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Note. — Let the class- be drilled upon this exercise until every member is familiar with all the diphthongs, digraphs, and tiiphthongi, and can pronounce them correctly at sight.
A Diphthong is a union of two vowels or vocals in the same syllable, both of which are sounded. There are but four in our language, as follows: —
Oi, as in boil,- coin, noise, moist, point,joint; oy, as in boy, cloy, joy. toy, voi/'age'; ou, as in a-bout', bound, cl -wil, found, rnowth, out, pounce, vouch; ow, as in bote, cow, crowd, browse, owl, scowl, town. . ',
A Vowel Digraph is a union of two vowels or vocals in the same syllable, only one of which is sounded.
Note—Most of the vowel digraphs may be found in-the following examples; and the vowel or vocal which is marked in each has the sound designated by the mark; and the other is silent.
1. In at, a has its long sound, as in aid, praise; its short, as in plaid; its modified long, as in Air, fair ; i, jts long sound, as in aisle; its short, as in cur'taln, mount'aln. In au, a has its broad sound, as in fault, pi^se; its' Italian, as in ii«nt, flaunt. In aw, a has its broad sound, as in clnw, fawn. In ay, a has its long sound, as in day, spray.'
2. In ea, e has its long sound, as in fear, lead; its short, as in bread, head; its sound in term, as in heard; a, its long sound, as in break, great; its modified long, as in bear, tear; its Italian, as in heart. In ei, e has its long sound, as in de
Qustions. — What is a diphthong? How many are there in our language? Name them, and give examples of each? What is a vowel digraph? What is said in the note? What vowel digraph in the word aid, &c.? Which letter is silent? What sound has a? What vowel digraph in the word plaid J Which letter is silent? What sound has a .' What vowel digraph in the word air I Which letter is silent? What sound has a? &c., &o.
cCivc ; its short, as in heifer; i, its long sound, as in height; its short, as in for'feit. In eo, e has its I ng sound, as in people; its sk >rt, as in leop'ard; o, its long sound, as in yeo'man. In en, u has its long sound, as in feud ; its Sound iu rude, like, or nearly like, oo in room, as in rheu-mat'ic.
3. In ia, i has its short sound, as in citr'rlagc; a, its short sound, as in martial. In ie, e has its long sound, as in field; its short, as iu friend; i, its long sound, as in cries; its short, as in sieve.
4. In oa, a has its Irvad sound, as in groat; o, its long sound, as in boat. In oe, o has its long sound, as in foe; its long oo sound, as in shoe. In oi, i has its short sound, as in con-nols-seur'. In ou, o has its long sound, as in cowrt; its short, as in howgh ; its long oo sound, as in soup ; u, its middle or obtuse sound, as in could; its shoit sound, as in doub'le; its sound mflrl, as in courfe-ous. In ow, o has its long sound, as in blow; its short, as in knowl edge.
5. In ua, a has its Italian sound as in guard. In we, e has its short sound, as in guest; u its long sound, as in due; its sound in rude, like, or nearly like, oo in room, as in true. In ui, i has its long sound, as in guide; ils short, as in build ; u, its long sound, as in juice; its sound in rude, as in fruit. In uy, y has its long sound, as in buy.
A Triphthong is a union of three vowels or vocals in the same syllable; as, ieu in a-diew'; saw in beau; iew in view.
THE FALLING LEAF.— Youth's Companion.
[Let the pupil point out the diphthongs and vowel digraphs in this piece, and tell how they should be pronounced.]
1. A few weeks ago, Nature was robed with her mantle of green, in all the freshness and beauty of spring. The fields
Question.— What is a triphthong? Give examples.
were thickly covered with bountiful crops of ripening grain. The forests, clad in beautiful verdure, were vocal with notes of praise which were warbled forth by feathered songsters concealed in the dark foliage.
2. Both man and beast, wearied by the oppressive heat, sought to be refreshed beneath the cooling shade of some friendly tree. But Summer has been obliged to yield her sway to the nipping frosts and chilling winds of Autumn.
3. Already has the change begun; the fields, no longer waving with the rich productions of the earth, look desolate and drear; and the sweet warblers of the grove are leaving for the more genial climes of the sunny South.
4. But the most interesting autumnal scene is the fading and falling leaf. Almost imperceptibly the change comes on from shade to shade, till we behold the forest trees, covered with sear and'yellow leaves withered by the autumnal frosts.
