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which w ere yet so bad that I suppose Tom 'l inker, or Tom a Bedlam, in England marches with better weapons. Upon our arrival there I found all men's amis unssixed, our gunsmith's tools were in the store ships, and were denied to be sent with us, so that our want of smith's tools, and making of half pikes, hindered us from sixing our arms and the ofsicers from exercising their men, except a very little before we came from thence. We were ordered to take up provisions there, and charge bills of exchange at home, but I suppose it was known to others, though not to me, that no provisions were to be gotten there, for so I sound by experience, and the rates much higher than what they were in England,for what I bought myself; so that these, with some other reasons, caused Mr. Window, one of the commissioners, to say to divers of the ofsicers that we were betrayed, and if it had been in the late king's reign he would have declared so. Notwithstanding all these difficulties I continued forward and chearsul until such time I heard the seamen talk of going home, w hieh raised some doubts among the officers that they intended to leave us (which was promised in England they should not before another fleet came) aud then we saw we must perish. Another sell in the rear of this was that, upon Our coming from Barbadoes, the seamen had their allowance, and our landmen were reduced to half (by what order I know not) and that given them but ilour days in the week and the other three lish days. The seamen had their victuals with brandy, and the landmen ltad only bread (and that most beastly rotten) and water, which brought them so low that at landing they sell down, and some of them into the water, as the rear-admiral observed; and the vice-admiral marching along with us with a regiment of seamen, seeing our men's weakness, said, that the fortnight's weakening at sea with bad provisions would not be recovered with two month's good diet at land; and, though the officers complained of their bad bread, it was answered the b^ead was bought by the commissioners at Barbadoes,and mustbespent,which itmighthave been without prejudice, ifdelivered out for one day in the week to all seamen and landmen. And herel muitquery, whetherthebadbread inthefleetwasnotgiven the landmert upon this pretence? It is true the provisions were bad, so that they were resused by the fleet in England, and therefore sent by the victuallers ot the navy to Barbadoes to be fold; which we were forced to buy rather thall starve, being our own stores came not to us, preserring bad food before none. Y.'e left Barbadoes the last of March, and by the way dispatched some business at St. Christopher's, where we took in a regiment foot j and then when we came from St. Christopher's muttered on

vboaid hoard, and, sinding great want of arms, we once more desired a supply from the fleet, who had above a thousand two hundred pikes to spare, and a large quantity of lances, but were resused by general Penn the loan of one pike or lance (though the lances were put on hoard for the army to kill cow?,) so that we were constrained to use half pikes, lhovter by two loot than the enemy's, which gave them great advantage against us. Our next business (which lasted long and was interwoven with other debates,) was a clause in the commissioners instructions from his highness, that they should dispose of asl preys and booties got by sea or land towards the carrying on of the present service and design; which, when it came into agitation, I told the commissioners I conceived it was to be understood of stops and their lading, or ol large quantities of treasure in towns or forts; for if, as they understood, it were to be intended of all forts of pillage, it was not possible to be put in execution; besides I did sear it would disgust the army and turn them against me, and if 1 lost the ofsicers affections I conceived it would utterly disable me to serve his highness; for this was so contrary to what had been practised in England, as I doubted it would be impossible to satisfy them, and how to bring them from pay and plunder (both which they had in England) to have neither pay nor plunder, without the propounding some sit medium, I thought it was impossible. 1 he thing was propounded to the ofsicers, and a tortnight's pay propounded to them in lieu of their pillage of Santa Domingo. The ofsicers being in arrears, and manv of them coming in hopes of pillage into a country where they conceived gold as plentiful as stones, demanded three months; I with entreaty drew them to accept ol six weeks pay, an3 in this time of dispute I drew up a declaration that did satisfy the ofsicers, and the commissioners did so sar approve of it asthat thcygaveorder to have it drawn sair; for each regiment one, that they might subscribe it. The order follows:

'By the commissioners appointed by his highness for managing the affairs of America with the consent of the officers: Whereas it hath been the pi aclice of the hell commanders and be/I ordered armies that ever have been, not only to make Jlricl laws, but execute the fame with like flriEt severity upon such officers and soldiers as should pillage or plunder without licence, or conceal what they had Jo pillaged, aud not bring it to the public Jlore or Jlock; in regard many armies have been thereby ruined and destroyed when they have had the victory m pojfejjion, yet by that only Jault have given the

