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Ver. 23: “ And all the churches shall know, that I am he who “ searcheth the reins and hearts; and I will give unto every one of “you according to your works.”
ερευνων νεφρους και καρδιας, , That I am searching reins and hearts. WICLIF. God communicated to the man Jesus Christ the power of searching the reins and hearts. LIMBORCH: Theol, Christ. lib. v. cap. 18, $ 10.
“Οτι εγω ειμι
Chap. iii. 14: .... “ These things saith the Amen, the faithful and true witness, the beginning of the creation of God.”
“Η αρχη της κτισεως του θεου, Opificii Dei caput. CASTALIO. Le principe des créatures de Dieu. FATHER SIMON. The chief of the creation of God. — DR. J. P. SMITH.
He is the most excellent and first of all the works of God. Apxn is a Hebraism, from n'w87: thus in Job xl. 19, the elephant is said to be “the chief of the works of God;” which the French would express by un chef-d'oeucre, a masterpiece. — CASTALIO. [In his Biblical Notes, p. 191, J.J. GURNEY interprets apxn, when applied to a person, as here, not the beginning, but the chief, the principal, &c.]
The beginning of the new creation, spoken of in 2 Cor. v. 17. Gal. vi. 15, also Col. i. 15. James i. 18. - GROTIUS. The head of the church founded by God. - SCHLEUSNER: Lex. in Nov. Test. v. KTLOIS. As the church is here spoken of, I am of opinion, that by the word creatures we should understand Christians, of whom Christ is the Head and Lord; being, as the Messiah, the beginning and author of the New Jerusalem.- FATHER SIMON. [The expression is similarly interpreted by RUPERT and RIBERA, apud Pereira, Op. p. 187, G; by Dr. HAMMOND, in loc.; and Bishop Fell, in his note on Eph. ii. 10.]
[Dr. WATERLAND, in his Sermons on the Divinity of our Lord Jesus Christ, p. 53, regarding the original as indicating Christ to have been the efficient cause of the material creation, acknowledges that “ thing can with any certainty be proved from this passage alone.” To the same purport, G. HOLDEN, Script. Test. p. 332.]
Rev. v. 5: “And one of the elders saith unto me, Weep not: “ behold, the Lion of the tribe of Judah, the root of David,” &c.
'H pila Aubio, Et de la race de David. FATHER SIMON. Le rejeton de David.-LE CLERC, BEAUSOBRE ET L'ENFANT, and CALMET.
By metonymy, a branch from the root of David. GROTIUS and J. G. ROSENMÜLLER. Descended from the family of David. SCHLEUSNER: Lex, in Nov. Test. v. 'Pesa, 6.
[So interpreted by DRUSIUS, MARLORAT, and a host of critics and commentators.]
Chap. v. 9–13: “And they sung a new song, saying, Thou art “ worthy to open the seals thereof; for thou wast slain, and hast “ redeemed us to God by thy blood, out of every kindred,” &c.
And they sung a new song, &c. As the fundamental reason for which God the Father receiveth worship of the Jews and Gentiles is because he hath created all things, and preserves them by his will, to have it perfected and executed on them; so the fundamental reason for which the Son is worshipped is because he was slain, and shed his blood to redeem thereby all mankind. Daubuz (who afterwards endeavours to explain this Unitarian remark in conformity with Trinitarianism).
And all said with a loud voice, All power, &c. are most worthily attributed to Christ as a reward of his crucifixion, All this dignity to himself, and advantages to believers, are a just reward of his sufferings, by which he hath dearly bought them. — DR. HAMMOND on ver. 12.
In short, the whole rational world, methought, bore a part in magnifying the Supreme Father, the Original of all mercies, the Fountain of all knowledge and wisdom, the Creator of all things; and in celebrating the praises of Jesus Christ, for his redemption of mankind, and as the revealer of the divine will, and providences of God, to his church. Pyle on ver. 13.
Here [referring to chap. iv. 11] you see plainly that the adoration paid to God the Father is founded on his being the Creator of all things.
.... Here [referring to chap. v. 9, 12] you as plainly see the worship paid to Christ to be founded in this, that he was slain,
and did by his blood redeem us. ....
From all which it is evident that the worship paid to Christ is founded on the redemption, and relates to that power and authority which he received from God at his resurrection, · Bishop SHERLOCK: Works, vol. ii. p. 491; Disc. 1.
[This passage is not unfrequently adduced to prove that our Lord is entitled to divine worship: but the writers from whom we have quoted clearly show, that the homage here paid to God and to the Redeemer is different; — the ascription of praise which is presented to the Father having reference to his supremacy as the Creator of the universe; and that to Jesus Christ relating to his delegated power, and his sufferings in the cause of human salvation. The reasons assigned by DAUBUZ, HAMMOND, PYLE, and SHERLOCK, for the praise ascribed in Rev. v. 9-13, will also apply to chap. i. 5, 6, and 2 Pet. ii. 18.]
