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Hitherto nothing has appeared to indicate the angel to be more than what the name usually imports, an ordinary messenger of God's will, and the agent of his providence. Nor will it appear otherwise from what follows in these two verses, if we attend to the proper distinction between what the angel speaks in his own person, and what he delivers as the immediate words of God. — DR. BLAYNEY : Note to Zech. ii. 10, 11, p. 11. [After having given at some length his reasons for explaining the text as having been in part spoken by Jehovah, and in part by the angel, the learned writer thus proceeds:] I am now ready to appeal to the conviction of every sensible and unbiassed reader, whether the explanation I have offered be not according to the obvious and literal sense of the words; and whether the construction be not more easy and natural than that which is contended for in opposition to it. There is, indeed, good reason to believe, that no part of the revelation of the Old Testament was delivered through the immediate ministry of the Son of God; since that is cited as the distinguishing characteristic of the gospel dispensation, Heb. i. 1, 2.- DR. BLAYNEY: Appendix to Translation of Zechariah, in reply to Dr. Eveleigh, pp. 80, 81.

ZECH.ü.2: “And Jehovah said unto Satan, Jehovah rebuke thee,” &c.

It is not only implied by the form of rebuke which follows, that the Lord did not himself rebuke Satan, but that it was done by the ministry of an angel, &c. - DR. WELLS.

He who before was termed the angel of Jehovah is in this verse called Jehovah, because he acted as Jehovah's representative. — E. F. C. ROSENMÜLLER.

Chap. iv. 6: “ Not by might, nor by my power, but n172, by my spirit, saith Jehovah of hosts.”

That is, the building of this temple, and more especially of the Christian church, should not be effected by secular power, nor by human might, but by the divine agency.

WILLIAMS. [My spirit here is interpreted by WELLS, “my providence;" by E. F. C. ROSENMÜLLER, “ the divine assistance;” by BOOTHROYD, “divine power;" and by ADAM CLARKE, “ the providefice, authority, power, and energy of the Most High."

Chap. xii. 10: “ And I will pour upon the inhabitants of Jeru“salem, the spirit of grace and of supplications; and they shall look

upon me whom they have pierced, and they shall mourn for him, as "one mourneth for Chis] only (son),” &c. - See John xix. 37.

They shall look upon me, 1777 708, whom they have pierced. That is, whom they have continually vexed with their obstinacy, and grieved my spirit, John xix. 37, where it is referred to Christ's body, which here is referred to the spirit of God. ANNOTATOR IN BARKAR'S BIBLE, 1576.

In the expression, " They shall look upon me whom they have pierced” (these words being spoken by God), is implied, that, in the piercing of Christ, God himself, figuratively speaking, was pierced through the wounds of his beloved Son; he being infinitely dear to his heavenly Father, and his cause the cause of God. — J. BENSON.

If any one be disposed to think that a distinction of person is intimated here, I make no opposition; but I fear that this subtilty is not sufficiently cogent. — CALVIN.

GROTIUS, LESSIUS, ROSENMÜLLER, and HARTMAN, render the words of the prophet: “ They shall desire me,” God, “whom they formerly rejected,” or “ treated with contumely." These writers observe, that the verb 7p7 signifies not only to pierce, to wound, but also to treat some one injuriously, to insult, or blaspheme some one, as aps is used in Lev. xxiv. 16; and that the apostle John cites the passage in Zechariah merely by way of accommodation, since his language does not correspond either to the Hebrew text, or to the Alexandrian version. KUINOEL: Com. in John xix. 37.

,וחביטו אלי (אליו ,various reading) את אשר דקרו

(, ) , And they shall look towards him whom they pierced. -- BLAYNEY.

And they shall look on him whom they have pierced. - BOOTHROYD; and ARCHBISHOP LEIGHTON, in Com. on 1 Pet. ii. 25.

Ut aspiciant quem transfixerunt. HOUBIGANT [who says that be should be erased].


The Seventy and Theodotion read 58, as it now stands in the printed Hebrew text; but the context manifestly requires it to be 158, in conformity with vby, which occurs twice in this verse.

ACcordingly, above fifty manuscripts are now to be found which read here v5x, ad illum, exactly agreeable to the evangelist. — DR. HENRY Owen: Modes of Quotation used by the Evangel. Writers, p. 66.

As the Deity speaks in the preceding text [Zech. xii. 10],[it could scarcely have been translated, “ They shall look upon me whom they have pierced;" but rather, “ They shall look upon me with him whom they pierced;" that is, They shall fix their eyes and hopes upon me, and upon him whom they have pierced. The latter person might certainly be the Messiah; but John does not so translate it, but “ They shall look upon him whom they have pierced.”.... The multiplicity of manuscripts decides in favour of my supposition, and that John, in deviating from the Septuagint, still retained the original sense. The most difficult chapter [Zech. xii.] of the most difficult and the least understood of all the prophets. — J. D. MICHAELIS: Burial and Resurrection of Jesus Christ, pp. 59–61.

It is evident that the evangelist here plainly read vbs, him, instead of 58, me, in the Hebrew. But so also read thirty-six Hebrew manuscripts, and two ancient editions; and that this is the true reading appears by what follows, “and they shall mourn for him." On the authority of these manuscripts, Archbishop Newcome reads and translates, vobs, him. — HARTWELL HORNE: Introduction to the Study of the Scriptures, vol. ii. p. 361.

[Dr. Wall says that the very syntax shows that the Hebrew must originally have corresponded to look on him.]