5. The sap of their existence being withdrawn, they can remain no longer upon the waving branch, but must fall to the earth. Their beauty will no longer call forth.expressions of admiration; but, trodden under foot, they must decay and be remembered no more. *
6. -Such is life. As the flower of the field, and as the grass that groweth up, are cut down and withered, — as the » forest leaves fall to rise no more, — so are we passing away into silence and forgetfulness.
7. One beautiful morning, a few days since, I wandered into the village graveyard. The stillness of death pervaded the place; and every thing around seemed to utter one common sentiment . The wind, sighing mournfully through the trees, the rustling of the falling leaf, all seemed to whisper, "Passing away!"
8. My attention was arrested by a newly made grave. Shrubs of various kinds had just been planted around it by the hand of affection. On the grassy mound lay a handful of withering flowers, and upon the marble slab were inscribed these words: "We all do fade as a leaf."
9. How touchingly beautiful and appropriate! Other inscriptions around told that those of all ages lay sleeping beneath them. The infant, the expectant youth, and those in the vigor and strength of middle life, as well as of bending age, wither and fall like the fading leaf!
Questions. —What is eau in the word beauty in the first paragraph? Which letters are silent? What sound has u? Give its element. What is ie in the wonljitlfl? Which letter is silent? What sound has e? Give its element . What is ou in bountiful? Give its element, &c, &c. What moral truth are we taught by this lesson?
Note. — The most common defects in pronunciation consist principally of such errors as are specified in the following rules. They are often heard in familiar conversation, and, unless early corrected, will soon become a fixed habit both in reading and speaking. It is therefore very important that teachers should keep these rules before their pupils by a frequent reference to them, and by a daily exercise upon such examples as are here given.
Rule 1. Avoid suppressing letters in pronunciation; as, frien for friend; gues for guests; pr-mote' for pro-mote'; novl for noVel; kitch'n for kitch'en, &c.
Pronounce The Following.—Hand, bends, land'mark; sects, crept, ghosts; pre-cise', pro-found', pro-tect'; na'tal, grav'el, civ'il; hy'phen, mat'in, ser'mon.
Rule 2. Avoid substituting the sound of one letter for that of another; as, ter'rwo-ble for ter'ri-ble; grandest for grandest; a-gmst'ybr against'; wp-pin'ion for o-pin'ion, &c.
Pronounce The Following.— Cir'cu-lar, sens'i-ble, ob'sti-nate, pop'u-lous, cal'cu-late, par-tic'u-lar, stron"gest, an-tag'o-nist, bed'lam, e-ter'nal, chap'man, stead'y, sys-tem-at'ie.
Questions. — What is the design of these Special Rules in Articulation? What is She first rule? Give the examples. Point out the error. Pronounce the words uu. •lerlt. What is the second rule? &c., &o.
Rule 3. Avoid suppressing syllables in pro' ounciation; as, li'bry for li'bra-ry; in'trest for in' ter-est; b'lieve for be-lieve', &c.
FjtONOUNCE The FOLLOWING. — Knav'cr-y, pref'er-ence, moek <* er-y, suf'fer-ing, lit'er-a-ry, ev'e-ry, tem'per-ate, mis'er-a-ble, com', pa-ny, a-rith'me-tic, cu'ri-ous, be-liev'ing, ut'ter-ance, ge-og'ra-phy.
Rule 4. Avoid pronouncing ow like er; as, feller for fellow; vae&d'er for mead'ow; piller for pillow, &c.
Pronounce The Following. — Har'row, ghad'ow, tallow, menow, willow, win'now, wid'ow, fur'row, to-nior'row, sal'low, fel'low-ship, soilrow-ful.
Rule 5. Avoid pronouncing ing like in; as, speak'in foi speak'ing; stud'y-in for stud'yxag, &c.
Pronounce The Following.—Fan'ning, bud'ding, rubbing, talk'ing, spell'ing, step'ping, spit'ting, toss'ing, teas'ing, sav'ing, sor'irow-ing, un-der Btand'ing, num'ber-ing.
Rule 6. Avoid pronouncing ess like iss; as, elear'm'ss for clear'ness; boundliss for boundless; duch'iss for duch'ess; em'priss for em'press, &c.'
Pronounce The Following. — Base'ness, dark'ness, fond'ness, doubtless, dreamless, endless, matchless, seam'stress, host'ess, huntfress, hopeless-ness, fool'ish-ness.
Rule 7. Avoid pronouncing a or e, in the last syllable of the following classes of words, like u; as, clear'wnce for clearance; con'stwnt for con'stant; fer'vwnt for fer'vent; seg'mwnt for seg'ment, &c.
Pronounce The Following. — Al-low'ance, an-noy'ance, fop