Chap. xiv. 13: “And I heard a voice from heaven saying unto “me, Write, Blessed Care] the dead who die in the Lord from hence“ forth: Yea, saith the spirit, that they may rest,” &c.
That is, the angel, as in chap. ii. and iii. - LE CLERC. The Spirit of ancient prophecy by Isaiah, ... lvii. 1, 2. — PYLE.
Chap. xvii. 14: “ These shall make war with the Lamb, and the “ Lamb shall overcome them; for he is Lord of lords, and King of
kings (Κυριος κυριων εστι και Βασιλευς βασιλεων), and they that are “are with him [are] called,” &c. - See chap. xix. 16.
A great lord is termed Lord of lords, because he possesses authority over many other lords. The title King of kings is used of him who rules over a number of kings; and was formerly employed of the sovereigns of Persia, Assyria, Babylon, and Egypt. — DRUSIUS.
King of kings, or God's vicegerent over the whole earth; a title belonging to him alone whom God hath anointed his king, Ps. ii. 2, 6. — PYLE. [Similarly interpreted by GROTIUS and the Assembly's Annotator.]
On account of his exaltation to heaven, at the right hand of God the Father, Jesus is called the King of kings and Lord of lords. LIMBORCH: Theol. Christ. lib. ii. cap. 2, § 16. [To the same purport, Archbishop SECKER, Lect. vii. vol. i. pp. 102–3.]
Even as man, Christ is the King of kings, and the Lord of lords. — CALMET on chap. xix. 16.
King of kings, according to the style of the oriental languages, answers to great, as if it was ueyas Baoilevs, the great king, which was the style of the Greeks when they spake of the Persian monarchy. But such reduplications were not so proper to the oriental style, but that, to show the excellency of any thing, the Greeks and Romans used them too; of which many instances might be given out of the best authors. DAUBUZ on chap. xix. 16.
Rev. xix. 12, 13: “ He had a name written that no man knew “ but he himself; and he [was] clothed with a vesture dipped in “ blood; and his name is called The Word of God.”
This is the same name that is called new, chap. iii. 12. — This new name is that of Christ or Messiah, and Head of the church, which is the New Jerusalem.— FATHER SIMON on chap. xix. 12 and iii. 12.
The 13th verse tells us, this name is the Word of God; which is said here not to have been “ known to any man;" not upon account of the incomprehensibility of what is meant by it, or of the dignity and authority belonging to it. ... I rather should think, that by no man's (ovoels, no person's) knowing this name (or title or character, ovoua) is meant no person's having it, beside Christ. As to know joy or sorrow is to have and feel it; the same as seeing death, and seeing life, is to die or live. — PYLE. .
Chap. xx. 11, 12: “ And I saw a great white throne, and him “ that sat on it. And I saw the dead, small and great, stand "before God (EVWTLOV TOU Osov)," &c.
Him that sat on it. Christ, to whom God hath committed this judgment, John v. 22. Acts xvii. 31. GROTIUS. [Similarly, Father Simon.]
EvWTLOV TOV Spovov. - GRIESBACH, J. G. ROSENMÜLLER, and VATER.
Before the throne. Wells and BOOTHROYD. Opovov, not Ocov, is here read in the Alexandrian and several other manuscripts, and in all four ancient versions, and Arethas. DR. WELLS.
Chap. xxi. 6, 7: “ And he said unto me, It is done. I am Alpha "and Omega, the beginning and the end. .... I will be his God, and “ he shall be my son.”
I decreed and foretold all these things, and now have brought them all to pass.
ASSEMBLY'S ANNOTATOR. [Dr. DODDRIDGE, with some hesitation, understands “the Father as the person spoken of,” in ver. 5, and probably in the consecutive verses.]
Chap. xxii. 13: “I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the “end, the first and the last.”
I am Alpha and Omega, the beginning and the end: That is, fulfilling the promises. What, in chap. i. 8 and xxi. 6, was attributed to God, is here attributed to Christ, who is the genuine image of the fidelity of his Father : see 2 Cor. i. 20. The first and the last (see note on chap. i. 17): Chief in dignity, I suffered myself to be reduced to an infirm condition.. GROTIUS.
Ver. 16: “I am the root and the offspring of David, [and] “the bright morning star."
Η ριζα και το γενος του Δαβίδ,
Le rejeton et la race de David.. BEAUSOBRE ET L'ENFANT. Le rejeton et le fils du David. - CALMET.
Here the conjunction and is explanatory; for the root signifies a shoot; and the shoot, offspring. — GROTIUS. Christ is so called in respect of his human nature, which descended froin David. Dutch ANNOTATORS. [So interpreted by SCHLEUSNER, and many others. See Isa. xi. 10. Rom. xv. 12. Rev. v.5, “ Concessions,” pp. 196, 429, 578.]
Ver. 17: “ And the spirit and the bride say, Come. And let him " that heareth say, Come,” &c.
The Spirit and bride: All the prophets and all the apostles; the church of God under the Old Testament, and the church of Christ under the New.-DR. A. CLARKE. [Similarly, J. G. ROSENMÜLLER, and many others.]