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A Declaration by the Representatives of the United Colonies

of North America, setting forth the causes and necessity

of their taking up arms

1

A Petition of Congress to the king of Great Britain, stating

the merits of their claims, and soliciting the royal interpo-

sition for an accommodation of differences on just principles 10

Declaration of American Independence

15

An Address of the Congress to the inhabitants of the United

States of America, upon the situation. uf public affairs 23

Manifesto of Congress, Oct. 30, 1778

31

General Orders issued by General Washington, to the army

of the United States, April 18, 1783

33

Farewell Address of General Washington, to the armies of

the United States, Nov. 2, 1783

36

General Washington to the President of Congress on resign-

ins his Commission, Dec.23. 1783

42

The stonsider of General Millin, thy President of Congress,

to the foregoing Speech

43

Adams, Samuel

-45 Laurens, Henry

264

Adams, Jahn :

59 Lee, Richard Henry 268

Arnold, Benedict

65 Lee, Henry

271

Biddle, Nicholas

75 Lee, Ezra

273

Butler, Zebulon

84 Lincoln, Benjamin 276

Cadwalader, John

93 Marion, Francis

284

Champe, John

96 Mercer, Hugh

290

Clinton, James

104 Meigs, Return Jonathan 293

Clinton, George

111 Mitslin, Thomas

296

Davie, Wm. Richardson 114 M.Kean, Thomas

297

Dickinson, John

119 Montgomery, Richard 303

Dickinson, Philemon 123 Morgan, Daniel

309

Drayton, William Henry 128 Moultrie, William

317

Franklin, Benjamin 130 Muhlenberg, Peter 323

Gadsden, Christopher 143 Oiis, James

325

Gates, Horatio

147 Prescott, William

328

Gibson, John

160 Putnam, Israel

Greene, Nathaniel 170 Ramsey, David

339

Hamilton, Alexander 186 Randolph, Peyton 340

Hancock, John

192 Reed, Joseph

945

Hawley, Joseph

202 Sergeant, Jon. Dickinson 352

Henry, Patrick

207 Sherman, Roger

354

Hopkinson, Francis 225 Stark, John

356

Howard, John Eager. 228 Steuben, Frederick Wn. 370

Jefferson, Thomas 233 Sullivan, John

371

Jones, Paul

246 Stevens, Edward

373

Kirkwood, Robert 252 Warren, Joseph

376

Knox, Henry

257 Washington, George 320

Kosciusco, Thaddeus 261 Wayne, Anthony

393

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IN CONGRESS, PAILADELPHIA, JULY 6, 1775.

A DECLARATION

BY THE REPRESENTATIVES

OF THE UNITED COLONIES OF NORTH AMERICA, SETTING FORTI TIL CAUSES AND. XXCESSITT, OF THEIR

TAKING UP ARMS.

Directed to be published by General Wuhington upon his arrival at

the camp before Boston. If it was possible for men, who exercise their reason, to believe that the Divine Aůchor of our existence intended a part of the human race to hold an absolute property in, and an unbounded power over others, marked out by his infinite goodness and wisdom, as the objects of a legal domination never rightfully resistible, however severe and oppressive, the inhabitants of these Colonies might at least require from the parliament of Great Britain some evidence, that this dreadful authority over them has been granted to that body. But a reverence for our great Creator, principles of humanity, and the dictates of common sense, must convince all those who reflect upon the subject, that government was instituted to promote the welfare of mankind, and ought to be administered for the attainment of that end. The legislature of Great Britain, however, stimulated by an inordinate passion for a power not only unjustifiable, but which they know to be peculiarly reprobated by the very constitution of that kingdom, and, desperate of success in any mode of contest, where regard should be had to truth, law, or right, have at length, deserting those, attempted to effect their cruel and impolitic purpose of enslaving these Colonies by violence, and have thereby rendered it necessary for us to close with their last appeal from reason to arms. Yet, however blinded that assembly may be, by their intemperate rage for unlimited domination, so to slight justice and the opinion of mankind, we esteem ourselves bound by obligations of respect to the rest of the world, to make known the justice of par:cause.:

Our forefathers, iphabitants: of the island of Great Britain, left their.native land, to seek on these shores a residence for civil and religious freedom. At the expense of thoir blood, at the hazard of their fortunes, without the least .charge to the country from which they removed, by unceasing labour and an unconquerable spirit, they effected settlements in the distant and inhospitable wilds of America, then filled with numerous and warlike nations of barbarians. Societies or governments, vested with perfect legislatures, were formed under charters from the crown, and a harmonious intercourse was established between the Colonies and the kingdom from which they derived their origin. The mutual benefits of this union, became in a short time so extraordinary as to excite astonishment. It is universally confessed, that the amazing increase of the wealth, strength, and navigation of the realm, arose from this source; and the minister, who so wisely and successfully directed the measures of Great Britain in the late war, publicly declared, that these Colonies enabled her to triumph over her enemies. Towards the conclusion of that war, it pleased our sovereign to make a change in his counsels. From that fatal moment, the affairs of the British empire began to fall into confusion, and gradually sliding from the summit of glorious prosperity, to which they had been advanced by the virtues and abilities of one man, are at length distracted by the convulsions that now shake it to its deepest foundations. The new ministry finding the brave foes of Britain, though frequently defeated, yet still contending, took up the unfortunate idea of granting them a hasty peace, and of then subduing her faithful friends.

These devoted colonies were judged to be in such a state as to present victories without bloodshed, and all the easy emoluments of statuteable plunder. The uninterrupted tenor of their peaceable and respectful behaviour from the beginning of colonization, their dutiful, zealous, and useful services during the war, though so recently and amply acknowledged in the most honourable manner, by his majesty, by the late king, and by parliament, could not save them from the meditated innovations. Parliament was influenced to adopt the pernicious project, and assuming a new power over them, have in the course of eleven years given such decisive specimens of the spirit and consequences attending this power, as to leave no doubt concerning the effects of acquiescence under it. They have undertaken to give and grant our money without our consent, though we have ever exercised an exclusive right to dispose of owr. property; statutes have been passed for extending the jurisdiction of courts of admiralty and vice-admiralty beyond their ancient limits; for depriving us of

our

the accustomed and inestimable privilege of trial by jury, in cases affecting both life and property; for suspending the legislature of one of the Colonies; for interdicting all commerce to the capital of another; and for altering fundamentally the form of government established by charter, and secured by acts of its own legislature solemnly confirmed by the crown; for exempting the murderers" of colonists from legal trial, and, in effect, from punishment; for erecting in a neighbouring province, acquired by the joint arms of Great Britain and America, a despotism dangerous to our very existence; and for quartering soldiers upon the Colonists in time of profound peace. It has also been resolved in parliament, that Colonists charged with committing certain offences, shall be transported to England to be tried.

But why should we enumerate our injuries in detail ? By one statute it is declared, that parliament can“ of right make laws to bind us in all cases whatsoever." What is to defend us against so enormous, so unlimited a power? Not a single man of those who assume it, is chosen by us; or is subject to our control or influence; but, on the contrary, they are all of them exempt from the operation of such laws; and an 'American revenue, if not diverted from the ostensible purposes for which it is raised, would actually lighten their own burdens in proportion as they increase ours. We saw the misery to which such despotism would reduce us. We for ten years incessantly and ineffectually besieged the throne as supplicants; we reasoned, we remonstrated with parliament in the most mild and decent language.

Administration sensible that we should regard these oppressive measures as freemen cught to do, sent over

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