which themselves suggest their primary forms. The same desire for reasonable brevity has led to the omission of any explanation of historical,

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