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the mail-clad Roman swayed his delegated impe- members of the Hanseatic League, and the em. rialism in this city, we can trace monuments of porium of the trade of Eastern Europe, being the his sovereignty in the fragmental atoms of broken central medium from whence were transported walls dispersed throughout the city buildings, in the arts and products of the east to the west of the antiquities of Roman origin dug up daily from Europe, and maintaining an incessant communi. beneath its surface, as well as in the marked cation with Italy. Nor is it at all improbable outline, classical features, and aquiline noses of

that the southern school of painting received the population, whose physiognomy indicates many of its perfections and improvements at the their hereditary descent, and distinctly marks

hands of northern artists; at all events, it is certain them as of a different race from their German

that we can trace an intimate connection between neighbours. The distinctive mark of their Roman

the Rhenish and Italian schools; whilst tho origiu has not seemed otherwise than as a boast

southern style of architecture is seen in many of and an honour to the people of this city, who, in

the oldest churches. And to-day, when, after the the enthusiasm of their pride, designated them- | lapse of so many centuries, we should expect to selves Patricians. The consular toga adorned their

see all traditional observances of Roman custom chief magistrates, who, like the Roman consuls

departed, we behold, in Cologne, the celebration and triumvirs, were preceded by lictors, and had

of the Carnival after the same style, and with as inscribed on their banners S. P. Q. C. The anti

much spirit, as in Rome--an inheritance and a quarian disposed to rigidly scan the outline and legacy bequeathed by the early Roman inhabitants extent of the Civitas, Ubiorum, will trace through

to the Colognese. Very many associations of the Auf der Burgmaeur, by the Zeughaus, by the bygone years, and their events, render Cologne an Klarenthurm, erected on the Roman walls by the object of deep interest to English travellers, not

the least of which is that it was the residence of Franks, thence through the gardens to the Lach,

William Caxton in 1470, and the place where ho where appears another Roman tower, and to the

learned the art of printing, which he introduced Marsiltein; and thence again eastward to the

into England a short time afterwards, and thereby church of St. Mary, erected on the site of the

laid the foundation of that mighty power which capitol, and thence by the Rathaus, the site of the

has contributed 60 much to her greatness and Roman Prætorium, to the cathedral, the founda

prosperity. tions of the Roman walls, from which he can at

In 1259 Cologne obtained for itself the "Stapelonce ascertain the limits of the Colonia Agrippina

richt” (staple laws), whereby all goods arriving at and its extensions.

this port were transferred to Cologne vessels, and The outer walls enclosing the town date from

made to pay a high rate of duty for further transit. the twelfth and fifteenth centuries consecutively,

The dignity and importance of this city had by and are a perfect specimen of that species of

this time become acknowledged over all Europo; building of the middle ages, being flanked with

it was called the "heilige stadt," or holy city. picturesque towers and gate-houses. The present

Its merchants were highly privileged in England extent of Cologne is about 2} English miles from

by Henry VI., who allowed them the sole oecapathe Bayenthurm, at the upper end of the Thürm

tion of the Guild Hall. It numbered within its chen, or little tower at the lower end; and 4 walls 365 churches, and could send into the field English miles between these same points on the 80,000 fighting men. But the hour of desolation was land side, round the wall.

at hand--the day of its decline was approaching. Here it was that Vitellius and Sylvanus, the Commerce departed from its port, and sought a latter of whom was assassinated in the capitol, new road across the European Continent, whilst had themselves proclaimed emperors; and, at a Cologne itself, bent in craven subserviency and later period, in 500, Clovis was proclaimed King | menial subjection to the blighting despotism and of the Franks.

withering tyranny of ecclesiastical bigotry, which In the middle ages, Cologne was a powerful on three consecutive occasions trampled out its and flourishing city, and one of the most important prosperity, annihilated its commercial and social independence, and finally completed its downfall. Its objects of attraction are numerous, and The first edict issued by the persecuting church- widely spread abroad, but the tourist will find men within its sanctuary was against the Jews, his visits much facilitated by making them in the who were hunted like wild beasts, and expelled following order:without mercy. The second act of intolerance

The Cathedral (Domkirche) is one of the purest and persecution was the banishment of the weavers;

monuments of Gothic architecture in Europe. and the third the exiling of the Protestants in

