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of the earth, let us rise from it, and consider the body of air with which we are surrounded. What a convincing proof do we here find of the existence of God I

10. Such are the subtilty and transparency of the air, that it receives the rays of the sun and stars, conveying them with inconceivable velocity to objects on the earth, rendering them visible, and decorating the whole surface of the globe with an agreeable intermixture of light, shade, and colors.

11. But still this air has a sufficient consistency and strength to support clouds, and all the winged inhabitants. Had it been less subtile, it would have intercepted the light. Had it been more rarefied, it would not have supported its inhabitants, nor afforded sufficient moisture for the purposes of respiration.

12. What, then, but infinite wisdom could have tempered the air so nicely as to give it sufficient strength to support clouds for rain, to afford wind for health, and, at the same time, possess the power of conveying sound and light? How wonderful is this element! How clearly does it discover infinite wisdom, power, and goodness!

13. But when we cast our eyes up to the firmament of heaven, we clearly see, also, God's handiwork. Here are disclosed to 'us ten thousand magnificent and splendid objects. We dwindle to nothing in comparison with this august scene of beauty, majesty, and glory.

14. Who reared this vast arch over our heads? Who adorned it with so many shining objects, placed at distances so immense from one another, regular in their motions, invariably observing the laws to which they were originally subjected?

15. Who placed the sun at so convenient a distance as not to annoy, but refresh us? Who, for so many ages, has caused him to rise and set at fixed times? Whose hand directs, and whose power restrains him in his course, causing him to produce the agreeable changes of day and night, and the various seasons?

16. The order, harmony, and regularity in the revolutions of the heavenly bodies are proofs so incontestable of the existence of God, that an eminent poet has well said, wAn undevout astronomer is mad."

Questions. — 'Which Is the first example marked In tbh exercise, that Illustrates the rule? Point out other examples, and tell how they should be read. Point out some that are not marked. Point out some examples of the direct question, and t*U how they should be read, &c, &c. What great truth is taught In this exercise?


Rule 6. Language of authority, deriuncia. tion, reprehension, and exclamation, generally requires the falling inflection.

Exception. —When exclamatory sentences become questions, or are expressive of tender emotions, they usually require the rising inflection.


1. Silence! one word more shall make me chide thee,
If not hate thee.

2. Arise, ye Goths, and glut your ire.

3. Roll on, ye stars, — exult in youthful prime;
Mark with bright curves the printless steps of Time.

4. Else, fathers, rise! 'T is Rome demands your help;
Rise, and revenge her slaughtered citizens,

Or share their fate.

Denunciation and Reprehension.

1. Audacious! Die thou shalt, gray-headed ruffian I

2. O monster, monster!
The brute that tears the infant from its nurse,
Is excellent to thee; for in his form

The impulse of his nature may be read;
But thou, so beautiful, so proud, so noble, —
O what a wretch art th6u!

Questions. — What is the rule for the language of authority, denunciation, &c' What is the exception? Give examples of language of authority. Of denunciation and reprehension.


1. How still he is now! how fiery hot! how cold!

2. How terrible, how ghastly, is the visage of death!

3. What affections the violets awake!

4. O time, time! It is fit that thou shouldst thus strike thy murderer to the heart!

5. My friend destroyed! O piercing thought!
O dismal chiwce! In my destruction ruined!
In my sad fall undone!



[The class may point out the examples in this exercise which illustrate the rule, tell the character of the language in each, and how it should be read.]

1. "Now is the time to watch her closely, Mr. Griffith," said the pilot; "here we get the true tide and the real danger. Place the best quarter-master of your ship in those chains, and let an 6fficer stand by him, and see that he gives us the right water."

2. "I will take that office on myself," said the captain; "pass a light into the weather main-chains."

3. "Stand by your braces!" exclaimed the pilot, with startling quickness. "Heave away that lead!"

4. These preparations taught the crew to expect the crisis; and every officer and man stood in fearful silence at his assigned station, awaiting the issue of the trial. Even the quarter-master gave out his orders to the men at the wheel in deeper and hoarser tones than usual, as if anxious not to disturb the quiet and order of the vessel.

5. While this deep expectation pervaded the frigate, the piercing cry of.the leadsman, as he called, "By the mark seven !" rose above the tempest, crossed over the decks, and

Questions. — Give examples of exclamation. Point out an example which Ulustcatus the exception.

appeared to pass away to leeward, borne on the blast like tha warnings of some water-spirit.

6. "T is well," returned the pilot, calmly; "try it again."

7. The short pause was succeeded by another cry, "And a half five!"

8. "She shoals! she shoals!" exclaimed Griffith; "keep her a good full."

9. "Af, you must hold the vessel in command now," said the pilot, with those cool tones which are the most appalling in critical moments; because they seem to denote most prep

, aration and care.

10. The third call of " By the deep four!" was followed by a prompt direction from the stranger to tack. Griffith seemed to emulate the coolness of the pilot in issuing the necessary orders to execute this maneuver.

11. The Tessel rose slowly from the inclined position into which she had been forced by the tempest; and the sails were shaking violently as if to release themselves from their confinement, while the ship stemmed the billows, — when the wellknown Toice of the sailing-master was heard shouting from the forecastle, " Breakers! Breakers, dead ahead!"

12. This appalling sound seemed yet to be lingering about the ship, when a second voice cried, "Breakers on our leebow!"

13. "We are in a bight of the shoals, Mr. Gray," said thecommander. "She loses her way; perhaps an anchor might hold her."

14. "Clear away that Jbest bower!" shouted Griffith through his trumpet.

15. "Hold 6n !" cried the pilot, in a voice, that reached the very hearts of all who heard him; "hold on every thing!"

16. The young man turned fiercely to the daring stranger who thus defied the discipline of his vessel, and at once demanded, "Who is it that dares countermand my orders? Is it not enough that you run the ship into danger, but you must interfere to keep her there? If another word—"

17. "Peace, Mr. Griffith!" interrupted the captain, bending from the rigging, his gray locks blowing about in the wind, and adding a look of wildness to the haggard 'care that he exhibited by the light of his lantern; "yield the trumpet to Mr. Gray; he alone can save us."

18. Griffith threw his speaking-trumpet on the deck, and, as he proudly walked away, muttered, in bitterness, of feeling, "Then all is lost indeed! and, among the rest, the foolish hopes with which I visited this coast!"

19. There was, however, no time for reply; the ship had been rapidly running into the wind; and as the efforts of, the crew were paralyzed by the contradictory orders they had heard, she gradually lost her way, and in a few seconds all her sails were taken aback.

20. Before the crew understood their situation, the pilot had applied the trumpet to his mouth; and, in a voice that rose above the tempest, he thundered forth his orders. Each command was given distinctly, and with a precision that showed him to be master of his profession.

21. The helm was kept fast; the head yards swung up heavily against the wind; and the vessel was soon whirling round on her heel with a retrograde movement .

22. The ship fell off slowly before the gale, and bowed her yards nearly to the water, as she felt the blast pouring its fury on her broadside, while the surly waves beat violently against her stern, as if in reproach at departing from her usual manner of moving.

23. The voice of the pilot, however, was still heard, steady and calm, and yet so clear and high as to reach every ear; and the obedient seamen whirled the yards at his bidding in despite of the tempest, as if they handled the toys of their childhood.

24. When the ship had fallen off dead before the wind, her head sails were shaken, her after yards trimmed, and her helm shifted, before she had time to run upon the danger that had threatened, as well to leeward as to windward.

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