« PreviousContinue »
regarded by then and wealth. It tower, from whei and in which v citizens to arms, on the top was Gantoises, as a town, under Phi been re-gilt. one, it having oj at Constantinop by the men of crusade as sol Flanders. It i deposited in the the title deeds top a magnifice trance to it lies who charges 21 reply was mad atrocious mini destroy the ci d'Espagne pou -(How many take to make king, pointing Beffroi.
The Cathedr Gothic buildir church dedica of St. Bavon thither the co saint, and 19: dignity of a c ing was comp in the beginn majestic effec produce is mi area around a able for its el ascent to the 446 steps; th extent and be into three ais elegant r twelve exce' " TH
well as the cuƠu, div A. le rest of the building.
side aisles, is raised
Above this picture are three smaller ones by same artists; the centre represents Christ on a
throne, holding a crystal sceptré, surmounted by supports the pulpit, and covers the sounding-board a large såpphire; the transparency of the crystal with its branches. At the foot of the tree is seate! is represented with an effect almost magical : the a figure of Time, represented as a venerable old left-hand picture is an exquisite representation of mån, whose eyes are covered with a thick veil, the Virgin, and that on the right is an equally which he is lifting up in order to contemplate the fine figure of St. John the Baptist. These four
features of Truth, who presents herself before pictures, whether considered with reference to the
him as a beautiful woman, holding an open book, date of their execution, or to their intrinsic merit,
in which are traced the words “Surge qui dormis
illuminabit must rank among the most valuable in Europe.
te Christus," " Arise thou that
sleepest, Christ shall give thee light." At the In the fourteenth chapel is a fine picture by
foot of each staircase are two angels. The four Rubens, representing the Reception of St. Amánd
fronts of this exquisite piece of workmanship, in the Abbey of St. Bavon, after he had given all
which cost 37,000 florins (£2,960), are ornamented his property to the poor. The fifteenth contains
with bas-reliefs in white marble. the Resurrection of Lazarus, by Otto Vennius, The most perfect work of art in this cathedral, the master of Rubens, and also Judas Maccabeus
or indeed in the whole of Belgium, is the mausoseeking a place of Burial for his Soldiers. In the
leum of Bishop Triest, by Jerome Duquesnoy ; sixteenth is the Martyrdom of St. Lieven, the it consists of a statue of the bishop contemplating patron of Ghent, by Seghers. The seventeenth the cross borne by our Saviour. On the opposite has a copy from Rubens' picture of the Martyr- side is a figure of the Virgin, and two small angels dom of St. Catherine, the original of which is in are stationed at the bottom of the mausoleum. the Church of St. Catherine, at Lille. In front of The visitor should not leave St. Bavon without the chapel is the mausoleum of Bishop G. Van descending into the crypt, a low subterranean Eersel, executed by Charles Van Pouche and F.
arch under the choir. It is divided into five Janssens, after the designs of the former. The
chapels, adorned with paintings, and containing nineteenth chapel contains the Seven Works of the tombs of John and Hubert Van Eyck, and his Mercy, by Coexie; in the twentieth is the font in
sister, also a painter, who might be reckoned an which Charles V. was baptised; the twenty-first enthusiast in the art, as she rejected all offers of has the Assumption of the Virgin, by Crayer; in marriage, in order to devote herself entirely to its the twenty-second is one of the finest productions study. of Crayer, representing St. Machaire praying for The Church of St. Nicholas is one of the most the cessation of the plague; before the altar is a ancient in Ghent. It was burned in 1120, but bas-relief in white marble, by M. Portois, repre- re-built on the same plan. This edifice suffered senting the body of St. Machaire carried in pro- much in the religious wars.
The church of St. cession.