The name of the great architect who designed the 1618. In the case of the weavers, 1,700 looms were

plan of this colossal temple is lost. The earliest burned, and the owners emigrated to Verviers, Elber

builder engaged in its erection was Master Gerhard, feld, and Aix-la-Chapelle, whither they transferred

who was still living about 1252, but of whom their industry from an ungrateful city, and where nothing further is known. The building was they established the celebratod cloth manufactories, projected by the Archbishop Engelbert Von Berg, still flourishing and enriching these towns. The

and commenced by his successor, Conard Von expellod Protestants settled at Mulheim, Dusseldorf, Hochsteden, in 1248. The edifice is but a fragment Elberfeld, Crefeld, Solingen, and other places, of its designed proportions, which, if carried out, whoro, as exiles and victims of persecuting bigotry, would have made it the St. Peter of Gothic archithey raised establishments and promoted the arts

tecture. The whole length of the building at of peace and industry-80 true is it that persecu- present is 400 feet (when finished it will be 511 tion fails to effect its purpose, whilst it ever gives feet), the breadth of the lower church 161 feet, and new strength and energy to the emancipated the height of the outer gable at the west end, victims of its cruelties. In this period the church, corresponding with it, amounts to 23 feet. It is or rather ecclesiastical body, reigned paramount, built in the shape of a cross; the arches are until the French Revolution destroyed its sinister supported by four rows of 64 columns, which, influonce laughed at its censures, whilst its well- together with the half columns and the pillars of fillod coffers were being emptied, its ill-gotten the porticoes, amount to 100. The four central rovenuos seized upon, its churches and convents

ones measure about 30 feet in circumference; each plundored and secularised, and converted into of the entire terminates in a capital, ornamented stables and warehouses, whilst the entire fabric of in a peculiar manner.

Of the two towers or its strength was being crushed into atoms.

steeples, each of which was intended to be 500 feet The closing of the navigation of the Rhine by high, one, whose height is very inconsiderable, the Dutch, in the sixteenth century, was a great stands on the north side; and the other, at present blow to the prosperity of Cologne. The removal used as a belfry, is scarcely a third of its intended of this impediment, in 1837, has greatly tended to height. In this steeple is suspended the large bell, give a now stimulus to commercial enterprise and weigbing 25,000 lbs., and requiring the strength of Industrial development. Vessels daily throng her

twelve men to ring it. On its top stands the crane harbour, along which new quays and bonding used by the workmen in drawing up the stones. Warehouses have been erected, a foreign communi

It has remained in its resting place for centuries, cation by sea is carried on and extending, whilst except on one occasion, when it was taken down; the daily increasing prosperity of the city is being but a violent thunderstorm occuring immediately added to, and strengthened by, the railway com- after, the citizens attributed it as a consequence of munication with Paris, Antwerp, and Berlin, whose the removal of the crane, which they had instantly rallroads converge at this point; 80 that, if the replaced again. The majestic choir, rising heavenblossings of peace be continued to Europe, Cologne wards, together with the surrounding chapels, aro of to-day bids fair to rival the Cologne of the the only finished portions of this immense edifice. twelfth, thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth cen. Beautiful in the extreme are the groups of tall turies, and again have her empty warehouses and columns standing there, like the trees of an ancient stores illod with the skill of industry, whilst her forest, only split at the culminating points in a population increases in prosperity and happiness. crown of branches, and rismg with their colleagues

in a pointed arch, almost inaccessible to the eye | specimens of the antique German plasters of the that would trace them.

fourteenth century, of which date also are the

superbly carved stalls and seats. The late and present Kings of Prussia have expended in the space of eighteen years upwards In the Chapel behind the high altar we behold of 220,000 thalers on the repair and preservation the monument of the Three Kings, or Magi, who of the building, rendered almost a ruin by long came from the East to worship the Saviour, and ages of neglect. The restoration, &c., is being present him with gifts. This chapel was built effected in a masterly style, and the Drachenfel by the Elector Maximilian Henry of Bavarla, stone of the exterior replaced by a species of vol- and the bodies of the three Oriental Kings, or canic origin, brought from Trèves and Andernach. Wise Men of the East, were bestowed to it by In 1842 the then king laid the foundation-stone of Frederick the First, also called Barbarossa, who the new transept, and an association has been carried them off from St. Eustorgio, after he had established, branching all through Europe, for the taken and plundered Milan, giving them to the purpose of collecting subscriptions for the com- Rainaldo, Archbishop of Cologne, who accompanied pletion of the edifice after the original design, him, and had them conveyed to that city in 1!70. which, according to an estimate of the architect The chests in which they repose is composed of Ziminer, would take £750,000; of this a million plate gold and silver, exquisitely engraved, with dollars were collected from 1812 to 1851. The an encircling of small arcades supported by aisle, navo, and transept were opened in September, pillars; however, the rich treasures and exquisito 1848, the two latter portions being covered in by decorations of this shrine were carried off and a temporary wooden roofing; and on our visiting much injured during the fury of the French it in the autumn of 1852, the five windows of revolution, at which period it was transferred for stained glass, presented by the late King of safety to Amsberg, in Westphalia, and several of Bavaria, were placed in the south aisle of the the jewels sold, which were replaced by paste or nave, and the one executed in 1508, in the north glass counterfeits. The coffin has two partitions, aisle. On the whole, the transepts being now all

the lower one of which has on either side a halfbut completed, it is possible for the visitor to roofing, while the upper one has a whole one. form some exact idea of the real extent. The The lower, and broader partition contains tho choir will fill the visitor with enthusiastic awe. bones of the three kings whose heads appear