enemy opportunity to xvrest the same out ol their hands, as the French at Ga-
righan and the Venetians at Tacobul; also, because the men that actually
periormed the fh vice of the day lye Jlain, wounded, or have the enemy Jiill before
them, so that without imminent ruin they cannot seek after spoil; but persons,
ubofe deserts merited little or nothing in the service of the day, carry away
the profit of the -whole success, to the singular discouragement of brave reso-
lutions, toho usually get nothing but blows; the injustice of which catlfed
D and to make it a military law Samuel I. SQth chapter and 2Uh verse,
to give equal lliare to every person of the army though not present in the ac-
tion; and though the equity of the thing carry enough with it to justify the pro-
ceedings of antiquity against so great angvil, the disorder being of jo danger-
ous a consequence, and contrary to reason and religion, that a few persons (who
are usually the leafl deserving,) sliould carry away the wlwle reward of the
victory and success purchased by the blood and hazard of all: Wherefore, it
is his highnesses special commands to us, that we fliould rectify so great a
disorder crept so far into modern armies, and that a juji account be taken of
the pillage and booties, to the end that an equal distribution may bemade thereof
to all persons; according to every man s quality and merit: It is therefore here-
by ordered that no persons of ivhat degree or quality soever do presume to pil-
lage rath out licence, or to conceal, detain, or keep, to his oxen private use
or profit, any arms, money, plate, jewels, or goods whatsoever, upon pain of
forfeiture of his interest in the xvhole pay or pillage, and likewise to suffer the
pain of death lor the said offence. And it is hereby further ordered and de-
clared, that officers shall be chosen by mutual consent, and sworn to rece'we and
dispofe of all pillage and booties, according to every mans place, quality, arid
desert; and the said officers fliall take an oath to execute the said place justly
and truly, and the distribution fliall be made by the advice of persons choj'en
by the o'h'ccrs and soldiers, according to each mail's quality and merit.
Given under our hands this day of

Richard Venables,
William Penn.

But when all thing«were mnde ready, the commissioners (general Penn and myself excepted) resused to sign the order, which gave the officers great offence; who, to satisfy the commissioners, had several of them agreed to sign the ensuing declaration, in ease the commissioners would have signed the foregoing order:

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Whereas we have received an order from his highnesses commissioners, for managing the affairs of America, declaring his highnesses instructions to them, and therein/ requiring an exact account from them of all prizes and booties taken by sea or land, that so every officer and soldier may receive au equal fliarc, according to their several qualities, places, and. deserts, and jor the carrying on of the public!; service ; and being convinced by the reasons alledged in the fame of the injustice, dangerous inconveniences, and the unreasonableness, of that too frequent and unreformed disorder, that a sex (and those usually that perform lea/l of the service) should engross to themselves tvhat is purchased by the blood and hazard of all the forces, xce do wholly approve of the order, and also engage for ourselves that xce will nut vio'att the fame; but endeavour to cause all under our several charges and commands to give obedience to the said command, and to bring all (fenders againfi the said law and order to punishment; and snail, after our respective pay is discharged, acquiesce hi the disposing and issuing l orth ol the remainder by the said commijjioners, either as rewards to deserving persons, sr for necessaries to carry on the service, and, if necessity require, to lend our pay to provide the said necessaries as the cdnvn'/Jimers (liall appoint; and, if the Lord lliall bless us with so high successes, in returning tlie overplus to ease the burthens of our dear native country, for whofe fake next to the glory of God this design is undertaken..

So that had not pertinacity and weakness blinded thccflmmirTioncrsthey -would have got the disposal of all into their own hands, only by yielding so far as to give discontented persons (whom by force they could not compel) a sew sair words; which I suppose no wise man would have resused, when To much inconvenience must follow the denial. But I myself, being as well a commissioner, was put to great strait, being wholly a stranger to the army, which, occasioned Mr. Winstow to think that it would cause the army to disgust me, and so make me uncapable of doing any service, having lost the hearts of the ofsicers; for several of them charged me with neglect to them in siding with the commissioners to take away their privileges; for being wont to have pillage when they took any place by. storm in England, and so had boih pay and pillage; and now being in a strange country, where they had no pay, to be denied pillage, much exasperated their spirits, having no conssidence in me: for I had neither ofsicer nor soldiers that had experienced mv saithsulness to them, as they were all strangers to me, and I to them. 1 was necessitated to entreat -the ofsicers to entrust me, alluring them 1 would endeavour their advantage tage, and that for my own particular I should disclaim any thing os right or advantage, and wholly endeavour theirs; and so intreated them to accept of six weeks pay from the commissioners, if God should give them the place, which they consented to at my request. I moved the commissioners to join with me to alhire it to the soldiers; but it was denied me; and then 1 was forced to make a new request to the soldiers, that they ihould venture their lives as I'should do mine, and trust God for the reward, which they assented to: but withal many of them declared they would never strike a stroke more where there should be com* missioners to controul the soldiers, but would return for England with speed; and thus the bsiiincss about dividing the bear's skin before killed was laid aside and let steep for a time, but it will wake much more sierce than formerly ; for, if it were dissatissaction at sirst, it would prove mutiny, when ripe. In conclusion, myself and ofsicers with some of the commissioners propounded and insisted to run the fieet into the harbour of St. Domingo; yet the fleet opposed, and would not, pretending a boom; though Cox, our guide, who but a little before came thence, denied it; so that their denial and resusal constrained us upon a resolution to land at the River lline; and, hearing there was a fort and a trench, we voted to try to force them; and jto that end passed the votes following:

i

f.

At A Council Of War Held On Board The Swiftsure, Thk 7th OF APRIL, 1655, Where Myself And The Colonels Of

THE SEVERAL REGIMENTS WERE PRESENT.

Resolved,

THAT the army land at the River Hine.
That the regiments cast lots who shall land sirst.
That two or three be landed at once.
That the seconds to each regiment be appointed.

That the ships in which each regiment is transported be ordered tu fail very near in company, for the better ordering the several regiments •t landing.

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