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book will be of but little service; to all others it will prove convenient-to many invaluable.

The new feature of giving a summary of the criminal law is thought to be a very important one. If the law is presumed to be known to every citizen-and it is always administered as if it were known—why should it not be known in fact ?

How often do we find offenders trying to plead ignoranco of the law, and see them suffering its penalties because such a plea is not admitted! The only remedy is to have the law generally known.

The general laws of California, Nevada and Idaho are, in most respects, similar. Where a statute is quoted which is not applicable to each state and territory, the fact of its non-application is noted at the end of each paragraph. The difference in the several statutes is also noted, and where no note of difference appears, the laws are the same. The practice and general laws of Washington, Montana and Arizona Territories are similar to those of California. Oregon has laws unlike those of California; but, in all cases, however, outside of statutory provisions, the law and forms are universally applicable.

The author is aware of the fact that the country is inundated with books of law and forms similar in many respects to this, and so numerous are they that there is scarcely room for another, yet he is not without hope that his book will proclaim its own merits, and make a place for itself in spite of older and more pretentious travelers in the same or similar paths.

His aim has been to furnish a comprehensive, clear and reliable guide for the business community of the Pacific Coast, in all its multifarious departments of industry and trade, and to that end he has devoted his best care and skill and many months of time; and he believes he has produced a work of value, which will prove acceptable and useful. Should this be the case, he will be content, and deem his labor well rewarded.

J. F. COWDERY. SAN FRANCISCO, October, 1870.

PREFACE TO SECOND EDITION.

SINCE the publication of the first edition of this book, the law regulating Patents, Trade Mark, Copyright, Interest, Minors, Special Partnerships, Game, Fish, the Domestic Relations, etc., has been materially altered by legislative actions.

The changes made by Congress in the law of Patents, Copyright and Trade Mark are of the greatest public importance. These and all other changes have been carefully noted, and the whole subject of Patents, Copyright and Trade Mark re-written for this edition..

Neither time nor labor has been spared to make this edition as nearly perfect as a work of this kind can be made, and yet it contains many imperfections.

Not a few typographical, and other, errors unavoidably crept into the first edition, all of which, so far as discovered, are now corrected.

An appendix has been added in addition to the corrections.

J. F. COWDERY.

San FRANCISCO, April, 1871.

PREFACE TO THE THIRD EDITION.

The second edition of this book was issued in April, 1871, and contained the law of the subjects treated of to that date. Since then the State of California has adopted a Code of Civil Procedure, and Civil, Penal and Political Codes. The State of Nevada has compiled her laws, and made some changes. The Oregon Code remains about the same; and the same can be said of the statutory laws of the Territories of the Pacific. The great change has been in the laws of California; and as she, like Rome, gives the law to neighboring States, the aim of the author has been to make this edition conform in every respect to her Codes. To do this, it has been necessary to re-write and re-arrange nearly the whole book, requiring much labor, more patience, and most irksome drudgery.

The method of arrangement, and a great part of the text, and many of the forms are original. The selected matter is taken from the best authors and decisions of courts. Especial attention has been paid to the subject of mines, partnership, domestic relations and the rights of persons. The appendix and supplemental pages of the second edition have been incorporated in the text; a full index added, and all dead matter and useless forms expunged. The result is, a book, in the success of which the author has no pecuniary interest, yet he cordially recommends it to the public as a book of reference, and a guide in business matters.

J. F. COWDERY. SAN FRANCISCO, August 11, 1875.

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