Pierre is a building of the seventeenth century. The altar-piece of the twenty-third chapel repre
It is approached through a beautiful square, and sents St. Stambart carrying burning coals on an
contains a few good paintings by Crayer, Jansunconsumed surplice to St. Sandoalt; this pic- sens, &c. ture is by Van Huffel; the twenty-fourth and
The Church of St. Michael, in the centre of the last chapel contains a Descent from the Cross, by city, is remarkable for the elegance and lightness Rambants, which is esteemed the finest production of its architecture, of a mixed style, partly floridof that artist. The organ has å fine tone, but is
Gothic, partly Renaissance, which is seen to advanplaced in a situation which offends the eye, from tage from the open space in which it is situated. interfering with the harmony of the construction
The square tower which surmounts the church, of the rest of the edifice. The pulpit, which is was begun in 1440, and was to have been carried the workmanship of Lawrence Delvaux, of Ghent,
to a height of 400 feet, but the design has never is in the centre of the right nave, and is considered been completed. In the twelfth chapel of this one of the most beautiful in the world. It is com- edifice, is a magnificent picture of the crucifixion, posed of white marble and onk. The tree of life / by Van Dykc, the only work of this master which is to be found in any of the public buildings of considerable extent, with streets, squares, and Ghent. Each of the chapels, which are twelve in gates, enclosed by a wall and moat. The house number, contain one or more pictures of various at Ghent, called the Grand Béguinage, is situated merit. It will be sufficient to direct the attention in the Rue des Bruges, and was founded by Jane, of the amateur to the Annunciation, by Lens, and Countess of Constantinople, in 1234. There is the Assumption, by François, both in the newly also a Petit Béguinage, with 400 girls of a poorer finished chapel, to the right of the cross of the class. The first chapel was built in 1242. Tho church; the Apotheosis of St. Catherine in the
sisters live in separate houses, and each door has third chapel, by Crayer, and the Finding of the inscribed on it the name of some saint, chosen as Cross, by the Empress Helena, whose figure, its protectress. Visitors to Ghent should visit this represented in the picture, was furnished by the church at the hour of vespers, which are sung at Empress Josephine, who sat for the model. There
half-past seven each evening. The scene is most are also in this church, numerous paintings, by impressive. The sisters are all dressed in black Belgian artists, and a St. Francis, of Paula, by
robes with white veils; the novices are distin. Ribera. The organ recently erected in this church guished by a different dress, whilst those who is remarkable for its sweetness. The pulpit of have but lately taken the veil are distinguished by massive mahogany is handsome. The other prin
a chaplet, which they wear around their heads. cipal churches worth visiting are those of Saint
The chapel, barely illuminated by a few lamps, Pierre, St. Nicholas, and St. Jacques; this latter
and the solemn singing, together with the large church is situated in a vast square.
assemblage of sisters, so picturesquely dressed, destroyed in 1720, and afterwards rebuilt.
imparts to the scene an aspect of solemn grandeur St. Jacques has two good paintings of Van and mystic beauty. The chapel itself is interest. Cleef, and some monumental sculpture of merit ing in the extreme, and on the stone work of one from the chisel of Van Poucke.
of its pillars, was inscribed the following touching The Church of St. Martin has a magnificent inscription by Lamartine :painting of the Resurrection, by Crayer (his mas- Un peu de baume à la souffrance, ter-piece).
Au corps quelque rèmede, aux âmes l'esperance, The Dominican Oratory deserves to be inspected Un secours au malade, aux parents un adieu on account of its bold and lofty wooden vault, Un sourire à chacun, à tous un mot de Dieu." designed by the Dominican Francis Romain, in The Hôtel de Ville is situated partly in the Rue 1700.
Haute Porte, and partly in La Marché-au-Beure. The Beguinage. The community of Béguines The portion standing in the former street, built was founded by St. Bagge, Duchess of Brabant, in the Gothic style of architecture, presents a and sister of Philip of Landen. The community magnificent appearance, and is adorned with is peculiar to the Netherlands. Clement V. issued exquisitely wrought ornaments.
