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The “subtonic," d, is articulated by a partial vocal murmur, modified by pressing the tip of the tongue, with great energy against the interior ridge of gum, immediately over the upper fore-teeth. This pressure is but an instantaneous effort; yet it evidently comes to a maximum, just before the explosion from which it takes its peculiar character, is executed. This explosion necessarily produces the “ vocule,” e, as in err.

The atonic t, is executed in a similar manner, excepting the absence of vocal murmur, an intense percussive pressure of the tongue, and an aspirated explosion, which takes place in the act of withdrawing the tongue from the gum.

atonic,” th, as in thin, is executed by a forcible aspiration,” modified by a slight horizontal parting of the lips, and a forcible pressure of the end of the tongue against the upper fore-teeth.

The “subtonic,TH, as in thine, is executed by a similar position of the organs, but a vocalized emission of the breath, forming a gentle resonance.

The “ subtonic," Z, as in azure, is formed by a partially vocal sound, modified by gently raising the whole forepart of the tongue towards the roof of the mouth, and allowing the breath to escape, between it and the teeth. The "

atonic," sh, is formed in a similar manner, as regards the position of the organs, but with more pressure, and by means of “ aspiration,” not“ vocality,” in the emission of the breath.

The atonic sound of s, or the soft sound of c, as in the word cease, is articulated by pressing, with intense force, the tip of the tongue against the interior gum, immediately over the fore-teeth. Through the extremely small aperture thus formed, aided by the horizontal parting of the lips, and the cutting effect of the edges of the teeth, the sibilation, or hiss, is formed, which gives the peculiar character of this element.

The “subtonic,” z, as in zone, is formed by nearly the same position of the organs, as the preceding element, but with very slight pressure, and by means of “vocalized," not " aspirated,” sound.

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These are so termed from their depending on the palate, for their distinctive character. They are enumerated as follows : 1. C, " hard,” and K, as in C-a-ke; 2. G, as in G-a-g ;

3. Y, as in Y-e. The “atonic," c, “hard," or k, is executed by opening the mouth, retracting, and curving the tongue with great force, and exploding an aspiration against the palate.

The subtonic,” g, as in gag, is formed by similar movements and positions of the organs, but less forcible, and by means of a vocality," instead of" aspiration."

The subtonic,y, is articulated by a similar process, still less forcible, and by means of “expulsion,” not plosion,” as regards the character of the function and the sound.

IV. AspiratedElement.

H, as in H-e. This sound is formed by a forcible emission of the breath, in the style of a whisper, and a moderate opening of all the organs of speech.


V. NasalSounds. 1. N, as in N-u-n; 2. Ng, as in Si-ng; or N, as in I-n-k.

The “subtonic,” n, is articulated by a vocalized breathing through the nose; the lips parted freely; and the end of the tongue pressing vigorously against the interior ridge of gum, immediately above the upper fore-teeth.

The “subtonic," ng, is formed by a vocalized breathing, directed against the nasal passage and the back part of the veil of the palate, and by a retracted and elevated position of the lower part of the tongue, which partly shuts the nasal passage, and causes it, at the same moment, to become resonant.

VI. "Lingual" Sounds. These elements are so called from their special dependence on the action of the tongue. They are the following: 1. L, as in L-u-11. 2. R, as in R-a-p. 3. R, as in Fa-r.

These are all “ subtonic" elements,

The first is formed by a moderate opening of the mouth, and the utterance of a vocalized sound, modified by raising the tongue towards the roof of the mouth, and pressing the end of it, very gently, against the interior ridge of gum, immediately above the upper fore-teeth.

The “subtonic,” r, as in rap, is an element formed by vivid and energetic vibration of the tip of the tongue, against the interior ridge of gum, immediately over the upper foreteeth, forming a partially vocalized sound, clear and forcible, but very brief. It should never extend to a prolonged trill, or roll. This element is sometimes designated as initial” r, from its occurring at or near the beginning of words and syllables ; and sometimes“ hard,” or “rough,” r, from its comparative force, as contrasted with r at the end of a word, which is always soft in sound. This element follows but never precedes a consonant; thus, Pray, brass, crape, green, dread, tread, scream, spread, &c.

