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he used to copy his Bums off from our slates?" He sat down on his plow, and thought the matter over. "Haven't / as much mind as my brother? I know I have; and I 'll prove it."

7. His mathematical studies at school had begun and ended with Arithmetic; but he now procured a copy of BourdorCs * Algebra, and went to work, not as before, expecting to accomplish nothing, but in earnest, with all his might! The way seemed dark for several weeks; but his purpose was indomitable.

8. His brother had not solved all the problems in Bourdon, without assistance; but he would do it, cost what it might . And he did it. He conquered every difficulty, without so much as a hint to aid him from any quarter.

9. His father now gave him the privilege of pursuing a course of study at college; but he proudly declined the offer. He had established the fact that his mental powers were at least equal to those of his brother; and his ambitiou was satisfied. .

10. - Such is the difference between mental faculties lying dormant, and the same faculties stimulated to action. I have introduced a strong case; but there is not a school in the land, which does not, in some degree, illustrate the same law.

Questions. — Which are the first two words that are marked as emphatic in the first paragraph? Why are they emphatic? Which are the next two? Why are they emphatic? Point out the other emphatic words that are marked in the piece, and tell why they are emphatic. What other words not marked are emphatic by contrast! What important principle is illustrated in this exercise?

* Hour-don', a French mathematician of some note, several of whose works hare been translated into English.



An Inflection, in reading or speaking, is an upward or downward turning or sliding of the voice.

There are properly but two inflections: the Rising Inflection, indicated thus, [ ' ]; and the Falling Inflection, indicated thus [ * ]. Besides these two inflections, there is sometimes a wave-like movement of the voice, called the circumflex, and marked thus, [ ~]; and a slightly varied movement, called the monotone, marked thus, [ - ].

Although each of the preceding marks indicates a movement oi the voice which is always the same in kind, yet there are certain modifications, or variations, in degree and significance, that must be made by the judgment and good taste cf the reader; otherwise, he will fall into a kind of mechanical variety, which is fatal to that ease and gracefulness so essential to good reading.

Definitions And Explanations

1. The Rising Inflection is an upward turn or slide of the voice; as, Will you recite your lesson to day?

2. The Falling Inflection is a downward turn or slide of the voice; as. Where did Newton live?

3. The Circumflexes the union of the rising and falling inflections on the same syllable

Questions. — What is an inflection in rending or speaking? What are the two inflections which are used in reading? How is the rising inflection indicated? How, the falling? What other movements of the voice lire there, and what are they called? How is the circi.mflex indicated? How, the monotone? What is the remark on certain modifications of the voice? What is the rising inflection? What is the falling? What is the circumflex?

or word, producing a slight undulation or wave of the voice; as, We are not all rich.

4. The Monotone is nearly a protracted sameness of sound on successive syllables or words; as, Honor thy father and thy mother.

The voice, in the rising inflection, usually turns upward from the general pitch, but sometimes from a point a little below the general pitch, and gradually rises to a height, proportioned to the required degree of emphasis; and, in the falling inflection, it usually commences above the general pitch, at a height proportioned to the degree of emphasis required, and falls down to it, and often a little lelow, thus coinciding with what was formerly called the cadence.

The falling inflection, when attended with strong emphasis, is sometimes mistaken for the rising; the circumflex, when slight, so nearly coincides with the rising inflection that it is frequently mistaken for it; or the rising inflection, and sometimes {he falling, is mistaken for the circumflex. When there is doubt which has been used, let the doubtful word be tested thus : —

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The inflexion usually begins on the accented syllable of the emphatic word; and, although the influence is perceptible throughout the entire clause or sentence in which it occurs, yet, for all practical purposes, it is necessary to mark those words, only, which are most emphatic.

The Eisinq And Falling Inflections.

Rule 1. Direct questions, or those that can be answered by yes or no, generally require the rising inflection, and their answers the falling.

Questions.—What Is the monotone? What is said of the voice in the inflections? When is the falling inflection sometimes mistaken for the rising? For what is the circumflex sometimes mistaken? The rising or falling inflection % How may the doubtful word be tested? Where does an Inflection usually begin in a sentence? How far does its influence extend? What words marked? What is the rule fo> direct questions? Give an example.


The movement or direction which the voice takes, in reading direct questions and their answers, is exhibited to the eye by the diagrams in the first four of the following examples.

Examples. I

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5. Is the earth pdrfectly round? It is n6t.

6. Can you find the North Stiir? I think I can.

7. Does the sun move? It does.

, 8. Did Galileo * invent the telescope? He did.

9. Did Galileo discover the principle of gravit&tion? No; it was New'ton.

10. Can you inform me who discovered America? It was Columbus, f

11. AVas it inhibited at that time? It was.

Questions. —What is the design of the diagrams in the first four examples? Read the first example. What is the inflection required on friend? Why? Whst is the inflection required on the answer, No? Why? Read the second example, &e. Who was Galileo? What is said of Columbus?

* Gal-i-le'o, a distinguished astronomer, was born in Pisa in Tuscany, in 1564; and he died in 1642.

t Co-lum'bus (Christopher) was born in Genoa in Italy, in the year 1435 or 1436. His discovery of America in 1492 has signalized- him as one of the greatest men men ttoned in history. He died in 1506, in the 70th year of his age.

12. Can you tell me -where Dr. Franklin* was born? In Boston.

Exception.—When a direct question is not at first understood, and is repeated with earnestness and emphasis, the repetition takes the falling inflection.


1. Are you going to Cambridge f to-day? I do not understand you. Are you going to Cambridge to-day?

2. Was Franklin a native of Boston? Will you speak a little louder? Was Franklin a native of Boston?

3. Can you tell who invented the steam-engine? I cannot hear you. Can you tell who invented the steam-engine?

4. Was Milton % the author of " Paradise Lost"? Please repeat your question. Was Milton the author of " Paradise Lost"?

SELF-EX AM i:N .A !'ION. —Miss Talbot.

[The scholar may point out the direct questions in this exercise, and their answers when given, and tell how they should be read.]

1. That we may be better in future, let us examine a little our conduct for the last twenty-four hours. In general, perhaps, we can recollect nothing much amiss in it; but let us descend to particulars. Things which appear at first sight very trifling are often very faulty.

2. Perhaps we have so fond a conceit of ourselves as to think that we can never be in the wrong. Has any trouble happened in the family (luring the day? Perhaps we may

Questions. — What exception is here given to the general rule for reading direct questions? Read the examples. What is mid of Franklin? What is said of Cambridge? Who was Milton?

* Frank'lin, (Benjamin,) an eminently distinguished moralist, statesman, and phi. osopher. He was born in Boston, Mass., in 1706; and he died in 1790, aged 84 years.

t Cam'bridge (in Mass.) is distinguished for its University, which was founded in 1636, and is the oldest and best endowed of any in this country.

% Mil'ton, (John ) one of the most eminent of the English poets, was born in Lonion, in 1608. His greatest work, a work which has immortalized his name, was hia

Paradise Lost." He died in 1674, having nearly completed his 66th year.

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