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which they were assembled was open, and near a spout which extended from the roof of the building to the ground, he went to the top of the house, slid down the eaves, seized the spout, and when he had descended as far as the window, threw himself into the chamber among them. At that instant the spout, which was decayed, and very weak, gave way and fell to the ground. He looked at it without emotion, said it had served his purpose, and began to take part in the business. He was educated at Harvard college, and received his first degree in 1759. Directing his attention to medical studies, he, in a few years, became one of the most eminent physicians in Boston. But he lived at a period when greater objects claimed his attention, than those which related particularly to his profession. His country need ed his efforts, and his zeal and courage would not permit him to shrink from any labours or dangers. His eloquence and his talents as a writer, were displayed on many occasions, from the year in which the stamp act was passed, to the commencement of the war.
He was a bold politician. While many were wavering with regard to the measures which should be adopted, he contended that every kind of taxation, whether external or internal, was tyranny, and ought immediately to be resisted; and he believed that America was able to withstand any force that could be sent against her. From the year 1768, he was a principal member of the secret meeting or caucus in Boston, which had great influence on the concerns of the country. With all his boldness, and decision, and zeal, he was circumspect and wise In this assembly the plans of defence were matured After the destruction of the tea, it was no longer kept a secret. He was twice chosen the public orator of the town, on the anniversary of the massacre, and his ora tions breathed the energy of a great and daring mind. It was he, who, on the evening before the battle of Less ington, obtained information of the intended expedition against Concord, and at ten o'clock at night despatched an express to Messrs. Hancock and Adams, who were at Lexington, to warn them of their danger. He hims self, on the next day, the memorable 19th of April, was very active. It is said in general Heath's memoirs, that a ball took off part of his ear-lock. In the confused state of the army, which soon assembled at Cambridge, he had vast influence in preserving order among the troops. After the departure of Hancock to congress, he was chosen president of the provincial congress in his place. Four days previous to the battle of Bunker's, or Breed's Hill, he received his commission of major-general. When the intrenchments were made upon the fatal spot, to encourage the men within the lines, he went down from Cambridge, and joined them as a volunteer, on the eventful day of the battle, June 17th. Just as the retreat commenced, a ball struck him on the head, and he died in the trenches, aged thirty-five years. He was the first victim of rank that fell in the struggle with Great Britain. In the spring of 1776, his bones were taken up and entombed in Boston, on which occasion, as he had been grand master of the freemasons in America, a brother mason, and an elaquent orator, pronounced a funeral eulogy
In this action, the number of Americans engaged amounted only to fifteen hundred. The loss of the British, as acknowledged by general Gage, amounted to one thousand and fifty-four. Nineteen commissioned officers were killed, and seventy more were wounded. The battle of Quebec, in 1758, which gave Great Britain the province of Canada, was not so destructive to British officers, as this affair of a slight intrenchment, the work only of a few hours.
The Americans lost five pieces of cannon. Their killed amounted to one hundred and thirty-nine. Their wounded and missing to three hundred and fourteen. Thirty of the former fell into the hands of the conquer
They particularly regretted the death of general Warren. To the purest patriotism and most undaunted bravery, he added the virtues of domestic life, the eloquence of an accomplished orator, and the wisdom of an able statesman.
Thus was cut off, in the flower of his age, this gallant hero, loved, lamented, the theme of universal regret; a loss, any time deeply, but then, most poignantly felt. Though he did not outlive the glories of that great 00casion, he had lived long enough for fame. It needed no
other herald of his actions than the simple testimony of the historian, that Warren fell, foremost, in the ranks of that war which he had justified by his argument, sup ported by his energy, and signalized by his prowess. The monument erected by his fellow-citizens, on the spot where he poured out his latest breath, commemorates at once his achievements, and a people's gratitude. Though untimely was his fall, and though a cloud of sorrow overspread every countenance at the recital of his fate, yet if the love of fame be the noblest passion of the mind, and human nature pant for distinction in the martial field, perhaps there never was a moment of more unfading glory offered to the wishes of the brave, than that which marked the exit of this heroic officer. Still, who will not lament that he incautiously courted the post of danger, while more important occasions required a regard to personal safety.
