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trees, called in the parlance of the country, 'oak openings ;' and in the southwest are rich prairie lands. The northern peninsula exhibits a striking contrast, both in soil and surface, to the southern. While the latter is level or moderately undulating, and luxuriantly fertile, the former is picturesque, rugged, and even mountainous, with streams abounding in rapids and waterfalls — rich in minerals, but rigorous in climate, and sterile in soil. The Wisconsin or Porcupine Mountains, which form the watershed between lakes Michigan and superior, are much nearer the latter than the former, and attain an elevation of about 2,000 feet in the northwestern portion of the peninsula. The eastern part of this division of the state is undulating and picturesque, but the central is hilly, and composed of table land. The shores of lake Superior are composed of a sandstone rock, which, in many places, is worn by the action of the wind and waves into fancied resemblances of castles, etc., forming the celebrated Pictured Rocks; while the shores of Lake Michigan are composed of a limestone rock. The streams on the northern slope of the Porcupine Mountains have a rapid descent, and abound in picturesque falls and rapids. The northern peninsula is primitive, and the southern secondary; but primitive rocks are scattered over the plains of the latter, of more than one hundred tons weight, most abundant on the borders of the Great Lakes, on the flanks of valleys, and where traces of recent floods are

. Lake Superior washes the northern shore of the state, Lake Michigan the western, and Lakes Huron and Erie the eastern. Detroit, between Lakes Erie and St. Clair, and Grand Haven, on Lake Michigan, are the principal ports of the state. The principal bays are Saginaw and Thunder bays on Lake Huron, Tequamenon and Kewechaw bays on Lake Superior, and Green, Little and Grand Traverse bays, and the Great and Little bays des Noquets, on Lake Michigan. A number of small lakes lie in the state. They possess no commercial value, but form a beautiful feature of the landscape. The rivers of the state are nearly all small. The Detroit and Ste

* Lippincott's Gazetteer, p. 1189.

Marie have been noticed. Those of the southern peninsula empty into lakes Michigan, Huron and Erie. Those flowing into lake Michigan are the St. Joseph's, Kalamazoo, Grand, Maskegon and Manistee. The Au Sable and Saginaw flow into lake Huron; the latter through Saginaw Bay, and the Huron and Raisin into lake Erie. The rivers of the northern peninsula are fine mill streams, but are unfit for navigation by reason of rocks and rapids. The principal are the Menomonee, Montreal and the Ontonagon. The first flows into Green Bay, and the others into lake Superior.” * A group of islands, forming Manitou county, lies in the northern part of lake Michigan.

The climate of the state is not as severe as other portions of North America in the same latitude, being greatly tempered by the lake breezes.

The existence of iron in the upper peninsular has long been known. The Indians, at an early day, gave information to the white traders which led to investigations; but it was not until a comparatively recent period that operations on an extended scale commenced. The first company organized for the purpose was called the Jackson Iron Company. This company was organized in 1845. It is still in existence, and its mine has yielded the largest amount of iron of any in the district save one -the Lake Superior mine only producing a larger amount.

Upon the organization of the Jackson Iron Company, one of the corporators visited the lake Superior country, and, guided by the Indians, discovered and located what are now known as the Jackson and Cleveland mines. On his return home he brought a specimen of the ore, a portion of which he sent to Pittsburg, and another portion to Coldwater, in this state, for the purpose of haying its quality tested. At the former place it was pronounced utterly worthless, but at the latter a more favorable report was made. In 1846 the first opening was made in the Jackson mine. The year following a forge was put in operation, in which the first ore taken out of the Jackson mine was manufactured into blooms. Hon. E. B. Ward purchased the first blooms manufactured by this company, and used the iron in constructing the walking-beam

* « The Great Republic,” p. 900.

of the steamer Ocean. Other forges followed soon after, and, in 1853, three or four tons of iron were shipped to the World's Fair at New York. Owing to the difficulties of shipping, there was little done until 1856, when regular shipments commenced.

The Cleveland mine was opened about the same time. The Marquette mine was next opened, and made its first shipment in 1868. Other mines were opened from time to tíme, as the attention of capitalists was attracted to the region.

Notwithstanding the unfavorable report made by the Pittsburg parties who tested the ore first shipped to them, lake Superior iron is now acknowledged to be the best in the world. Its strength per square inch, in pounds, has been found to be no less than 89,582. The nearest approach to this is in the best Russia iron, the strength of which is 76,069 pounds; whilst the best Swedish iron shows a strength of only 58,184. The common English and American iron bears a test of about 30,000 pounds.

Lake Superior iron has been practically tested in every possible use to which iron can be put, and the universal testimony is that it is the best in existence, both as regards strength and ease of manipulation.

The mines thus far developed are mainly in the county of Marquette. They are generally found in hills which are from 400 to 600 feet in height. These hills are in a range of about six miles wide and one hundred miles in length. They extend from lake Fairbanks to Keweenaw bay. In Menominee county there is another range of hills, equally rich in this ore, but they are at present undeveloped. This range crops out at Bayfield, and at several other points large deposits of magnetic ores are found, which prove to be almost pure native iron. Five different varieties of ores have been found. The most valuable is the specular hematite, which yields about 60 to 75 per cent. of metallic iron. The second in importance is the soft hematite, which yields about 50 per cent. in the furnace, and has the advantage of being more easily reduced than any other ore of the district. The magnetic ore is found west of the other ores of the district. The Michigan, Washington, Edwards and Champion mines produce this ore almost exclusively. The flag ore is slaty or shistose silicious hematite, containing a les3 per centage of metallic iron

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