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23. Ee, unmarked, usually has a long sound, as heard in the words feet, green, peer.
24. Oi, oy, ou, and ow, unmarked, are diphthongs, as in oil, boy, out, now.
25. The cedilla [ , ] under c denotes that it has its soft sound like *, as heard in the words cede, cite, mer'cy.
26. A horizontal mark [-] drawn through c denotes that it has its hard sound like 7c, as heard in the words -call, «on-«ur', sue-cess'.
27. Ch, when unmarked, has the sound that is heard in the words much, child, touch'ing.
28. Ch, with the cedilla [ 4] under the c has a soft sound like sh, as heard in the words chaise, chev-a-lier', ma-chine'.
29. Ch, with a horizontal mark [-] drawn across the c, has a hard sound like 7c, as heard in the words chord, cho'rus, ep'o«h.
30. A horizontal mark [-] over g, denotes its hard sound, as heard in the words get, ti'ger, be-gln'.
31. A point [ • ] over g denotes that it has a soft sound like J as heard in the words gem, en'gine, el'e-gy.
32. S, unmarked, has its sharp sound, as heard In the words same, yes, vest.
33. S, with this mark [ ± J under it, has a soft or sub-vocal sound like as heard in the words hag, a-muge', re-gide'.
34. Th, when unmarked, has a sharp or aspirate sound, as heard in the words thing, breath, sym'pa-thy.
35. Th, united by a horizontal mark [-J, has a flat or sub-vocal sound, as heard in the words thine, smooth, witk'er.
3f>. A horizontal mark [ - ] under n denotes that it sounds more or less like ng. When it precedes g in a separate syllable, its sound is essentially the . same as ng, as in the words an'ger, fin'ger, lin'ger; but, when it precedes k or its equivalents, the element of g is scarcely discernable, as heard in the words link, un'cle, con'quer.
37. unmarked, has the sound of 7cs, as heard in the word tax, except at the beginning oi words or syllables, when it has the sound of z, as in xan'thic, xe'bec, xys'ter.
38. X, with a horizontal mark [ - ] under it, sounds like.gz, as heard in the words ex-ist', ej-ample, aux-il'ia«ry.
31). Silent Letters, except final e when the preceding vowel in the syllable is long, and c before 7c in the same syllable, are printed in Italics; as in peace, cl€anse, black-board.
40. The Mark of Accent [' J in a word denotes the syllable which is required to be pronounced with a more forcible utterance than the rest; as in fam'i-ly, dis-par'-age, dis-con-tent'-ed.
Questions. — What does ee, unmarked, denote? What are oi, oy, ou, and oto, when unmarked? What does the cedilla under c denote? A horizontal mark drawn through c? Ch, unmarked? Ch, with the cedilla under the c? Ch, with a horizontal mark across the c? What does a horizontal mark over g denote? A point over g 1 What sound has s when unmarked? S, with a perpendicular on a horizontal mark under it? 2'At when unmarked? Th, united by a horizontal mark? Whajt does a horizontal mark under n denote? What sound has x when unmarked? X, with a horizontal mark under it? What is said of silent letters? What does the mark of accent denote?
Elementaky Sounds And Substitutes.
An elementary sound, or element, of a letter, i» a simple sound made by one position of the organs of speech.
When a vowel or vocal element occurs at the beginning, mi '.die, or end of an unaccented syllable, the pure element is usually more or less obscured, as heard in the proper pronunciation of long e in the first syllable of the -word e-vent', of short a in the last syllable of re-vi'val, and of Italian a in the last syllable of da'ia.
In giving the obscure sound of a vowel or vocal, therefore, care must be taken not to substitute the element of another letter in its place.
In the following table, the letters of the alphabet are divided into three classes, or kinds; viz., vowels or vocals, consonants as subvocals, and consonants as aspirates. These are all the classes necessary for practical purposes; and any further division or classification, it is believed, would only tend to confuse and perplex the learner, and thus render the study of the exercise tedious and irksome, if it did not, indeed, place it entirely beyond his comprehension. In accordance, therefore, with this simple and natural division, the letters, or elementary characters, are conveniently arranged on one page, and afford the pupil an interesting and profitable exercise in enunciating the elementary sounds which they severally represent.
The pupil should be drilled upon this table until he can readily distinguish the peculiarity of each sound when given by others, and can also enunciate it with perfect ease and clearness himself.
