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than the ores above named, and is rather more difficult to reduce. It is often magnetic and sometimes banded with dull red or white quartz. The iron is cold short, which is said to be one of the best qualities of this ore. The other ores of the district are red short. This ore is believed to be the most abundant in the district. At several points in the district, and accompanying the flag ore, is found a silicious iron ore, which contains a variable amount of oxide of manganese. This is of great value as a mixture.

There are forty mines now in the distriet, which have produced since their opening, up to and including the year 1872, an average of over 130,181 tons. The aggregate yield, in tons, from 1856 to 1872 inclusive, is 5,567,373. The value of this yield has been $14,373,833. There are fifteen furnaces in the district, which have produced since their establishment an average of over 23,858 tons. Their aggregate production since 1858, when the first was started, up to and including 1872, is 357,880 tons.

Michigan ranks as the second state in the union in the production of iron, Pennsylvania only leading her. The magnitude of her iron interest is seen in the fact that, in 1872, she furnished about one-thirteenth of the entire product of the world. But, great as it is, it is yet in its infancy. Mountains of solid ore, covering many square miles, exist within her limits; and, thousands of years hence, when this continent shall contain a population greater than now exists in the world, the iron mines of Michigan will still continue to pour out their rich treasures in inexhaustible abundance.

The principal copper mines in Michigan are in the counties of Keweenaw, Houghton and Ontonagon. The existence of copper in the upper peninsula was known to the Indians long before the white man had penetrated the depths of our forests; and the early white settlers were informed of its existence many years ago. But no active measures were taken to ascertain the extent of the deposits, or to reap any benefit from their rich stores, until year 1845.

At that time the fever of copper speculation broke out, and had a most disastrous run for several years. Numerous companies were organized, and speculations in copper

indulged in to an enormous extent. The Cliff mine


stocks were

was the first one developed. Three years were spent in developing it, with very discouraging results ; but at the end of that time, and just at the moment of success, the mine changed hands. In the hands of the new owners it proved to be exceed. ingly rich in both copper and silver. This mine is situated in Keweenaw county, just back of Eagle Harbor. In 1818 the Minnesota mine was discovered. Several years were spent in this mine with very little show of success. In 1855 the Pewabic mine was opened. The first four years the sum of $230,813 was expended, and $153,168 worth of copper was produced. Other mines were worked with similar results, some even more disastrously. Several causes conspired to produce these results. The St. Mary's canal was not yet built, and all supplies had to be packed around the falls. They were then carried in boats along the shores for hundreds of miles. When the .mining region was reached everything had to be packed on the backs of beasts or of men to the mines. Again, the want of practical experience in those who worked the mines led to much loss, great embarrassments, and final abandonment of enterprises that with practical skill and good judgment might have been successfully carried out. The want of scientific exploration and examination of these regions was also a serious drawback. With the completion of the canal all this was changed, and copper mining received a new impetus. Goods could be transported more cheaply, and the product of the mines could be readily transported to market. Scientific explorations followed, and capital and skilled labor were brought into requisition. The finances were managed with more care, and the mines were worked with greater judgment. The result has been a rich reward for the enterprise and capital invested, and the production of copper has come to be one of the great industries of the northwest.

The ore mined is of the richest quality, yielding about eighty per cent of ingot copper. Many times vast masses of pure native copper, weighing many tons, have been taken out. Smelting works have been established at Detroit, Cleveland, Pittsburg and Portage Lake. Twenty-five mines are now in successful operation, giving employment to over seven thousand men. The num

. ber of tons produced from 1845 to 1872, inclusive, is, 175,756.

The value of the copper produced in that time is estimated at $76,560,720.

The richness of the copper mines of the upper peninsula is not surpassed in the world. It is already one of the most important industries in the northwest, and further scientific research will undoubtedly lead to still more important results, and materially increase the wealth and commerce of the state.

The first attempt to develop the saline resources of the state was made by the late Dr. Douglas Houghton, then state geologist, under the authority of the legislature. An appropriation of $3,000 was made for this purpose, and operations were commenced in June, 1838. A spot was selected on the Tittabawassee river, ten miles above the site of the present village of Midland. Two thousand dollars of this appropriation were expended before the depth of 100 feet was reached, and those engaged in the prosecu- . tion of the work began to look upon the enterprise as hopeless. Work was continued, however, until a depth of 140 feet was reached, when it was abandoned. Dr. Houghton never lost faith in the ultimate success of the enterprise, having the fullest confidence in the existence of rich and extensive saline deposits underlying a large area of the surface of Michigan. After this failure the matter rested for a time. Occasionally wells were sunk in various parts of the state, but with poor success, until 1860, when the first paying well was sunk in the Saginaw valley. Before the close of that year 4,000 barrels were shipped. Since that time numerous paying wells have been sunk, the manufacturing process has been improved so as to materially reduce the cost of production, and to-day salt is one of the staple productions of the state. The principal salt region, as far as developed, is in the Saginaw valley. The wells are usually sunk in the vicinity of the saw mills, in order to be able to utilize the exhaust steam or the refuse of the mills, in the manufacture of the salt. This reduces the expense of manufacture to a minimum, and produces large returns in proportion to the capital invested and the labor involved.