(separated) in front, between the half-roofing The Presbytery, in the choir, and the high altar,

upon which you sce, in rubies, the are works of a modern date, and we think accord

Casper, Melchior, Balthaser ; these skulls are

adorned with costly crown but very ill with the antique majesty and solemn

of gold, diamonds and grandeur of the dome. Among the columns at the

pearls of six pounds weight each which presents entrance thore are two very fine marble statues,

a ghastly contrast to the decayed and mouldering representing the Virgin and St. Peter, exquisitely fragments of humanity they encircle. In 1-04, sculptured in the Italian style. The two tombs,

when the shrine was brought back from Amsberet in the choir, of the brothers Adolphus and Anthony,

many of the jewels and enamels had disappeared, of Schauenberg (both of them Archbishops of

together with their valuable crotrns; they were Cologne), are fine statues of white marble, adorned

replaced by metals neatly wronght and gilt, partly with elegantly arranged foliage, and deserving of by antiques, precious stones, enamels, and cther considerable attention, as rich specimens of high ornaments, given by the people of Cologne, and ito art The beautifully stained windows bave been shrine, without the value, has much of its origira refreshed and repaired, and the frescoes redeco- appearance. The front of the shrine has inscribed rated by Steinli, an artist of the Düsseldorf school.

on ts surface the following inscription The colossal gold-llowered statues of the Twelto

'Corpora sanctorum recubapt hic torna Majeru Apostles standing against the columns aro Ano Ex his sublatum nihil est, Alibiro locatum,


It is asserted, though we think without truth, that is merely a copy, but a fee of 15sgr. for a party, this tomb and its precious ornaments are worth will induce the sacristản to reverse it, and at the £240,000.

back is displayed the original. On Sundays and holidays the Shrine is open to

The Church of St. Ursula, famous by the legend the public, but visitors desiring a close examina

of her and her 11,000 Virgins, was erected partly in tion of it had better apply to the sacristan, and by

the twelfth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. paying 11th., a tieket to admit self and friends will

The singularity of its arehitecture is well worth be given. Tickets admitting to an inspection of

attention, and the entire church is nearly filled the choir cost 15sgr., and are supplied by the beadle.

with bones. On the right hand near the entrance The ascent to the galleries costs 20sgr. Between

is the golden chamber, in which St. Ursula and a the high altar and the shrine of the Three Kings,

few of her favoured associates lie in repose in under a slab in the flooring, is buried the heart of

coffins behind the altar. The bones are encased in Mary of Medicis; and before the chapel the tombstones and epithets of the Archbishops of Cologne chamber, is one of the stone vessels used at the

silver, and among the relics pointed out in this may be seen on the marble walls, the most remarkable of which are those of Philip of Heinberg, marriage feast in Cana, and in which the water

was turned into wine. The relics in this church surrounded by a mural parapet, and of Conrad of

are hideous, bones everywhere meet the eye, and Hochsteden in a bronze.

are disposed in ghastly array in glass cases about. Particularly remarkable, and worthy of notice,

The history of this childish legend is painted in is the beautiful old picture of 1410, representing the choir, and represents the saint as the daughter the patrons of the city, and the Three Kings ador

of an English king, who, on her return from Rome, ing the divine babe in the centre, St. Ursula and

was murdered at Cologne, together with her 11,000 her companions, the 11,000 Virgins, with St. Gereon

companions. and his Theban legion on the others. This paint

The Church of Sta. Maria, in Capitolio, is the ing was removed from the Hôtel de Ville in 1816,

oldest in Cologne. Plectrudis, the consort of and placed in its present position in the Chapel of

Pepin, of Herstel, who separated from her husband St. Agnes, on the right of the Magi. The artist

in consequence of his attachment to Alpais, the is not known, but he is surmised to have been

mother of Charles Martel, founded this establishMaster William of Cologne, or his pupil Stephen.

ment, and built thọ church. Her stone statue is The Sacristy contains some interesting antiqui- behind the choir, in the street; þut her tomb is in tios, and splendid specimens of art and workman

the church before the choir, and has a copious ship, in the shape of church plate, shrines, sword

Latin inscription. Over against this tomb is that of justice used at the coronation of the emperors, of St. Ida, who was a relation of Plectrudis, and the carvings in ivory, archiepiscopal cross 7 feet high,

first abbess of the establishment. The upper part and several other objects of interest.

of the oir, with the round arched colonnades, is The visitor will be well repaid by ascending the of the eighth century; the principal vault of the [gallery of the treforium, to see the stained glass, nave was built later, this church having been

and also go out on the roof, from which he will damaged considerably during the inroads of the [have a magnificent prospect.