Perhaps his fall was useful to his country, as it was glorious to himself. His death served to adorn the cause for which he contended, excited emulation, and gave a pledge of perseverance and ultimate success. In the grand sacrifice, which a new nation was that day to celebrate in the face of the world, to prove their sincerity to heaven, whose providence they had invoked, the noblest victim was the most suitable sacrifice.
There are few names in the annals of American pa triotism more dearly cherished by the brave and good; few that will shine with more increasing lustre, as the obscurity of time grows darker, than that of general Warren. He will be the personal representative of those brave citizens, who with arms hastily collected, sprang from their peaceful homes to resist aggression, and on the plains of Lexington and the heights of Charlestown, cemented with their blood the foundation of American liberty.
He was endowed with a clear and vigorous understand. ing, a disposition humane and generous; qualities which, graced by manners affable and engaging, rendered him the idol of the army and of his friends. His powers of speech and reasoning, commanded respect. His profes sional, as well as political abilities, were of the highest arder. He had been an active volunteer in several skir
mishes which had occurred since the commencement of hostilities, in all of which he gave strong presages of capacity and distinction in the profession of arms. Bu the fond hopes of his country were to be closed in death; not, however, until he had sealed with his blood the charter of our liberties, nor until he had secured that permanence of glory with which we encircle the memory, whilst we cherish the name of Warren.
The battle of Bunker's Hill was, in many respects, one of the most remarkable conflicts that has moistened the earth with human blood. No spirit of prophecy is required to foretell, that from the consequences with which it is connected, and which it may be said to have guaranteed, after ages will consider it one of the most interesting of all battles; and that it will be hallowed by the gratitude of mankind, as among the most precious and beneficent contests, ever waged in behalf of human rights and human happiness.
Dr. Warren published an oration in 1772, and another in 1775, commemorative of the 5th of March, 1770.
The sword of general Warren, which he held in his hand when he fell at Bunker's Hill, is now in the possession of the honourable William Davis, of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and is preserved as a precious relic. It was purchased by an American sailor, from the servant of the officer who took the sword from the grasp of the deceased patriot, at Halifax, and its identity has been sufficiently established.
WASHINGTON, GEORGE, commander in chief of the American army, during the revolutionary war with Great Britain, and first president of the United States, was the third son of Mr. Augustine Washington, and was born at Bridges creek, in the county of Westmoreland, Virginia, February 22, 1732. His great grandfather had emigrated to that place from the north of England, about the year 1657. At the age of ten years, he lost his father, and the patrimonial estate descended
to his elder brother, Mr. Lawrence Washington, who, in the year 1740, had been engaged in the expedition against Carthagena. In honour of the British admiral, who commanded the fleet employed in that enterprise, the estate was called Mount Vernon. At the age of fifteen, agreeably to the wishes of his brother, as well as to his own urgent request to enter into the British navy, the place of a midshipman in a vessel of war, then stationed on the coast of Virginia, was obtained for him. Every thing was in readiness for his departure, when the fears of a timid and affectionate mother prevailed upon him to abandon his proposed career on the ocean, and were the means of retaining him upon the land, to be the future vindicator of his country's rights. All the advantàges of education which he enjoyed, were derived from a private tutor, who instructed him in English literature, and the general principles of science, as well as in morality and religion. After his disappointment, with regard to entering the navy, he devoted much of his time to the study of mathematics; and in the practice of his profession as a surveyor, he had an opportunity of acquiring that information respecting the value of vacant lands, which afterwards greatly contributed to the increase of his private fortune. At the age of nineteen, when the militia of Virginia were to be trained for actual service, he was appointed an adjutant-general, with the rank of major. It was for a very short time that he discharged the duties of that office. In the year 1753, the plan formed by France, for connecting Canada with Louisiana by a line of posts, and thus of enclosing the British colonies, and of establishing her influence over the numerous tribes of Indians on the frontiers, began to be developed. In the prosecution of this design, possession had been taken of a tract of land, then believed to be within the province of Virginia. Mr. Dinwiddie, the lieutenant-governor, being determined to remonstrate against the proposed encroachment and violation of the treaties between the two countries, despatched major Washington through the wilderness to the Ohio, to deliver a letter to the commanding officer of the French, and also to explore the country. This trust of danger and fatigue, he executed with great ability. He left