A little over twelve years have elapsed since the first shipments were made from this state; but in that time over six mil. lions of barrels have been manufactured.

At the close of the year 1872 there were sixty salt manufacturing firms in the state, with a capital of $3,500,000 invested. These firms give employment to about 1,000 men, in the manufacture of salt and the business incident thereto. Their manu facturing capacity is about 1,158,000 barrels per annum.

The following shows the districts, and the character and capa city of the works, as arranged by the state salt inspector:

District No. 1, East Saginaw, has 4 salt companies, with 10 kettles, 1 steam and 2 pan blocks. Capacity, 140,000 barrels.

District No. 2, South Saginaw, 10 firms, with 10 kettles and 3 steam blocks. Capacity, 135,000 barrels. .

, District No. 3, Saginaw City, 8 firms, with 5 kettles, 7 steam and 1 pan block. Capacity, 150,000 barrels.

District No. 4, Carrolton, 6 firms, with 12 kettles, 2 steam and 1 pan block. Capacity, 175,000 barrels.

District No. 5, Zilwaukee, 6 firms, with 3 kettles, 4 steam and 3 pan blocks, and 2,776 solar salt covers. Capacity, 150,000 barrels.

District No. 6, Portsmouth, Bay City and Salzburg, 9 firms, with 6 kettles and 8 steam blocks. Capacity, 175.000 barrels.

District No. 7, Bay, Banks and Kawkawlin, 13 firms, with 4 kettles, 7 steam and 5 pan blocks, and 521 solar salt covers.

District No. 8, Huron county, 3 firms, one at Port Austin, one at Caseville, and one at White Rock. They have 2 kettles, 1 steam and 2 pan blocks, and 50 solar salt covers. Capacity, 50.000'barrels.

District No. 9, Mount Clemens, 1 firm, with 1 steam block. Capacity, 8,000 barrels.

At St. Clair a weli was sunk several years since. Good brine was obtained, and a salt block erected, from which a prime quality of salt was manufactured; but the manufacture was soon abandoned, owing, it is said, to the high price of fuel.

The manufacture of salt has also commenced in East Tawas, and a new inspection district is about to be erected.

The quality of Michigan salt is unsurpassed, and is rapidly taking the place of all others in the markets of the west. The following chemical analysis will show its character: Chloride of sodium, 97.288; chloride of calcium, 0.229; chloride of magnesium, 0.310; sulphate of lime, 0.697; moisture, 1.300; insoluble matter, 0.046. Total, 100.000.

The refuse from the manufactories is now being utilized. It produces aniline, one of the best known bases of color, and bromo-chloralum, an excellent disinfectant.

The discovery of gypsum in Michigan dates as far back as the time when Gen. Cass was governor of the territory. Nothing was done in the way of developing the beds until 1810, when the first plaster mill was erected at Grand Rapids. Two years before this, Dr. Douglas Houghton visited the Grand Rapids beds, and made a report which led to their development. The stratum of gypsum at this place is from eighteen to twenty feet in thickness, and corers an area of about 1,000 acres. The manufacture of plaster at Grand Rapids aggregates about 40,000 tons of land plaster, and about 60,000 barrels of stucco per annum.

About $500,000 is invested in the business, giving employment to about three hundred men. It is an excellent fertilizer, and finds a ready market among the farmers of this state and of Indiana.

Plaster is also found at Alabaster, Iosco county, and in the upper peninsula. The mines at Alabaster were only opened about six or seven years ago. They are located close to the water's edge, on an excellent harbor, and the facilities for mining and shipping are excellent. The plaster is taken from the mines to the dock over a tramway, where it is dumped from the cars into

A chemical analysis of the gypsum found in Michigan presents the following result: Sulphuric acid, 48; lime, 32; water, 20. Total, 100.

This business is destined to assume great magnitude, as the country settles up and the agricultural resources are developed. Its value as a fertilizer is rapidly becoming known and appreciated, and the demand increases from year to year.

Geologists have long since demonstrated the fact that an immense coal basin underlies the whole central portion of the state. Prof. J. W. Foster estimates the coal field of Michigan to be about one hundred feet in thickness, and to cover an area of five thousand square miles. Mines have thus far been opened at Jackson, at Corunna, Shiawassee county, and at Williamston, in the county of Ingham. The first operations in this line commenced in 1858,

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