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August the twenty-seventh, he was taken prisoner i a few months, however, he was exchanged; for when Lee was carried off, he took the command of his divi sion in New Jerseyi On the twenty-second of Augusg 1777, he planned and executed an expedition against Staten Island, for which, on inquiry into his conduct, he beceived the approbation of the court. In September he was engaged in the battle of Brandywine, and on the fourth of October, in that of Germantown. In the win. ter he was detached to command the troops in Rhode Island. In August, 1778, he laid siege to Newport, then in the hands of the British, with the fullest confidence of success; but being abandoned by the French fleet un der D'Estaing, who sailed to Boston, he was obliged, to his unutterable chagrin, to raise the siege. On the twer ty-ninth an action took place with the pursuing enemy, who were repulsed. On the thirtieth, with great military skill, he passed over to the continent, without the loss of a single article, and without the slightest suspicion on the part of the British of his movements. In the summer of 1779, he commanded an expedition against the six nations of Indians.
“The bloody tragedy acted at Wyoming in 1778, had determined the commander in chief, in 1779, to employ a large detachment from the continental army to penetrate into the heart of the Indian country, to chastise the hostile tribes, and their white associates and adherents, for their cruel aggressions on the defenceless inhabitants The command of this expedition was committed to major-general Sullivan, with express orders to destroy their settlements, to ruin their crops, and make such thorough devastations, as to render the country entirely uninha bitable for the present, and thus to compel the savages to remove to a greater distance from our frontiers. General Sullivan had under his command several brigadiers, and a well chosen army, to which were attached a number of friendly Indian warriors. With this force he penetrated about ninety miles through a horrid swampy wilderness, and barren mountainous deserts, to Wyoming, on the Susquehanna river, thence by water to Tioga, and possessed himself of numerous towns and villages of the savages. During this hazardous exped
tion, general Sullivan and his army encountered the most complicated obstacles, difficulties and hardships, and requiring the greatest fortitude and perseverance to surmount. He explored an extensive tract of country, and strictly executed the severe, but necessary orders he had received. A considerable number of Indians were slain, some were captured, their habitations were burnt, and their plantations of corn and vegetables laid waste in the most effectual manner. Eighteen villages, a number of detached buildings, one hundred and sixty thousand bushels of corn, and those fruits and vegetables which conduce to the comfort and subsistence of man, were utterly destroyed. Five weeks were unremittingly employed in this work of devastation.” On his return from the expedition, he and his army received the approbation of congress.
In about three months from his setting out, general Sullivan reached Easton, in Pennsylvania, and soon after rejoined the army.
In the years 1786, 1787, and 1789, general Sullivan was president of New Hampshire, in which station, by his vigorous exertions, he quelled the spirit of insurrection, which exhibited itself at the time of the troubles in Massachusetts. He died January 23, 1795, aged fifty
STEVENS, EDWARD, a distinguished officer in the revolutionary war, was born in Culpepper county, Virginia. He engaged early in the contest for our liberties, nor did he sheathe his sword until the achievement of national independence. His military career commenced at the battle of the Great Bridge, near Norfolk, Virginia, where he commanded a battalion of riflemen. Distinguished on that occasion by his valour and good conduct, he immediately attracted public attention, as an individual peculiarly fitted for utility in the arduous struggles of the revolution. He was shortly after appointed to command the tenth Virginia regiment, which, being
speedily raised, equipped, and organized, colonel Stevens marched to the north, and came under the immediate command of general Washington. The first occasion that presented itself for the distinction of this regiment, occurred at the battle of Brandywine, on the 11th of September, 1777. It was here that the gallant exertions of this intrepid officer served, in a great measure, to protect the continental army from annihilation. Colonel Stevens was not brought into action until the retreat had begun; he was then charged to cover the rear, and impede the pursuit of the enemy. With the co-operation of a Pennsylvania regiment, Stevens seized an advantageous piece of ground on the road, taken by the defeated army, protecting the second and eleventh regiments from capture, checking the enemy, and securing the retreat. ders were here gallantly executed, making an impression on the hostile army, which induced the British general to look to his own safety, and abandon the pursuit. Colonel Stevens received, on the succeeding day, the public thanks of the commander in chief. The battle of Germantown took place in October following, where the tenth Virginia regiment was alike distinguished by its intrepid courage, which again produced for its gallant chief the public acknowledgments of Washington.
