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• kind of licensed tories, in the midst of spies, pecular tors, and public defaulters. He laboured to reform tho abuses in the department, and succeeded like most reformers. Those who were detected, cursed him, and their friends complained; and he gladly received an op der in October, from general Washington, to join gene. ral Gates at Rhode Island, who had previously requested his assistance. General Hand succeeded him at Albany, but left the command shortly after for the same reasons, and with the same pleasure.

On joining general Gates's head quarters at Provi. dence, he was ordered 10 take quarters at East Greenwich, principally on account of his popularity with the militia, that he might gain better information of the plans of the enemy on Rhode Island, and guard against any invasion. Here he continued until ull opportunity for action was over for the season, when he was ordered to proceed to New Hampshire by way of Boston, to urge at both places the necessity of recruits and supplies.

Early in the spring of 1779, he was ordered back to Providence, and instructed by general Gates to examine with close attention, all the shores and avenues from Providence to Point Judith, as well as all the coast on the east side of the bay as far as Mount Hope. As there were but few troops on the station, more than common vigilance was required to prevent inroads or plunder, and to establish a regular espionage; this being the only instance in which he ever descended to that mode of warfare: by this means, at the close of autumn, indications were early discovered of a descent, or some other movement. He removed his quarters to Point Judith, but took care not to rest more than one or two nights in a place. Sometime in October, the views of the enemy were unmasked, and for some days his command was on constant duty. About the eighth or tenth of November, the enemy decamped, and early next morning he entered the lower end of Newport, and took possession of the town. Guards were immediately placed in the different streets to prevent plunder or confusion, and preserve opder. At this time general Washington was fearful that on the arrival of the reinforcement from Newport at New York, some attempt might be made on his army,

and ordered the troops that had blockaded Newport, (with the exception of a small garrison,) immediately to join him in New Jersey. No attempt being made by the enemy, about mid-winter general Washington requested him to proceed to New England, and back his requisitions for men and supplies. This duty being discharged, he joined the army at Morristown in the early part of May, and was present on Short Hills at the battle of Springfield, but not personally engaged. Soon after this action general Washington required him to proceed with all despatch to Massachusetts and New Hampshire, to urge a supply of men, money, and provision; to muster as many militia as he could by drafts and voluntary enlistments, and to accompany them to West Point. He landed them on the Point, while general Washington and suite had passed on to Hartford to confer with count Rochambeau and other French officers, a few days pre. vious to Arnold's desertion, and the day following joined his division at Liberty-Pole, New Jersey. In the latter end of September he was ordered to relieve the Pennsylvania troops under general St. Clair, which, en Arnold's desertion, had been ordered there. St. Clair marched his division the next day to Liberty-Pole.

About this time general Washington having formed a project to surprise Staten Island, to mask his intentions, ordered general Stark with a detachment of twenty-five hundred men, with a large train of wagons and teams, to advance near York Island, and bring off all the corn and forage to be found, and to hover about New York until ordered back. Probably the British suspected some masked plan; but, be that as it may, they suffered this detachment to pillage the country to the very verge of Morrisania and Kingsbridge for several days, and then quietly return to West Point and Peekskill with their booty. Soon after this the army withdrew from Liberty-Pole, and went into winter quarters at West Point, New Windsor, and Fishkill. Here general Stark was visited with a severe fit of sickness, which left him very weak, and about the middle of January, 1781, he obtained leave to return to New Hampshire, with the standing order to press for men and supplies. He journeyed by short stages, and arrived at his house

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more weak and feeble. His health returning with the approach of spring, he was ordered to Albany to take command of the northern department, and establish his head quarters at Saratoga.

Some feeble detachments of militia from New York, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire, were collected to protect the northern frontiers. It was soon discovered that the country was inundated with spies and traitors; houses robbed, (on political principles,) and inhabitants, non-combatants, carried prisoners to Canada. The house of general Schuyler, one mile from the capitol of Albany, was attacked, several articles stolen, and two or three of his servants and labourers carried to Canada. He only saved himself by retreating to a chamber, barricading the door that they could not force it, and firing through it when it was attempted to be broken. The firing raised the military from the city, and the marauders fled with their prisoners and booty.

