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had possession of the city, he was very desirous to be rid of such neighbours. A Mr. David Bushnell, of Saybrook, Connecticut, who had the genius of a Fulton, constructed a sub-marine machine, of a conical form, bound together with iron bands, within which one person might sit, and with cranks and sculls, could navigate it to any depth under water. In the upper part was affixed a vertical screw, for the purpose of penetrating ships' bottoms, and to this was attached a magazine of powder, within which was a clock, which, on being set to run any given time, would, when run down, spring a gun-lock, and an explosion would follow. This marire Turtle, so called, was examined by general Washington, and approved. To preserve secrecy, it was experimented within an enclosed yard, over twenty to thirty feet water, and kept during day-light locked in a vessel's hold. The brother of the inventor was to be the
person to navigate the machine into action, but on sinking it the first time, he declined the service.
General Washington, unwilling to relinquish the object, requested major-general Parsons to select a person, in whom he could confide, voluntarily to engage in the enterprise; the latter being well acquainted with the heroic spirit, the patriotism, and the firm and steady courage of captain Ezra Lee, immediately communicat ed the plan and the offer, which he accepted, observins, that his life was at general Washington's service. After practising the machine until he understood its powers of balancing and moving under water, a night was fixed upon for the attempt. General Washington and his associates in the secret, took their station upon the roof of a house in Broadway, anxiously waiting the result. Morning came, and no intelligence could be had of the intrepid sub-inarine navigator, nor could the boat which attended him give any account of him after parting with him the first part of the night. While these anxious spectators were about to give him up as lost, several barges were seen to start suddenly from Governor's Island, (then in possession of the British) and proceed towards some object near the Asia ship of the line; as suddenly they were seen to put about and steer for the island with springing oars. In two or three minutes an explosion took place, from the surface of the water, resembling a water-spout, which aroused the whole city and region; the enemy's ships took the alarm; signals were rapidly given; the ships cut their cables and proceeded to the Hook with all possible despatch, sweeping their bottoms with chains, and with difficulty prevented their affrighted crews from leaping overboard.
During this scene of consternation the deceased came to the surface, opened the brass head of his aquatic machine, rose up and gave a signal for the boat to come to him; but they could not reach him until he again descended under water, to avoid the enemy's shot from the island, who had discovered him and commenced firing in his wake. Having forced himself against a strong current under water, until without the reach of shot, he was taken in tow, and landed at the battery amidst a great crowd, and reported himself to general Washington, who expressed his entire satisfaction that the object was effected without the loss of lives. Captain Lee was under the Asia's bottom more than two hours, endeavouring to penetrate her copper, but in vain. 'He frequently came up under her stern galleries, searching for exposed plank, and could hear the sentinels cry. Once he was discovered by the watch on deck, and heard them speculate upon him, but concluded a drifted log had paid them a visit. He returned to her keel, and examined it fore and aft, and then proceeded to some other ships; but it was impossible to penetrate their copper,
for of a resisting power, and hundreds owed the safety of their lives to this circumstance. The longest space of time he could remain' under water was two hours.
Captain Lee, during the war, ever had the confidence and esteem of the commander in chief, and was frequently employed by him on secret missions of importance. He fought with him at Trenton and Monmouth; at Brandywine the hilt of his sword was shot away, and his hat and coat were penetrated by the enemy's balls. On the return of peace, he laid aside the habiliments of war, and returned to his farm, where, like Cincinnatus, he tilled his lands, until called by the great commander in chief to the regions above.
He died at Lyme, Connecticut, on the 29th October, 1821, aged seventy-two years.