Were the matter to be decided by the number and weight of authorities, I am of opinion with De Rossi, that the scale would turn

. But what if it should appear, that there is no error at all in the present Hebrew text, and yet a perfect uniformity between it and the words of the evangelist? It will be granted, that 1707 908 ns, taken by itself, would be rightly translated by óv EZEKEVTnOav, ne being simply the sign of the accusative case. But obs may not be the compound of bs and the affix pronoun ', as it is now pointed; but the prepositions, of the same use and signification as %s, and so answering to als, ad, versus. Nor is it any objection that be is followed by ns, which some have proposed to expunge; such a concurrence of prepositions being allowed by the idiom of the Hebrew language; of which we have seen an instance before, chap. ii. 10, ya nnn 58, and another occurs, Lyn 58, chap. xiv. 5; to which may be added, n177w7 nian sx, 2 Chron. xxii. 14.

There is, therefore, no real difference between the evangelical citation and the present Hebrew text, admitting an alteration in the punctuation; and it is from this mistake about 5x that several of the versions have expressed it by προς με,

on me." The ellipsis of the antecedent of ws ng is more elegant in Hebrew, as well as Greek, than if it had been expressed. — DR. BLAYNEY.

.אלי in favour of

ad me,

Chap. xii. 7: “Awake, O sword! against my shepherd, and against “the man [that is] my fellow, saith Jehovah of hosts,” &c.

Against my shepherd. Judas Maccabeus. - GROTIUS. The whole order of pastors and shepherds. - ASSEMBLY's Annot.

niny, omithi, or amithi, my fellow. Mihi propinquum. - LUTHER. Propinquum meum. - MUNSTER, CLARIUS.

Proximum meum. — TREMELLIUS AND JUNIUS ; GROTIUS; JAMES CAPPEL, Observ. p. 694. Proximum mihi. LE CLERC. Qui meus proximus est. HOUBIGANT. Cognatum meu CECOLAMPADE. Sodalem meum.


Cohærentem mihi. - GROTIUS. Celui qui m'est attaché. -CALMET. Mihi carus.

SCHULZ, COCCEIUS, and Daths, apud G. Holden's Script. Test. p. 161.

That cleaveth to me. DOUAY TRANSLATORS. people. - TYNDAL, COVERDALE. My companion. - DUTCH ANNOT. Next unto me. — DR. BLAYNEY. 'n'ny nad, the man of my resemblance. — DR. J. P. SMITH.

The strong man, or the hero, that is with me; my neighbour. – DR. ADAM CLARKE,

Prince of my



Spoken by Jehovah of the Jewish nation. GIBBS : Gesenius's Hebrew Lexicon.

, .... a neighbour; one you are with or near. .... , my fellow, mate or associate, sc. in the work of redemption.

redemption. -JULIUS BATE: Crit. Heb. p. 428.

n'ny signifies an associate, a neighbour, or a friend, and whoever is joined to us in authority. I have no doubt, that, by this title, God distinguishes his shepherds, because he represented himself by them to his people; and the more eminent any one is, the more nearly allied is he to the Deity. ... The prophet speaks of shepherds as God's associates, on account of their union with him, and because, as St. Paul says, they are “ fellow-workers” and “ labourers together with God,” 2 Cor. vi. 1. 1 Cor. iii. 9. - CALVIN. [The pse is similarly explained in the Assembio's Annotations.

The same thing is expressed in other words. This shepherd or associate is called by Jehovah his associate, because he is about to discharge the same functions with himself; for Jehovah is also termed the Shepherd of his people, Isa. xl. 11. — E. F. C. ROSENMÜLLER. [So Drusius, who applies the word n'oy to the magistrates and teachers of God's people.]

I am fully convinced, that the proper sense of the appellation, my fellow, is “ the companion, equal, compeer, of the Lord of hosts; ... the same “shepherd” who is called “ the Lord God” in Isa. xl. 9-11. But, as the word translated fellow is one which does not of itself necessarily imply equality, it might be difficult, on grounds merely critical, derived from the phraseology of the text itself, to establish the justice of this interpretation to the satisfaction of those who are not previously convinced of the great and blessed truth for which I am contending. For similar reasons, I have omitted Zech, xi, 12, 13, in the enumeration of passages in the second edition of my Discourses.

The passage, with its application by the evangelist Matthew (chap. xxvii. 9, 10) is, in various respects, obscure and difficult. — DR. WARDLAW: Unit. Incap. of Vind. pp. 195, 196. [Dr. BOOTHROYD, in Family Bible, adheres to the version, my fellow, because,” he

says, “ I think there is the same ambiguity in the term fellow that there is in the original.” [In accordance, then, with the remarks of these eminent theologians, no proof can be derived from the phrase for the equality of Christ with the Being whom he called his Father and his God.]

This passage has been usually understood to predict the sufferings and death of Christ. I have no conception, that it has the most distant relation thereto. Yet some have gone so far as to find in the word 'n'ny a proof of the Divinity of Christ's person. But all that can be made of niny is, that it may signify a neighbour, one that is near or next to another, or that bears some kind of correspondency or resemblance to him, but exclusive of the idea of parity. 972 is, no doubt, often used for a man simply; but its proper sense is, one superior to others in strength, power, or authority. I conceive, therefore, that nypy na might properly be rendered, “him that is next unto me in power and authority;" which exactly corresponds with "my shepherd” in the parallel line; one that rules his flock, or people, under me, or by virtue of my commission. — I should think it would be requisite to show, by some better argument than a bare assertion, that equality of nature or consubstantiality is necessarily implied in the term 'n'py. For though a man and his neighbour, who liveth near him, be of the

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