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as if performed by the hand of the intelligent operative, but in very many instances far superior. A mere catalogue of these would fill a volume ; suffice it to mention the locomotive, the loom, the die-sinking machine, sewing machines for tailors, sowing machines for farmers ; sawing, planing, and moulding machines for wood or iron; and, last of all, the crowning triumph, the mighty press !
Now, what must become of us if every yard of calico, or muslin, or lace, had to be woven by hand, and each warp spun by the distaff and spinning-wheel? Why, the fair daughters of England must needs toil so hard and long that they would lose the irresistible charnis of “merry hearts and laughing eyes,” the matchless rosetint of their cheeks, and the peerless symmetry of their limbs. And then as to the young men :-the entire of their waking hours would be absorbed in the monotonous employment of jerking a shuttle from right to left, and anon from left to right, so that they would have no time to serenade their lady-loves; and if they had, their tender appeals would be drowned in the everlasting hum of the spinning-wheel. Thanks to our hero, this is not the case ; he has enabled us to delegate much of our labour to obedient auxiliaries, and realised for us greater acquisitions than Aladin's lamp could reveal. His personal appearance is somewhat homely, but his honest heart and native worth commend him to all who know how to appreciate the simplicity of the one, and the value of the other.
THE MERCHANT.— The propensity for trade or barter seems almost an inherent one, though there are few who distinguish themselves in the pursuit thereof. The true merchant is formed by nature, and his aptitude for business is shown at school in the exchange of peg-tops and marbles, as clearly as when in after-life he counts his profits by thousands of pounds. Who has not heard of the merchant of Bristol, who, when a boy, found a horse-shoe, and sold it for a penny, on which copper foundation he afterwards built up a fortune so ample as to be able to bestow in charity £1,000 per annum! Whilst, however, the enterprise of the merchant produces wealth to himself, it also enriches and benefits others I might say all. What must become of our skilled artizans and manufacturers, if they were not supplied from time to time with the raw material?
To what a primitive condition we should be reduced if we could not avail ourselves of the products of other countries; and how should we obtain these without the co-operation of the merchant, who supplies us with corn, and wine, and oil ; with timber for the shipbuilder, the carpenter, and the cabinetmaker ; with marbles for the sculptor; with laces and silks for our wives and daughters, for our sisters and sweethearts? And what would become of our dear old grandma's, were it not for Horniman’s, or some other man's tea, or Cassell's coffee, or Taylor's cocoa—all of which are secured to us by our merchant; to say nothing of plumpuddings, which our cook would be sorely puzzled to make without those essential adjuncts, the fruit of Spain, and the spices of the East and West Indies ? And what keeps so many thousands of looms in ominous silence at the present hour? Are they not waiting the arrival of our hero (unwillingly detained), with his cargo of cotton ?
Nothing would be easier than to furnish a long list of articles of daily consumption supplied by the merchant as, for example, hemp and flax, hides and tallow, molasses and sugar, metals and minerals, gems and precious stones ; not overlooking those delicious fruits which we love so well-when we can get them-pine-apples, oranges, grapes, &c. Surely some thanks are due to him who pours into our lap a cornucopæa of such choice exotics, and lays the wealth of Ind and the fragrance of Araby at our feet.
THE PHILOSOPER.-By many, the philosopher is set down as a worthless fellow, fit for nothing but to pore over musty old manuscripts ; or sit in his easy chair by the fire, watching the curling smoke ascending from his crucible; or sinking into dreamy reveries on the constituent elements of the Elixir of Life or the Philosopher's Stone! But “Wisdom is justified of her children,” and our champion's title is not a misnomer. Instead, then, of rashly asserting that all his airy visions ended in smoke, we should endorse the maxim of the old German sage—“Ex fumo dare lucem ;" and the light of science, which, like a halo, gathers around the brow of our hero, would cast its scintillations on our own obscurity; and thus, after sitting at the feet of the Great Master, like true disciples, we should rise up in astonishment on learning the connection between the matter-of-fact things of everyday life, and the profound
theories and curious experiments of our secluded friend and benefactor.
It is his peculiar province to demonstrate by analysis the simple elements of things; and then, by synthesis, to illustrate the endless combinations of which those elements are capable. We also learn from him the laws that
govern the various operations of nature ; and, under his guidance, we seize on nature's most powerful agents, and subject fire, water, air, and the several gases, to our control.
We cannot stop to enumerate the manifold discoveries made by our friend ; but, as familiar illustrations, we may instance the mariner's compass, the telescope, the safetylamp, the magnetic telegraph, and the innumerable applications of galvanism, electricity, calorie, air, steam, &c.; and it would be unpardonable to overlook that beautiful discovery by which we are enabled to draw with a pencil of light instead of a pencil of lead. In short, our philosopher is daily conferring incalculable benefits on the world, and has the strongest claims to be ranked amongst our champions.