Ktjle 1. A clear and distinct enunciation should be given to the elementary sounds employed in vocal utterance.
Questions.—What is an elementary sound, or element, of a letter? What is said of a vowel or vocal element in unaccented syllables? What caution is given in regard to enunciating ihe obscure sound of a vowel or vocal? How are the letters of the alphabet divided in the following table? Why is this division believed to be all that is necessary for practical purposes? What la said of drilling the pupil on this table? What is the rule respecting tlementary sounds?
I. Table Op Elemental Sounds.
Note. — Let the class, either individually or in concert, or both, first distinctly pronounce the word containing the element, and then enunciate the pure elementary sound of the given letter by itself, varying the intensity of the voice as the teacher may think proper; thus, die, d; arm, d; all, a, &c.
Questions How should the table of elementary sounds be studied? How
many vocal elements are there? . What letters represent them? How many sub-vocal elements are there? What letters represent them? How many aspi' rate elements are there? What letters represent them? How many elements has the letter al Givo them. How many the letter et &c.? Repeat all the elements in their order; thus, a, a, n, &c. Combine each sub-vocal and aspirate with all the vocal elements; thus, ba, bii, ba,, &c. Reverse the order Of the elements; thus, ab, ab, ah, &c.
THE ADVANTAGES OF KNOWLEDGE.* — TouTH'g Comp.
[In the following practical exercise on the preceding table, the class may first name the division of the alphabet to which the Italicized letter belongs, next pronounce the word or syllable in which it occurs, and then give its elementary sound.]
1. Gilbert's parents were uneducated; therefore they could not appreciate the importance of "learning." Gilbert had attended school some when he was a- small boy, and could read pretty well, and write a little. His father thought that this was sufficient. He said that "he did not want his boy to be poring over, his books when he ought to be at work."
2. Gilbert thought differently. Young as he was, he had seen the advantages of learning in others; and he regarded! it as a useful and a noble acquisition. He longed to obtain more of it; and he ventured to intimate this to his father one evening.
3. "You must not trouble yourself about'such matters," said his father, patting him on his cheek; "education is for the rich. What good will learning do you, since you are to be neither a lawyer nor a minister?"
4. So Gilbert was obliged to give up all hope of going to school that winter; but he thought that his father would not object to his reading provided he did not neglect his work. He took much pleasure in perusing the Bible, a small portion of which was read every morning at family devotions?
* The reading lessons in Parfr First are Introduced for the purpose of making a practical application of the rules and principles of elocution, and also to suggest the manner of teaching Part Second. A part of each lesson is marked to show the application of the rule or table under which it occurs; and a part is left unmarked for the purpose of exercising the judgment of pupils in making the application for themselves. The questions, also, are merely suggestive; and it is expected the teacher will add others, if necessary, until each member of the class is perfectly familiar with the application of the principles illustrated. The questions on the explanatory notes are printed in Italics.
He thought the minister must be a happy man indeed; because he could read so well, and had so many books!
5. Gilbert went one clear, frosty morning to split wood in the minister's yard. The good man had before been interested by his open countenance and manly'appearance; and he now began to talk with him. In the course of the conversation, Gilbert, almost unconsciously, revealed his desire for books, and was very happy when the pastor lent him a small volume, directing him to use it carefully, and return it after he had read it through.
6. "Now," thought GilJert, "I must not take one moment from my work to read this booh; for, if I do, father will not let me Aave it."
7. After the labors of the day were over and all the family were gathered around the humble fireside, he seated himself on his stooZ in the corner, with the lent treasure in his hand, and proceeded to read it. Thus he continued to do from day to day, until he had finisAed the Jook.
8. But the instruction which he had gained in perusing this volume only increased his thirst for more; and, when he returned the book, the Mnd pastor lent him another, entitled "The Child's History of Boston." * This was a ricA yeast to Gilbert, as he had never before known any thiw^r of history.
9. The next summer, Gilbert proposed to his father, that, of the money he might earn daring the season, he sAould be permitted to keep a small portion with which to purcAase books, and. also that he might attend school for one term the next winter. Almost to his surprise, his father consented; and when the cold weather came again, Gilbert had the grea< pleasure of going to school for three months.
10. During that time, he applied Aimself closely to his studies, and made rapid progress in them all. At length, the term closed. His father had been so kind in sparing him
* Bos'ton, the second commercial city of the United States, and capital of Massa* •husetts. Population in 1806, 192,38-.