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hoards, by reason of the commerce with foreign nations, which the fleets will protect. Above all, bring forward your armies into the field.

Trust not to appearances of peace or safety. Be assured, that unless you perse vere, you will be exposed to every species of barbarity. But, if you exert the means of defence which God and nature have given you, the time will soon arrive, when every man shall sit under his own vine and fig tree, and there shall be none to make him afraid.

The sweets of a free commerce with every part of the earth will soon reimburse you for all the losses you have sustained. The full tide of wealth will flow in upon your shores, free from the arbitrary impositions of those whose interest and whose declared policy it was to check your growth. Your interest will be fostered and nourished by governments, that derive their power from your grant, and will therefore be obliged, by the influence of cogent necessity, to exert it in your favour.

It is to obtain these things that we call for your strenuous, unremitted exertions. Yet do not believe that you have been or can be saved merely by your own strength. No! it is by the assistance of Heaven; and this you must assiduously cultivate by acts which Heaven approves. Thus shall the power and the happiness of these Sovereign, Free, and Independent States, found. ed on the virtue of their citizens, increase, extend, and endure, until the Almighty shall blot out all the empires of the earth.

Resolved, That it be recommended to the ministers of the gospel, of all denominations, to read or cause to be read immediately after divine service, the above address to the inhabitants of the United States of America, in their respective churches and .chapels, and other places of religious worship.

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'IN CONGRESS, OCTOBER 30, 1778.

By the Congress of the United States of America.

A MANIFESTO:

THESE United States having been driven to hostilities by the oppressive and tyrannous measures of Great Britain: having been compelled to commit the essential rights of man to the decision of arms; and having been, at length, forced to shake off a yoke which had grown too burthensome to bear, they declared themselves free and independent.

Confiding in the justice of their cause; confiding in Him who disposes of human events, although weak and unprovided, they set the power of their enemies at defi

ance.

In this confidence they have continued through the various fortune of three bloody campaigns, unawed by the power, unsubdued by the barbarity of their foes. Their virtuous citizens have borne, without repining, the loss of many things which make life desirable. Their brave troops have patiently endured the hardships and dangers of a situation, fruitful in both beyond former example.

The congress, considering themselves bound to love their enemies, as children of that Being who is equally the father of all; and desirous, since they could not prevent, at least to alleviate, the calamities of war, have, studied to spare those who were in arms against them, and to lighten the chains of captivity.

The conduct of those serving under the king of Great Britain hath, with some few exceptions, been diametrically opposite. They have laid waste the open country,

burned the defenceless villages, and butchered the citizens of America. Their prisons have been the slaughter houses of her soldiers; their ships of her seamen, and the severest injuries have been aggravated by the grossest insults.

Foiled in their vain attempt to subjugate the uncon. querable spirit of freedom, they have meanly assailed the representatives of America with bribes, with deceit, and the servility of adulation. They have made a mock of humanity, by the wanton destruction of men; they have made a mock of religion, by impious appeals to God, whilst in the violation of his sacred commands; they have made a mock even of reason itself, by endeavouring to prove that the liberty and happiness of America could safely be intrusted to those who have sold their own, unawed by the sense of virtue or of shame.

Treated with the contempt which such conduct deserved, they have applied to individuals: - they have solicited them to break the 'bonds of allegiance, and imbrue their souls with the blackest of crimes; but, fearing that none could be found through these United States, equal to the wickedness of their purpose, to influence weak minds, they have threatened more wide devastation.

While the shadow of hope remained, that our enemies could be taught, by our example, to respect those laws which are held sacred among civilized nations, and to comply with the dictates of a religion, which they pretend, in common with us, to believe and to revere, they have been left to the influence of that religion and that example. But since their incorrigible dispositions cannot be touched by kindness and compassion, it becomes

our duty by other means to vindicate the rights of humanity.

We, therefore, the Congress of the United States of America, do solemnly declare and proclaim, that if our enemies presume to execute their threats, or persist in their present career of barbarity, we will take such exemplary vengeance as shall deter others from a like conduct. We appeal to that God who searcheth the hearts of men, for the rectitude of our intentions; and, in His holy presence, we declare, that as we are not moved by any light and hasty suggestions of anger and revenge, so through every possible change of fortune we will adhere to this our determination.

GENERAL ORDERS

1SSUED BY GENERAL WASHINGTON, TO THE ARMY OF THE

UNITED STATES.

Head Quarters, April 18, 1783. The commander in chief orders the cessation of hostilities between the United States of America and the king of Great Britain, to be publicly proclaimed tomorrow at twelve o'clock, at the new building: and that the proclamation which will be communicated herewith, be read to-morrow evening at the head of every regiment and corps of the army; after which the chaplains, with the several brigades, will render thanks to Almighty God for all his mercies, particularly for his overruling the wrath of man to his own glory, and causing the rage of war to cease among the nations.

Although the proclamation before alluded to, extends only to the prohibition of hostilities, and not to the annunciation of a general peace, yet it must afford the most rational and sincere satisfaction to every benevolent 'mind, as it puts a period to a long and doubtful contest, stops the effusion of human blood, opens the prospect to a more splendid scene, and, like another morning star, promises the approach of a brighter day than hath hitherto illuminated the western hemisphere. On such a happy day, which is the harbinger of peace, a day which completes the eighth year of the war, it would be ingratitude not to rejoice; it would be insensibility not to participate in the general felicity.

The commander in chief, far from endeavouring to stifle the feelings of joy in his own bosom, offers his most cordial congratulations on the occasion to all the officers of every denomination; to all the troops of the United States in general; and in particular to those gallant and persevering men who had resolved to defend the rights of their invaded country, so long as the war should continue. For these are the men who ought to be considered as the pride and boast of the American army; and who, crowned with well earned laurels, may soon withdraw from the field of glory to the more tranquil walks of civil life. While the commander in chief recollects the almost infinite variety of scenes through which we have passed, with a mixture of pleasure, astonishment, and gratitude; while he contemplates the prospects before us with rapture, he cannot help wishing that all the brave men, of whatever condition they may be, who have shared the toils and dangers of effecting this glorious revolution; of rescuing millions from the hand of oppression, and of laying the foundation of a great empire, might be impressed with a proper idea

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