THE POET.— The Great Teacher has said, that “ man shall not live by bread alone,” for man has an intellectual as well as a moral nature, and our poet ministers to the wants of the inner man, by supplying intellectual aliment, and reminding us that we are something more than mere machines. The range of the poet is all but universalnow meditating on the varied aspects of earth, and anon soaring far above the eagle's flight. How often he hath charmed us with running commentaries on the beauties of nature, whilst he hath taught a lesson of humility from the lily of the valley, or admonished the strong to support the weak, as he points us to the oak and the ivy, "How oft hath he led us forth to gaze on the verdant landscape, the romantic glen, the impetuous torrent, the soft cadences of the shady brook, the awful grandeur of old ocean, or the silent eloquence of the starry heavens! Again, he leads us forth to witness the sublime spectacle of the warring elements, or the terrible belchings of the fierce volcano, and then, with a touch of his magic wand, transported us to the summit of some glorious eminence, from whence we have caught a glimpse of the land of the blest, and in the absorbing vision, fancied we have heard the unutterable sweetness of their spiritual melody,
“ Into the heav'n of heav'ns he hath presumed
An earthly guest--and breath'd Empyrean airs." He gives intensity to the mother's affection, and strength to the lover's plea. The patriot draws his inspiration from him ; fired by his soul-stirring lays, he nerves his arm to contend for his country's weal. Thus our champion's influence is felt in every land, whether the watchword be “ Rule Britannia,” or Mourir
pour la Patrie," or "Scots wha ha'e wi' Wallace bled !" Our poet is at once the herald of Peace, and Joy, and Hope. At his approach wan Despair hides his craven head, -the tempest of passion is hushed,--all Nature smiles, and comes forth decked in her bridal attire,—our hearts throb with emotion,-our eyes possess a telescopic as well as a microscopic vision, piercing the long vista of time and space on the one hand, and discovering hidden beauty on the other ;-in a word, by our champion poet's aid we discover
-tongues in trees, Books in the running brooks, sermons in stones,
And good in everything." THE PRINTER. — The art of writing, by which the silent symbol is made to convey to the reader the mind's imagery or the tongue's utterances, has for ages been the grand medium by which we have been made acquainted with the men and the events of the past; but this medium of transmitting knowledge was both slow and imperfect. The advancement of civilisation demanded that knowledge should increase, and with the demand came the supply. Archimedes boasted that he could lift the world, if he were provided with a lever and a fulcrum. Our champion has found both : the mighty press is his fulcrum, and knowledge is the lever by whose resistless power the world is indeed being raised, and its cold, benighted portion exposed to the sun of Truth and Light. Although the most youthful of all our champions, none have accomplished such stupendous results in so short a period. Hardly had he appeared amongst us, when he applied the master-key to those stores of knowledge—those venerable archives of bygone ages, which lay entombed in monasteries and state libraries; and by the aid of his magic art multiplied them with a rapidity which took the world by surprise ; so that
now every village, and almost every cottage, has its library. Every man who chooses, has now the right of entree to the grand levee of earth's noblest sons. Aristotle, and Plato, and Socrates, revisit our world, and become our tutors in the art of reasoning ; Demosthenes and Cicero captivate us with their dazzling eloquence; Homer and Virgil delight us with their song ; Xenophon and Plutarch command our attentive ear.
Look at that wonderful creation of our champion—the Newspaper; at once a terror to evil-doers, and a praise unto them that do well ; presenting a common platform on which highborn and lowly stand on equal terms ; and diffusing its light and influence alike in the palace and the cot, in the busy city, and the secluded hamlet, in the fashionable club and the village blacksmith's shop.
THE PREACHER.—In presenting our last worthy to your notice, we pray you not to consider his claims as inferior to the foregoing, but quite the reverse ; and if respect is due to high office, to moral influence, to burning zeal, to unfeigned benevolence, to great self-denial, to faithful counsel, to the herald of real liberty,—then it is due to the champion of the Cross ; to him whose office it is to proclaim®“ liberty to the captive, the opening of the prison doors to them that are bound, to preach the acceptable year of the LORD.”
" That undiscover'd country, from whose bourne
No traveller returns,” requires a guide, and such a guide we have in the preacher ; for he brings with him the highest credentials, bearing the seal of the Court of Heaven, and attested by the triune Godhead—the FATHER, Son, and HOLY SPIRIT—in whose name and by whose authority our champion offers pardon to the guilty, comfort to the afflicted, and brings life and immortality to light by the Gospel. And yet, none have had to contend with greater difficulties, or more powerful enemies--deep-rooted prejudice, pride, ambition, inveterate hate, ignorance, superstition, all these have been arrayed against him ; but, by the irresistible force of Truth and Love, our hero has won thousands of his opponents to his cause, whilst the mightiest kings have not been able to subdue him ; dungeons, torture, and the faggot alike have