The “subtonic,” r, as in far, is a softer sound, of longer duration, modified by a slight and gentle vibration of the whole fore-part of the tongue, retracted, and rising towards the roof of the mouth, but not actually touching it. The just observance of the true character of this and the preceding element, is, as was mentioned before, a point of great moment in enunciation, and decides its style, as regards taste and culture. The designation of " soft," or "smooth," r, is sometimes given to the “ final” r; as it is a more delicate and liquid sound, than the “ hard,” or “ initial,” r. This element occurs at the end of words, and before, but never after, a consonant; thus, War, star, fair, ire, ear, oar, farm, barn, card, harp, part, mercy, servant, person, &c.

Note. It is one of the great inconveniences of our language, that we have so few letters or characters, by which to designate its sounds ; and it is not less a defect in it, that we have the same element sometimes represented by a great variety of letters, and combinations of letters. Thus, the element a, in ale, is heard also in aid, lay, weigh, surA, in arm, is heard, also, in aunt. A, in all, is heard, in awe, laud, &c.

A, in what, was, wash, &c. is used to represent the same sound with o, as in on, or not. A, as in rare, is heard, also, in air, prayer, &c.

vey, &c.



E, as in eve, occurs, also, in the sound of ee in eel; ea, in eat ; ie, in field; ei, in seize.

E, in end, occurs in the form of ea, in head. E, in err, is the same sound which occurs in heard, and n firm.

Y, except its peculiar sound in ye, is but a repetition of i, long or short; thus rhyme, hymn, &c. 0, in old, is repeated in oak, course, own, &c. in and 00, in foot, recur in the sounds of


in move; u, in true ; 0, in wolf; u, in pull; ui, in fruit, &c.

The diphthongal sound oi, as in oil, is heard, always, in oy. The sound of u, in use, occurs also in the form of iew in view ; eau in beauty.

The diphthong ou, in our, is repeated in the sound of ow in down, &c.

F, as a sound, recurs in the form of ph and gh; as in phrase, laugh, &c.

J, and g“ soft,” are, on the other hand, but combinations of the sounds of d, and of z, as in azure.

Ch, in church, are but repetitions of the sound oft and sh.

The sound of sh is found also in the words, nation, gracious, ocean, &c.

soft, is identical with s. S, is, in multitudes of instances, but a repetition of Z, as, for example, in houses, diseases, &c.

The sound of k is repeated in the form of c, "hard ; ch, as in chorus ; and q as in queen.

N, in ink, is identical with ng.

X, in either form, is but a repetition, in sound, of ks or gz; thus ox, example, &c.

It is unnecessary, however, to enlarge on these inconsistencies in the forms of our language. It is sufficient, perhaps, for our present purpose, to suggest the fact, that the orthography of words may sometimes afford no guidance to orthöepy, but, rather, may apparently mislead. The ear should, in all cases, be trained to the utmost exactness and precision, in detecting and seizing the true element of sound, independently of the form or combination of letters, by which it may be represented.


EXERCISES IN ARTICULATION. The mode of performing the subjoined exercises, is as follows:

1. Pronounce, three times in succession, — with full “declamatory orotund” utterance; clear, firm, “radical ” opening, and delicate but distinct “vanish;” and with the downward slide of the voice, as at the close of a sentence, -- the whole word containing the first element; thus “ A-ll.” A-11.” A-11.”

2. Enunciate, as above, the sound of the element, by itself, apart from the other letters of the word; paying close attention to the correct position of the organs, as nientioned before, and to the perfect precisior and distinctness of the sound.

3. Let all the other elements be practised in the same



I. “ Tonics.
Simple Elements.

11. O-r; 1. A-ll;

12. 0-n; 2. A-rm;

Compounds. 3. A-n; 4. E-ve;

13. A-le; (original element 5. Oo-ze;

and 4.) L-00-k;

14. I-ce; (3. and 4.) 6. E-rr;

15. O-ld; (original element 7. E-nd;

and 5.) 8. I-n;

16. Ou-r; (10. and 5.) 9. Ai-r;

17. Oi-l; (12. and 8.) 10. U-p;

18. U-se; (4. and 5.) II. “ Subtonics."

Simple Elements. 2. M-ai-m;

9. G-a-g; 3. Nhu-m;

10. V-al-ve; 4. R-a-p;

11. Z-one; 5. Fa-r;

12. A-z-ure; 6. Si-ng;

13. Y-e; 7. B-a-be;

14. W-oe; 8. D-i-d;

15. L-ull;

Compounds. 15. TH-ine;

16. J-oy.

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