Normans. Several paintings were removed to The workshops should also be visited, 20sgr. this church from that of St. Martin, of which entrance. The three great windows are of rich that by Augustin Braun, an excellent painter of ( stained glass.

Cologne, and contemporary of Rubens, is highly The Church of St. Peter. Rubens, who was deserving of being noticed. This church also baptised in this church, in tae brazen font still

possesses a large and excellent organ by the late existing there, painted for it ts celebrated altar

Mr. Kænig, the elder, the celebrated artist of piece-the Crucifixion of the Apost!e, with his head Cologne, who also built the organ of Nimwegen. downwards. This painting & reckoned as one of The Church of Sta. Maria is new, and built in an his masterpieces The picture generally exposed fele ;ant antique style, ornamented with painted


windows. You may also see in an excellent | with landscapes. The marble flooring, the pulpit, painting, by Durer, representing the dispersion of and the organ are handsome. Contiguous to the the Apostles and the death of Marla. St. Martin's church stands the late college of the Jesuits, in Church, or Gross St. Martin, is a large building of which there were a valuable library and rich the twelfth century, with a striking tower.

cabinets of artificial curiosities. The French The Church of St. Gereon and the Thebaic Martyrs,

carried off the most valuable articles; among was built by Archbishop Anno, in 1066, on the others, a volume of letters, in Leilnitze's own spot on which the temple built by St. Helena handwriting, to the Jesuit Brosses ; the most formerly stood. It received at a later period, a valuable minerals, about 1,400 pieces of Greek large, boldly executed cupola with three ġalleries,

and Roman coins; a pretty complete collection of and is one of the finest churches in Cologne. St.

silver and copper coins of the middle age; a Gereon lies buried here, along with his warriors.

number of antique bowls, vases, urns, images, The skulls of these martyrs are exhibited in the

&c.; an invaluable collection of more than 6,000 church. Beneath the church, in the crypta, or

original drawings of the most celebrated artists of vault, there are two chapels, on whose floor traces all schools; and a similar collection of ancient of ancient mosaic are visible. The altars at the engravings. There exists a printed catalogue of entrance of the church are adorned with two good the latter collection that was sent to Paris, and paintings by Schuett and Geldorf, artists of returned in a very defective state. Cologne.

There are some of the other churches and The Church of St. Cunibert near the Rhine, is chapels (not mentioned here) that may have been spacious, beautiful, and has a fine perspective. built at the time when the Christian religion was The altar is constructed after the pattern of that introduced on the bảnks of the Rhine, and furof St. Peter at Rome. The gate has a fine frame nish fine specimens for a history of ancient in the last style of the 12th century. The Tumba German architecture. Others there are that are of St. Cunibert, which once was so remarkable has remarkable in other respects. In the Church of St. been scandalously mutilated under the dominion Pantaleon (of 954) there is the tomb of the Empress of the French. Some years ago the steeple of this Theophania, the consort of Emperor Otto II. They church fell down. The fine glass paintings in the also preserve in this church the uncorrupted body choir are well worth seeing. The church of the of the martyr Albinus. The body of the famous Apostles near the new market is likewise à

Duns Scotus, who died at Cologne, in 1308, whoso beautiful old Germán building of the eleventh

manuscripts, in 14 folio volumes, were in the century. An Ascension of the Holy Virgin by possession of the Minorités, is buried in the church Hulsmann, and the martyrdom of St. Catharina by that formerly belonged to their order.

Tho Pottgiesser, deserve to be noticed; as also does churches of St. Severin and St. Goeris (George) aro the fragment of a lent cloth, woven by Lady very old, but defaced by many coloured puintings, Richmod Mengis, of Adocht, to which is annexed in the former, the spot on which the Emperor the tradition of Richmodis, of the family of the Sylvanus was murdered, is marked with marble Lisolphskirchen (Lyskirschen), who was buried

figures, inserted into the flooriyg; and, connected alive, and by a peculiar accident saved herself with the latter, you behold a tower of enormous from her coffin, and afterwards lived many years thickness, which the Archbishop Anno placed with her consort very happily.

right before the upper and older town gate, to The Church of Maria Ascension, or the late church keep the citizens of Culogne in awe, who were of the Jesuits, though built in a mixed style, hall disaffected to him. The Lis or Lisoph's Church, ancient German, and half modern, has many orna- is remarkable for the ancient tomb of Maternus; ments in the inside, especially a splendid commu

the painting of a lateral altar, by John Von Cal. nion pew,

with arabesques and bas-reliefs of white car, who learned his art at Cologne, and after marble. There are some paintings by Schuett on wards became a pupil of Titian, has been removed. the high altar. The walls of the choir are adorned | The remains of the famous Albertus Magnus werd

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