It has two a bull against these sisters, but John XXII. façades, built at intervals between 1482 and 1620, revoked it, and accorded them many indulgences. after several plans, hy as many architects. The It is one of the few nunneries not swept away by turret or tribune at the corner was built in 1527the fury of the French revolution, or suppressed 1560 by Eustace Polleyt, and is in the richest by Joseph II. Their existence received a legal | flamboyant Gothic style. The other façade, built ratification in 1826. The sisters are bound by no between 1600 and 1620, has columns of three vow, and may return to the world at any time. different orders of architecture, one surmourting Their chief duty is to attend to the sick and visit the other. In the Salle du Trone, 80 celebrated the hospitals, where they are constantly to be in the annals of Ghent, was signed the treaty met with. In the order are persons of the highest known as the “Pacification of Ghent," drawn up, families and wealth. The sisters in Ghent amount in 1576, by the congress of confederates, who to about one hundred, whilst their entire number assembled to adopt measures calculated to drive in Belgium is six thousand. The building is of the Spaniards out of Belgium. Two modern
paintings are to be seen in the interior of the build
two portions; half is given to the prisoners weekly ing, which will not elicit very much admiration. for pocket money, and the other given to them at
Palace of Justice. - A striking building by the expiration of the term of their imprisonment, Rolands, is situated in the Rue du Théâtre. The to assist in their re-establishment in the world. ground floor is used as the Exchange, and the Religious service and instruction are provided and upper chamber as Courts of Justice.
attended to in an admirable manner; and if prisoners Palace de l'Universiti..Founded by William are found ignorant of the first elements of knowI., King of Holland, in 1826. It is a beautiful ledge, as reading, writing, and arithmetic, they and modern editice, having a splendid Corinthian receive instruction in the various branches. Inportico, modelled from the Pantheon, at Rome, subordination or refractory conduct is punished by and is built on the site of the Jesuits' College. solitary confinement. The shop for refreshments The principal hall, and the amphitheatre, in which sold to the prisoners is kept under strict regulations the academé meetings are held, can accommodate by the officers of the establishment, and the profits from 1,600 to 1,700 people, and is richly ornamented are employed as rewards for the most industrious and embellished.
and well-behaved prisoners. The new part of the The Museum of Natural History is not less re- building, which has been recently completed, has markable for its extent than for the richness of cost upwards of £40,000, and the whole edifice will, its collection. The university contains a library, when finished, contain two thousand six hundred open to the public each day from nine to twelve
prisoners. There is still, however, much to be and from two to five o'clock, unless on Sundays done. and feast-days. This library contains 60,000
Le Kauter, or Place d'Armes, is a large square volumes, and very many precious manuscripts.
planted with trees. It is a beautiful promenade, The Jardin Botanique, instituted in 1797, belongs
and has a military band usually playing there on to the university, and is spoken of as one of the
summer evenings. finest in Belgium. It contains a collection of 8,000 plants, of 1,000 different species.
The Marché au Vendredi (Friday's market), a vast
square, so called from the day on which the fair Maison des Bateliers, on the Quai aux Herbes,
is held. It is remarkable as having been the spot is an old and picturesque edifice, built in 1513.
where the trades' unions of the middle ages planted The Halle aux Draps will also repay notice.
their standards and rallied to arms. On it the Maison de Detention, a house of correction, situated ceremonial of inaugurating the Counts of Flanders on the north side of the city, on the Coupurea was celebrated with a gorgeous and luxurious canal, which is bordered by a double row of large
grandeur, unequalled at the present day. This trees. It was constructed in 1:73, in the reign of
spot is also identified with one of the most painful Maria Theresa, and forms a perfect octagon, in the and tragic reminiscences connected with the history centre of which is a spacious court, communicating of Ghent. It is celebrated as being the scene of with the different quadrangles of the establish- an internecine slaughter, in which fifteen hundred ment. Each quadrangle or ward has a yard, and citizens were slain by fellow-citizens. The weavers in the centre of that belonging to the female ward and fullers constituted the two factions, and the is a large basin of water, in which the female former were led on and headed by Jacques Van prisoners wash the linen of the whole establish- Artavelde, called the brewer of Ghent, in the corment. Each prisoner sleeps alone in a small but poration of which body he enrolled himself, though well-aired room, and is employed during the day descended from one of the first families in Flanders. in