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There were about 15,000,000 acres of improved land in the state in the year 1870, and, for that year, the agricultural statis. tics of the state are given authoritively as follows:
Bushels of wheat,
peaches, Tons of hay,
clover hay, Pounds of tobacco,
grapes, Gallons of wine,
sorghum molasses, Number of horses,
mules, sheep, swine, cattle,
26,499,729 62, 443, 346 24,417, 799 1,689, 416
223, 766 10,274, 605
611,046 15,518,685 1, 444,523 1,784, 947
360, 268 15,943, 116 18,723,377 38,783,607 20,520, 168
3,502,711 19,292,858 3,794,899
155,535 1,777,100 704,664
22,057 5,052,028 1,720,113 1,521, 421
The commerce and manufacturing of Ohio are immense, yet it is principally local, that is to say, the state has no foreign commerce. The lake and river commerce is estimated at $150,000,000 annually. This of course is principally river commerce. The number of steamers entering and clearing from Cincinnati is about 4,000 each way annually.
The manufactures of the state are no longer in their infancy. In 1860, Ohio bad 10,710 manufacturing establishments. These establishments employed a capital of $58,000,000, and 81,200 hands, consuming raw material worth $70,000,000, and yielding an annual product of $125,000,000. These figures place Ohio in
the third place among the states of the Union in commercial and manufacturing importance.
The state of Indiana has an area of 33,809 square miles, and is situated between 37° 50' and 41° 50' N. latitude, and between 84° 51' and 88° W. longitude. It is bounded on the north by Michigan and Lake Michigan, on the east by Ohio and Kentucky, on the south by Kentucky, and on the west by Illinois. It has a length from north to south of about 280 miles, and a width from east to west of about 144 miles.
There is nothing remarkable in the topography of the state. The Ohio river, which runs along the southern border of the state, is bordered by a range of hills, and, in addition to this there is a considerable portion of the southern part of the state that is rugged. A low range enters the state from Kentucky and crosses the soutbern half of the state in a northwestern direction. Where the White and Wabash rivers pass through this range there is a series of rapids, and the rapids of the Ohio river are produced by the same cause. North of the White river the country is rolling, or level. The western counties are for the most part continuous prairies, while in the northwest there are extensive swamp lands. Lake Michigan washes a large stretch of the northern boundary of the state, Michigan City being the principal town on the lake shore. The Ohio river is important to Indiana, in the same sense that it is to Ohio, washing, as it does, the entire southern boundary of the state. The Wabash rises in the western part of the state of Ohio, and enters Indiana near the center of the eastern boundary. It then flows northwest to Huntington, where it bends to the southwest, and flows in that direction across the state to the Illinois border, below Terre Haute. It then forms the boundary between Indiana and Illinois for about 100 miles, and empties into the Ohio river at the southwestern extremity of the former state. It is 550 miles long, and is navigable for 300 miles, for steamboats, at high water. The White river is the principal branch of the Wabash. It is formed by two branches, called the East Fork and the West Fork. The West Fork, which may be regarded as the main stream, rises in the eastern part of the state, and is 300 miles long. It flows through the central part of Indiana, and is navigable, at high water, for 200 miles above the mouth of the White river. The East Fork is 250 miles long, and is navigable for flat-boats. The two branches unite near Kinderhook, in Daviess county. The main stream is about 40 or 50 miles long. The general course of the White river and its branches is southwest. The Wabash is obstructed at low water by a ledge of rocks just above the mouth of the White river. The Maumee and its branches drain the northeastern counties, and the Kankakee, one of the sources of the Illinois, flows through the northwest. The upper St. Josephs of Michigan flows for thirty miles through this state, in the extreme northern part. The Tippecanoe and Mississinewa, flowing into the Wabash, the White Water and Blue river flowing into the Ohio, and the Flat Rock Blowing into the White river, are the other streams of importance.
