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THE

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PHILOSOPHY OF RHETORIC.

BY

GEORGE CAMPBELL, D.D., F.R.S. Edin..

PRINCIPAL OF THE MARISCHAL COLLEGE, ABERDEEN

Certo sciant homines, artes inveniendi solidas et veras adolescere et incrementa su

mere cum ipsis inventis - Bac De Augm Scient., lv, c 3.

A NEW EDITION,

WITH THE AUTHOR'S LAST ADDITIONS AND CORRECTIONS

NEW YORK:

HARPER & BROTHERS, PUBLISHERS,

329 & 331 PEARL STREET,

FRANKLIN SQUARE.

COLLEGE

HARVARD

Apv6,1924
LIBBARY

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PREFACE.

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THERE are several reasons which have induced the author of the following sheets to give the public some account of their origin and progress, previously to tb şir coming under its examination. They are a series of Essays closely connected with one another, and written on a subject in the examination of which he has at intervals employed himself for a considerable part of his life. Considered separately, each may justly be termed a whole, and complete in itself; taken together, they are constituent parts of one work. thor entered on this inquiry as early as the year 1750; and it was then that the first two chapters of the first book were composed. These he intended as a sort of groundwork to the whole.

And the judicious reader will perceive that, in raising the superstructure, he has entirely conformed to the plan there delineated. That first outline he showed soon after to several of his acquaintance, some of whom are still living. In the year 1757 it was read to a private literary society, of which the author had the honour to be a member. difference in his situation at that time, and his connexion with the gentlemen of that society, some of whom have since honourably distinguished themselves in the republic of letters, that induced him to resume a subject which he had so long laid aside. The three following years all the other chapters of that book, except the third, the sixth, and the tenth, which have been but lately added (rather as illustrations and con

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firmations of some parts of the work, than as essential to it), were composed, and submitted to the judgment of the same ingenuous friends. All that follows on the subject of Elocution hath also undergone the same review. Nor has there been any material alteration made on these, or any addition to them, except in a few instances of notes, examples, and verbal corrections, since they were composed

It is also proper to observe here, that since transcribing the present work for the press, a manuscript was put into his hands by Doctor Beattie, at the very time that, in order to be favoured with the doctor's opinion of this performance, the author gave him the first book for his perusal. Doctor Beattie's tract is called An Essay on Laughter and Ludicrous Writing. While the author carefully perused that Essay, it gave him a very agreeable surprise to discover that, on a question so nice and curious, there should, without

any previous communication, be so remarkable a coincidence of sentiments in everything wherein their subjects coincide. A man must have an uncommon confidence in his own faculties (I might have said in his own infallibility) who is not sensibly more satisfied of the justness of their procedure, especially in abstract matters, when he discovers such a concurrence with the ideas and reasoning of writers of discernment. The subject of that piece is, indeed, Laughter in general, with an inquiry into those qualities in the object by which it is excited. The investigation is conducted with the greatest acuracy, and the theory confirmed and illustrated by such a variety of pertinent examples, as enable us to scrutinize his doctrine on every side, and view it in almost every possible light. He does not enter into the specifc characters whereby wit and

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