Colonel Stevens now filled a large space is the hopes of his native state; he was called to the command of a brigade; and the next theatre presented to his valour. was at the battle of Camden. In the council of war, immediately preceding this action, the memorable reply of brigadier Stevens, to the interrogatory put to the board) “It is too late to retreat now; we must fight," was made. This answer was followed by the order of the American general, without further counsel; “Then, gentlemen, repair to your several posts;" a decisive evidence of the high confidence reposed by him in the discretion and capacity of general Stevens. The issue of this affair was unfavourable; and although the gallantry and conduct of Stevens exempted him from all imputations, yet no officer felt more deep and mortifying chagrin at the tarnished lustre of our arms. He felt so sorely the calamities of the day, that he would have returned from the southern campaign, but for the pressing solicitude of
general Greene, who, soon after assuming command of this department of the continental forces, was unwilling to lose the services of an officer so distinguished for all those trials of military character which produce practical utility. The battle of Guilford court-house furnished brigadier Stevens an opportunity of reviving the despondent hopes of the south, and warding off evils, with which he had been unluckily beset at Camden. The North Carolina militia formed the first line; Stevens's brigade of Virginia militia the second. So soon as the enemy approached the first line, within one hundred and forty yards, a scattered fire commenced, when this line threw down their arms, and fled to the second with precipitation. Stevens, possessing that happy presence of mind, so necessary in action to draw benefit even from calamity, directed his troops to open their ranks, and permit them to pass; and, to prevent the panic's infesting his command, he gave out that they had been ordered to retreat upon the first fire. At this battle he took the precaution to station a body of picked riflemen forty yards in the rear of his brigade, with positive orders to shoot down the first man who attempted to break the ranks or escape.
He received here a severe wound in the thigh, though he did not quit the field until he had rendered great services, and brought off his troops in good order: general Greene bestowed on him marked commendation. The siege of York, and the capture of the British army under lord Cornwallis, soon closed the important scene of the revolution. It was here that general Stevens preserved and increased his well-earned honours. The commander in chief repeatedly assigned him important duties, which called for the best efforts of valour and skill; these were faithfully executed; and it is confidently asserted, that no officer possessed a larger share of his respect and confidence. During all this period, he was a zealous patriot in the civil department of the government. From the foundation of the state constitution, until the year 1790, he was a member of the senate of Virginia; always useful, esteemed, and respected. He was at Charlottesville, in the legislature, when Tarleton invaded the commonwealth, and dispersed that body; his plan was, to arm the citizens, meet Tarleton at the river below the village, and fight him. This counsel was not executed, and he narrowly escaped capture, by the more elegant equipment of a person flying a short distance before him.
The character of general Stevens may be given in a few words: No man on earth possessed the cardinal virtues in a higher degree; firm, patient, and deliberative; with a sound judgment, singleness of heart, unblemished and incorruptible integrity; honest patriotism, which despised all state tricks; an unbounded and immoveable courage. For the sphere of practical utility and public benefit he was well fitted; born with little brilliant embellishment, he had all the qualities for real and substaniial service; without regarding the influence of faction and party, but loving the general principles of civil liberty, his feelings were always on the side of his country. His heart was the abode of that patriotism, which, spurning parties, cleaved to the constitution of the nation, as a holy ark, which contains at once the evidence of our glory, and tbe charter of our liberties.
He died at his seat in Culpepper county, Virginia, ou the 17th day of August, 1820.
WARREN, JOSEPH, a major-general in the American army, during the revolutionary war, was born in Roxbury, a town which bounds Boston, Massachusetts, in 1740. In 1755, he entered college, where he sustained the character of a youth of talents, fine manners, and of a generous, independent deportment, united to great personal courage and perseverance. An anecdote will illus trate his fearlessness and determination at that age, when character can hardly be said to be formed. Several students of Warren's class shut themselves in a room to arrange some college affairs, in a way which they knew was contrary to his wishes, and barred the door so eflectually, that he could not, without great violence, force it; but he did not give over the attempt of getting among them, for perceiving that the window of the room in