The mineral resources of Indiana are prominent among the great attractions of the state. Coal, the most valuable of all minerals, exists in the state in great abundance. The measures, says Prof. E. T. Cox, cover an area of about six thousand five hundred square miles, in the southwestern part of the state, and extend from Warren county, on the north, to the Ohio river, on the south, a distance of about one hundred and fifty miles. The following counties lie within its area : Warren, Fountain, Parke, Vermillion, Vigo, Clay, Sullivan, Greene, Knox, Daviess, Martin, Gibson, Pike, Dubois, Vanderburg, Warrick, Spencer, Perry, and a small part of Crawford, Monroe, Putnam and Montgomery. The coal is all bituminous, but is divisible into three well marked varieties: caking coal, noncaking coal, or block coal, and cannel coal.
The total depth of the seams or measures is from six hundred to eight hundred feet, with twelve to fourteen distinct seams of coal, though they are not all to be found throughout the entire area of the field. The seams range from one foot to eleven feet in thickness, and the field may, from the character of the coal, be divided from north to south into two zones; the western contains the seams of caking coal, and the eastern the noncaking or block coal.
There are from three to four workable seams of caking coal, ranging from three and a half to eleven feet in thickness. At most of the localities, when these are being worked, the coal is mined by adits driven in on the face of the ridges, and the deepest shafts in the state are less than three hundred feet; the average depth to win coal being not over seventy-five feet. The analyses of samples of caking coal from different counties are here inserted, and will serve to indicate its value.
The five feet seam at Washington, Daviess county, is as follows: Specific gravity, 1,294; one cubic foot weighs 80.87 lbs. Coke
| Moisture @ 212° F.
60.00 Volatile matter
4.50 Ash, white 35.50 Gas.
This is a bright black coal, makes a very fair quality of coke, and yields four cubic feet of gas per pound, with an illuminating power equal to fifteen standard candles. The five feet seam in Sullivan county is as follows: Specific gravity, 1,228; one cubic foot weighs 76.75 lbs. Coke
This is a glossy, jet black coal, makes a good coke and contains a very large percentage of pure illuminating gas. One pound of coal yields 4.22 cubic feet of gas, with a candle power equal to fifteen standard sperm candles. The average calculated calorific power of the caking coals is 7745 heat units; carbon being equal to 8080. Both in the northern and southern portions of the field, the caking coals present similar good qualities, and will be a great source of private and public wealth.
The eastern zone of the coal measures has an area of more than four hundred and fifty square miles. It is here that we find the celebrated block coal, a fossil fuel which is used in the raw state for making pig iron. In fact this coal, from its physical structure and freedom from impurities, is peculiarly suited to metallurgical purposes. It has a laminated structure with carbonaceous matter, like charcoal, between the lamina, slaty cleavage and rings under the hammer. It is free burning, makes an open fire, and without caking, swelling, scaffolding in the furnace or changing form, burns like hickory wood until it is consumed to a wbite ash and leaves no clinkers. It is likewise valuable for generating steam and for household uses. Many of the principal railway lines in the state are using it in preference to any other coal, as it does not burn out the fireboxes and gives as little trouble as wood.
There are as many as eight distinct seams of block coal in this zone, three of which are workable, having an average thickness of four feet. In some places this coal is mined by adits, but generally from shafts, forty to eighty feet deep. The seams are crossed by cleavage lines and the coal is usually mined without powder, and may be taken out in blocks weighing a ton or more. When entries or rooms are driven angling across the cleavage lines, the walls of the mine present a zigzag, notched appearance, resembling a Virginia worm fence.
In 1871 there were about twenty-four block coal mines in operation, and about fifteen hundred tons were mined daily. Now there are more than fifty mines in operation, and the amount mined daily will reach nearly five thousand tons, and the demand is increasing faster than the facilities for raising it. Miners are paid from one dollar to one dollar and twenty cents per ton, and the coal sells, on the cars at the mines, for two dollars and seventy-five cents per ton of two thousand pounds. The usual estimate, to cover all expenses for running a mine, is fifty cents per ton, which leaves a net profit of from oue dollar to one dollar and twenty-five cents per ton.
Coal lands sell at from fifty dollars to five hundred dollars per acre, according to location and the extent of the investigations that have been made to prove the quality and quantity. The following analysis will serve to indicate the quality of the block coal:
Clay County, Star Mine, Planet Furnace. Ash, white,
2.74 1.68 Carbon,
4.39 Nitrogen, Oygen,
83.68 4.10 1.67