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Macduff, (on hearing the intelligence of the massacre of his family, by the order of Macbeth.]

“My children, too?
And I must be from thence!
My wife killed too?

“ All my pretty ones?
Did you say all? — Oh! hell-kite! - all ?
What all my pretty chickens, and their dam,
At one fell swoop ?”


III. Shouting. Citizens, [after Antony's Oration over the body of Cesar.]

Come, brands, ho! fire-brands ! To Brutus'! to Cassius'!- burn all! Some to Decius' house, and some to Casca's; some to Ligarius': away! go!”

William Tell, [to the mountains, on regaining his liberty.]

Ye crags and peaks, I'm with you once again!
I hold to you the hands you first beheld,
To show they still are free.

“Ye guards of liberty,
I'm with you, once again ! I call to you
With all my voice! - I hold my hands to you,
To show they still are free ! ”

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1. Anger, excited to Rage.
Lorn, [about to assault Bruce.] “ Talk not to me

Of odds or match! - When Comyn died,
Three daggers clashed within his side!
Talk not to me of sheltering hall !
The Church of God saw Comyn fall !
On God's own altar streamed his blood ;
While o'er my prostrate kinsman stood

The ruthless murderer, even as now,
With armed hand and scornful brow. -
Up! all who love me! — blow on blow!
And lay the outlawed felons low !”

2. Wrath and Scorn.
Roderick Dhu, [to Malcom Græme.]

“Back! beardless boy !
Back! minion. Holdst thou thus at naught
The lesson I so lately taught?
This roof, the Douglas, and yon maid,
Thank thou for punishment delayed !

(Anger and Defiance.) Malcom. Perish my name, if aught afford

Its chieftain safety, save his sword !

(Indignant Rebuke.) Douglas. Chieftains, forego !

I hold the first who strikes, my foe. -
Madmen! forbear your frantic jars !”

3. Scorn and Defiance. Satan, (to Death.]

“ Whence and what art thou, execrable shape!
That dar'st, though grim and terrible, advance
Thy miscreated front athwart my way
To yonder gates? Through them I mean to pass,
That be assured, - without leave asked of thee :
Retire! or taste thy folly; and learn by proof,
Hell-born! not to contend with spirits of heaven.”

(Wrath and Threatening.) Death, [in reply.] “Back to thy punishment,

False fugitive! and to thy speed add wings;
Lest with a whip of scorpions I pursue
Thy lingering, or with one stroke of this dart
Strange horror seize thee, and pangs unfelt before !"

4. Infuriate Anger. The Doge of Venice, (on the eve of his execution, - in the concluding words of his curse on the city.]

“Thou den of drunkards with the blood of princes !
Gehenna of the waters ! thou sea Sodom !
Thus I devote thee to the infernal gods !
Thee and thy serpent seed !

[To the executioner.] Slave, do thine office!
Strike as I struck the foe! Strike as I would
Have struck those tyrants ! Strike deep as my curse!
Strike — and but once !"

5. Indignation and Threatening. Gabriel, [to Satan.]

“ Avaunt!
Fly thither whence thou fledst ! — If from this hour
Within these hallowed limits thou appear,
Back to the infernal pit I drag thee chained,
And seal thee so, as henceforth not to scorn
The facile gates of Hell, too slightly barred!”

6. Anger and Threatening. Lear, [to Kent.]

“Hear me, rash man! — on thy allegiance hear me. Since thou hast striven to make us break our vow, (Which nor our nature nor our place can bear,) We banish thee forever from our sight And kingdom. If, when three days are expired, Thy hated trunk be found in our dominions, That moment is thy death. — Away! By Jupiter, this shall not be revoked !”

7. Anger, Scorn, and Contempt. Coriolanus, [to the Roman populace.]

“ What would you have, you curs, That like not peace nor war? The one affrights you' The other makes you proud. He that trusts to you,

Where he should find you lions, finds you hares;
Where foxes, geese: You are no surer, no,
Than is the coal of fire


the ice, Or hailstone in the sun. — He that depends Upon your favors, swims with fins of lead, And hews down oaks with rushes. – Hang ye ! Trust ye? With every minute do ye change a mind, And call him noble that was now your hate,Him vile, that was your garland.”

8. Courage.
“Strike till the last armed foe expires !
Strike for your altars and


fires ! Strike for the green graves of your sires,

God and your native land!”


The " qualities" of voice which are most frequently exemplified in reading and speaking, are those which have been defined and exemplified under the designations of “pure tone” and “orotund.” Deviations from purity of tone, are usually to be regarded as faults of inadvertency or of personal habit. Still, there are some classes of emotions, which, from their peculiar nature, require, as one element in their “expression," an " aspirated quality," or that in which, from the forcible character of the feeling, operating with a corresponding effect on the organs, more breath is expelled from the trachea, in the act of utterance, than is converted into sound by the exertion of the larynx. The stream of air which the excited action of the expulsory muscles, throws out, under the influence of certain passions, becomes too wide and too powerful to be moulded by the glottis and controlled by the vocal chords, which, for the moment, become, as it were, either paralyzed or convulsed, and unable to act with effect. Hence a rushing sound of the breath escaping, unvocalized, is heard along with the partially vocalized sounds by which such passions are expressed. The half-whispering voice of fear, and the harsh, breathing sound of anger, are examples in point, in the extremes of" expression."

The agitating character of these and similar emotions, disturbs the play of the organs, and not only prevents, in utterance, the effect of purity of tone,

which is always connected with comparative tranquillity of feeling, - but causes, by “ aspirated quality,” or redundant breath superadded to vocal sound, a positive impurity of tone, which has a grating effect on the ear, - somewhat as takes place when we hear a person attempting to play on a wind instrument which has been cracked, and which allows a hissing sound of the breath to escape along with the musical notes.

The emotions which are naturally expressed by the strongest form of " aspirated quality,” are principally of that class which an eminent writer on the passions has denominated “malignant," from their peculiar character and effect, as contrasted with those of others which he denominates "genial.” The former class includes fear, hatred, aversion, horror, anger, and all similar feelings: the latter, love, joy, serenity, tenderness, pity, &c.

“ Aspirated quality," like other forms of utterance, may exist, according to the force of emotion, in the three gradations of " effusive," " expulsive," and "explosive" voice. The muscular action attending utterance in the form of “aspirated quality," is usually such as to blend with the " aspiration" either a "pectoral" or a " guttural ” reso nance, very strongly marked. Hence these properties of voice, which would, in the expression of other emotions, be mere organic faults, now become requisites to effect, and are, therefore, comparative excellences. They require, accordingly, special study and practice as modes of “expressive" utterance.

The “ aspirated quality,” in the “pectoralform, belongs, usually, to despair, deep-seated anger, revenge, Elcessive fear, horror, and other deep and powerful emotions.

Other emotions, however, besides those which may be designated as "malignant," partake of" aspirated quality." Awe may be mentioned as an example, which, when profound, is always marked by a slight aspiration, and a "pec

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