LINCOLN, BENJAMIN, was born in Hingham, Massachusetts, January 23, 1733. His early education was not auspicious to his future eminence, and his vocation was that of a farmer, till he was more than forty years of age, though he was commissioned as a magistrate, and elected a representative in the state legislature. In the year 1775, he sustained the office of lieutenant-colonel of militia, and having espoused the cause of his country as a firm and determined whig, he was elected a member of the provincial congress, and one of the secretaries of that body, and also a member of the committee of correspondence. In 1776, he was appointed by the council of Massachusetts a brigadier, and soon after a major-general, and he applied himself assiduously to training and preparing the militia for actual service in the field, in which he displayed the military talent he possessed. In October he marched with a body of mi. litia and joined the main army at New York. The commander in chief, from a knowledge of his character and merit, recommended him to congress as an excellent officer, and in February, 1777, he was by that honourable body created a major-general on the continental esta. blishment. For several months he commanded a division, or detachment in the main army, under Washington, and was in situations which required the exercise of the utmost vigilance and caution, as well as firmness and courage. Having the command of about five hundred men in an exposed situation near Bound Brook, through the neglect of his patroles, a large body of the enemy approached within two hundred yards of his quarters undiscovered ; the general had scarcely time to mount and leave the house, before it was surrounded. He led off his troops, however, in the face of the enemy, and made good his retreat, though with the loss of about sixty men killed and wounded. One of his aids, with the
general's baggage and papers, fell into the hands of the enemy, as did also three small pieces of artillery. In July, 1777, general Washington selected him to join the northern army under the command of general Gates, to oppose the advance of general Burgoyne. He took his station at Manchester, in Vermont, to receive and form the New England militia as they arrived, and to order their march to the rear of the British army. He detached colonel Brown, with five hundred men, on the 13th of September, to the landing at lake George, where he succeeded in surprising the enemy, took possession of two hundred batteaux, liberated one hundred American prisoners, and captured two hundred and ninety-three of the enemy, with the loss of only three killed and five wounded. This enterprise was of the highest importance, and contributed essentially to the glorious event which followed. Having detached two other parties to the enemy's posts at Mount Independence and Skeensborough, general Lincoln united his remaining force with the army under general Gates, and was the second in command. During the sanguinary conflict on the 7th of October, general Lincoln commanded within our lines, and at one o'clock the next morning, he marched with his division to relieve the troops that had been engaged, and to occupy the battle ground, the enemy having retreated. While on this duty, he had occasion to ride forward some distance, to reconnoitre, and to order some disposition of his own troops, when a party of the enemy made an unexpected movement, and he approached within musket-shot before he was aware of his mistake. A whole volley of musketry was instantly discharged at him and his aids, and he received a wound by which the bones of his leg were badly fractured, and he was obliged to be carried off the field. The wound was a formidable one, and the loss of his limb was for some time apprehended. He was for several months confined at Albany, and it became necessary to remove a considerable portion of the main bone before he was conveyed to his house at Hingham, and under this painful surgical operation, the writer of this being present, witnessed in him a degree of firmness and patience not to be exceeded. I have known him, says colonel Rice, who
was a member of his military family, during the most painful operation by the surgeon, while by-standers were frequently obliged to leave the room, entertain us with some pleasant anecdote or story, and draw forth a smile from his friends. His wound continued several years in an ulcerated state, and by the loss of the bone the limb was shortened, which occasioned lameness during the remainder of his life. General Lincoln certainly afforded very important assistance in the capture of Burgoyne, though it was his unfortunate lot, while in active duty, to be disabled before he could participate in the capitulation. Though his recovery was not complete, he repaired to head quarters in the following August, and was joyfully received by the commander in chief, who well knew how to appreciate his merit. It was from a development of his estimable character as a man, and his talent as a military commander, that he was designated by congress for the arduous duties of the chief command in the southern department, under innumerable embarrassments. On his arrival at Charleston, December, 1778, he found that he had to form an army, to provide supplies, and to arrange the various departments, that he might be able to cope with an enemy consisting of experienced officers and veteran troops. This, it is obvious, required a man of superior powers, indefatigable perseverance, and unconquerable energy. Had not these been his inherent qualities, Lincoln must have yielded to the formidable obstacles which opposed his progress. About the 28th of December, general Prevost arrived with a fleet, and about three thousand British troops, and took possession of Savannah, after routing a small party of Americans under general Robert Howe. General Lincoln immediately put his troops in motion, and took post on the eastern side of the river, about twenty miles from the city; but he was not in force to commence offensive operations till the last of February,' In April, with the view of covering the upper part of Georgia, he marched to Augusta, after which Prevost, the British commander, crossed the river into Carolina, and marched for Charleston. General Lincoln, therefore, recrossed (kr Savannah, and followed his route, and on his arrival