Bad as the country was in 1778, it was infinitely worse in !?81, Some few days after the military post was esta. blished at Saratoga, one of these detachments was ar. rested within the lines. Ą British lieutenant's commission was found on the commander. He had been a refugee from that quarter, and was known. A board of officers, summoned to examine the casę, pronounced him a spy, and gave their opinion for hanging. He was executed the next day. Complaints were made by his friends and connexion and about Albany, of the danger of retaliation. General Washington demanded a copy of the proceedings; it was sent, and no further notice taken of it. The cure of the body politic was radical: none of those parties ventured into the country again during the

Immediately after the reduction of Cornwallis, the danger of inroads from Canada was dissipated. Stark dismissed the militia with thanks for their good conduct; secured the public stores, and was ordered to retire by way of Albany, with instructions to continue his efforts to raise men, money, and supplies, in New Eng land for the next campaign.

In 1782, he was afflicted with rheumatisms, and van rious chronical complaints, all the season, and did not



370 join the army: his complaints, however, yielded to repose, of which he immediately informed general Wash ington, and was ordered to join the army early in April, 1783, at West Point. He was on the spot on the day appointed, and received the hearty thanks of general Washington for his punctuality. He aided and encouraged the army to separate without confusion, and not tarnish their laurels by any act of resistance or usurpation. Soon after this he returned home, and devoted the remainder of his patriarchal life to the various duties of patriot, friend, neighbour, and father to an extensive family. His long and useful life terminated on the eighth of May, 1822.

The neighbouring militia vied with each other for permission to render the last honorary duties to the departed patriot. Captain Eaton's light infantry of Goffstown, was selected from the numerous applicants, and performed the duty with great respect, and the most perfect order and discipline. At his own request he was interred on his farm, on the border of the Merrimack river.

STEUBEN, FREDERICK WILLIAM, a major-general in the American army, was a Prussian officer, who served many years in the armies of the great Frederick, wag one of his aids, and had held the rank of lieutenant-general. He arrived in New Hampshire from Marseilles, in November, 1777, with strong recommendations to congress. 'He claimed no rank, and only requested permission to render as a volunteer what services he could to the American army. He was soon appointed to the office of inspector-general, with the rank of major-general, and he established a uniform system of mancuvres, and by his skill and persevering industry effected, during the continuance of the troops at Valley Forge, a most important improvement in all ranks of the army. He was a volunteer in the action at Moumouth, and

commanded in the trenches of Yorktown on the day which concluded the struggle with Great Britain,

During his command, lord Cornwallis made his over. ture for capitulation. The proposals were immediately despatched to the commander in chief, and the negotiation progressed. The marquis De Lafayette, whose tour it was next to mount guard in the trenches, marched to relieve the baron, who, to his astonishment, refused to be relieved. He informed general De Lafayette, that the custom of European war was in his favour, and that it was a point of honour which he could neither give up for himself, nor deprive his troops of; that the offer to capitulate had been made during his guard, and that in the trenches he would remain until the capitulation was signed, or hostilities commenced. The marquis immediately galloped to head quarters: general Washington decided in favour of the baron, to the joy of one, and to the mortification of the other, of those brave and valuable men. The baron remained till the business was finished. After the peace, the baron retired to a farm in the vicinity of New York. The state of New Jersey had given him a small improved farm, and the state of New York gave him a tract of sixteen thousand acres of land in the county of Oneida.

The baron died at Steubenville, New York, November 28, 1794, aged sixty-one years. He was an accomplished gentleman, and a virtuous citizen; of extensive knowledge and sound judgment.

SULLIVAN, John, a major-general in the Ainerican army, was the eldest son of Mr. Sullivan, who came from Ireland, and settled in Massachusetts.

lu 1775, congress appointed him a brigadier-general, and in the following year, it is believed, a major-general. He superseded Arnold in the command of the army in Canada, June 4, 1776, but was soon driven out of that province. Afterwards, on the illness of Greene, he took the command of his division on Long Island. In the battle of

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