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so lon<7 from his rejrular work, that he expressed not a word of regret, nor asked to remain longer at school, but cheerfully commenced his labors again ; and whenever he had any leisure time, he would spend it in reading, or in reviewing the studies of the past winter; so fearful was he of losing what he had - gained.

11. After he became a young man, he continued to -pursue his studies, bearing his own expenses, until he had made such proficiency as to be competent to teach school himself; and the same perseverance and energy, which he had exhibited in acquiring his education, made him a successful and popular teacher.

12. Gilbert's father now regarded him with paternal pride, having long since laid aside, his pro/u dices and peculiar views in regard to an education for the poor; for he has lived to witness its advantages, and also to see his own son. a prominent member of society, and one of the leading men of the town in all enterprises of usefulness and benevolence.

Questions. — How may this practical exercise be studied? What is the letter t in the first word of the exercise? Pronounce the word. What sound has thei? Give its element. What is e in the second word? Pronounce the word. What sound has the e? Give its element, &c., &c. What is b in Gilbert in the sixth paragraph'? Pronounce the word. Now give the element of 6. What is m in must in the same paragraph? &c, fcc What important lesson may you learn from the example of Gilbert i What is said of Boston?


A Substitute is a single letter, or two or more letters, used to represent an elementary sound, or a modified elementary sound, which is peculiar to some other letter.

It will be seen, by the following table, that the number of substitutes is not so large as might at first be supposed. We believe and maintain, that in all cases where two or more letters are used as a substitute, they collectively represent an elementary sound which is not peculiar to any one of them, when taken by itself, but to some other letter. Thus we regard at, in said, as a substitute for short e, because these letters in combination represent the element of short e, which is not peculiar to either of them. If the element in question is peculiar to either of the letters used to represent it, we regard that letter alone as the representative of the element, and the others as . silent . Thus, eo in people is not a substitute for long e, because the element heard in the pronunciation is peculiar to the letter e alone, and the o is silent.

Care should also be taken not to confound the obscure sound of unaccented vowels or vocals with that of the real substitutes, which are given in the following table, and which have been authorized by long-established usage Thus, in the word pal'ate, the a in the last syllable approaches very near the elementary sound of short e; but, when examined carefully, it will be found to be the long sound of a, a little obscured. There should be a proper discrimination here, and all faulty articulation of this kind should be carefully avoided.

Rule. — When substitutes are used, they must have the same sounds as the elements for which they stand.

Questions. — What is a substitute? What combination of letters may be regarded as substitutes? What combinations should not be regarded as substitutes? What caution is here given? What is the rule respecting substitutes?


II. Table Of Vowel Or Vocal Combinations. Note.—In this table, each vocal element, and each modified vocal element, is combined in words with all the sub-voc.ils and aspirates with which it is known to combine in the language. Pupils may first be required to pronounce these words with an explosive and forcible utterance, both individually and in concert, until the elements of the Italicized letters can be easily and perfectly enunciated in combination. They may next carefully pronounce the Italicized combinations, and spell them by elements, and then spell by elements as many of the entire words as may be necessary to familiarize each one with this important exercise. Examples of vowel or vocal substitutes are also given in immediate connection with the elements they represent.

1. Long a, as in ale. Bate, date, fate, ffate, hate, Jane,

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* C, a substitute for k, is used to represent the element of k in this table when the required vowel or vocal combination with k can not be found.

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* Some may regard o in this class of words as a substitute for broad a. t C in Lucia is a substitute for sh.

X Some regard u in this class of words as a substitute for oo, as in moon.

rheum, prune, rane, ruse, brute, your, sure [shure], * truth. Substitute. — Ew in brew, drew, crew, grew, strew, shrew, shrewd, &c.

19. Middle or obtuse u, as infulLBush, purf'ding, full, sug'a.r, * Aus-sar', could, bull, pull, puss, put, would, btrtcA'er, «/iowld. Substitutes. — 0 in wolf, wolfish; oo in wool, wood, stood, good, '&o.

20. Short u, as in but Bust, rfust, fun, gun, hut, just, cull, lull, must, nut, pun, rut, sup, tun, twl'gar, yug, buzz, sung, chub, shut, thumb, thus. Substitutes. — 0 in son, won, love; oo in blood, flood; eo in pig'eon, sur'geon; io in fash'ion, le'gion, por'potse, &c.

21. Modified short u, as in fur. But, durst, furl, gur'gle, » hurt, cur, lur\, murk, nurse, purse, purl, surd, turn, churn,

7%urs'day, whur. Substitute. — 0 in worm, work, worse, worth, &c.

22. Diphthong oi, as in oil. f—Boil, doit, foil, goi'ter, hoist, joint, coin, loin, moist, noise, point, roil, soil, toil, void, ben-zo«n', choice. Substitute. — Oy in boy, joy, coy, an-noy', roy'al, toy, voy'age, &c.

23. Diphthong ou, as in our. — -Bound, doubt, foul, gout, house, jounce, count, loud, mount, noun, pout, rout, south, touse, vouch, wound, zounds, cAouse, shout, mouth, thou. Substitute. — Ow, in bow, down, fowl, gown, how, cow, now,

v town, &c.

Questions.— How are the vowel or vocal and modified vowel or vocal elements combined in table second? What direction is given for studying this table? What combinations are given in the first example 1 Pronounce the words. Pronounce the combinations in Italics. Spell tbe combinations by elements; thus, b-a, ba; d-5, da, &c. Spell the words by elements: thus,b-a-t, bat; d-a-t, dat, &c. What substitutes has long o? What combinations are given in the second example 7 Pronounce the words. Pronounce the combinations in Italics, &c.

* 5 in sure and sugar is a substitute for eh.

t In the dipththong oi, the ear will easily recognize the element of broad a and of short i combined; and, for this reason, it is excluded from the " Table of Elementary sounds." It is not inappropriate, however, to introduce Jt in this "Table of Combinations."

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