working at whatever trade or business he or The day, to mark the sanguinary and disgraceful she is most competent to do; and of the produce of work, was called Evil Monday, in the annals of this labour, five-tenths are retained by government the town. On that spot, and on that day forty when the prisoners are merely detained correc- years after, Philip, the son of that Jacques, was tionally; six-tenths when they have been sentenced saluted Protector of Ghent, and received the oath to hard labour. The remainder is divided into of fdelity from his townsmen on the occasion of his being called upon to lead them against Louis those of Brussels, St. Lievin, St. Peter, and Bruges, de Male. In the Marché au Vendredi also were all of which present curious relics of the ancient lighted the fires of the Inquisition, under the gates erected in the 14th century. The greater Duke of Alva. The great cannon, situated in a
portion of these gates have been re-constructed, street called the “Mannekens Aert," close to the
after a style of beautiful architecture. Marché, is called Du dulle Griete, alias Mad Mar- Casino.--Situated near the canal, cut in 1750, to gery, is the most enormous ever cast, measuring unite the Lys and Bruges canal together. The 10 feet in length and 104 feet in circumference. botanical society and the musical Society of St. It is made of hammered iron, and was used in Cécily had this edifice constructed, in which might 1382 at the siege of Oudenarde, by the citizens of be held the reunions of the latter, and the floral Ghent. An interesting monument of antiquity exhibitions of the former. stands in the Place St. Pharailde, near the Marché
Citadel.-Was erected by Charles V., and was aux Poissons. It consists of an old turreted gate
the first thing of the kind raised in Belgium. It way, called the Oudeburg, or the count's stone or was called
"Château des Espagnols," and is castle, built in 868, by Baldwin Bras de fer. It is situated on the east side of the town, not far from incorporated with a cotton factory now, and de- the Porte d'Anvers. In it were imprisoned the serves a visit, as one of the oldest buildings in
Counts Egmont and Hoorn, and it was besieged in Belgium. In the year 1338, Edward III. and his 1570 by the townspeople, under the Prince of family resided here. During his residence his Orange, when they rose to throw off the Spanish queen gave birth to her son, John of Gaunt (Ghent). yoke. The Spaniards vigorously defended it, but An intimate and friendly alliance existed for years 3,000 Gantoises, wearing white shirts to distinguish between the English and people of Ghent. It may
them, assaulted it, and were repulsed, in consenot be uninteresting to mention the fate of Jacques quence of the ladders being too short. The Spaniards Van Artavelde, the brewer, whom Edward III. of
capitulated next morning, after the attack, and, England used to style familiarly “his dear gossip."
terms being granted, the Senora Mondragon, who He was a faithful friend and ally to this king, and
had bravely defended the fortress during her huslost his life, it may be said, in his service. He
band's absence, with about 150 men, some women, invited Edward III. over to Sluis, in 1344, with a
and a few children, the sole remnant of the garriview of taking council for the promotion of the
son, marched out, to the surprise of the victors. promise made to the king by Jacques, to the effect Hospitals.-Ghent possesses 21 hospitals, civil that he would make him “Lord and heritor of
and military. The principal of these is the Byloque, Flanders," a thing altogether opposed to the wishes
founded in 1225, and capable of containing 600 of the Gantoises. Public indignation was excited
sick. In the church attached to it, Jacques Van
Artavelde was buried. against him, and was further increased by a rumour
The military hospital is to the effect that he had, during his administration
situated near the church of St. Martin, among
beautiful gardens. of the government of Flanders, stealthily sent large
Theatre.-A magnificent theatre has been lately sums of money out of the exchequer to England,
erected at the corner of the Place d'Armes. The which so exasperated the people as to cause them
salon, concert hall, and ball-rooms are beautiful in to enter into a revolt against him, assault his
their construction and decoration. It was erected house, which was attacked by a mob of 400 per
at a cost of 2,500,000 francs. sons, and broken into, when a citizen, named
Palais de Justice—Situated in the Rue du Theatre, Thomas 0. Dennys, slew him without mercy.
is a very fine building, and will repay notice. Thuś perished the man by the hands of those citizens whom he once influenced, led, and governed.
The commerce and manufactures of Ghent are His statue was set up in the Square, 1-63, on the
very extensive and various; the most important
of the latter consist in cotton printing, cotton site of one of Charles V., which stood here till 1796.
spinning, lace making (Brussels and Valenciennes), Portes de la Ville, or City Gates.-- There are seven cloth working, gin distilling, sugar refining, soap principal gates, the most remarkable of which are making, brewing, goldsmiths' work, paper making,