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The defendant was restrained («) by the action sometimes being in duplum (the Institutes add in triplum, but no instances are known) when there was a denial on the part of the defendant, as in cases of damni injuria and legacies left to holy places; (b) by the action being for more than the single value, as in the case of theft (1); (c) by infamy, which attends condemnation in an action tutela, mandati or depositi if direct, and pro socio (which is direct for both parties), and which attends not only condemnatio, but an agreement to commit the offence, in actions furti, vi bonorum raptorum, injuriarum, and de dolo. (2.)

The first step in an action was the vocatio in jus, the summons to the defendant to appear before the magistrate. Children, however, cannot summon ascendants, nor freedmen patrons or the children or ascendants of patrons, without having first received the permission of the prsetor. If they act without this permission, they are liable to a fine of fifty solidi. (3.)

2. The Office Of The Judge.—The Institutes first lay down the general duty of the judge, which is to judge according to the law, the constitutions, or customary usage. (Tit. 17. pr.) .If the judge gave a sentence wrong on the face of it, or fixed the condemnation below what the prsetor had fixed it, the sentence was void, and no appeal was necessary. If the judge was supposed to be wrong otherwise, notice of appeal had to be given within two days (or, if the defendant had appeared by a procurator, three days), enlarged by Justinian to ten days. The Emperor was the final judge of appeal, but Hadrian made the decisions of the Senate final, and Constantine those of the pnetorian prsefect.

Secondly, the Institutes point out what judgment ought to be given in certain actions:

(a) In a noxal action the judge ought to state the condemnation by ordering a sum to be paid, or the noxa abandoned. (2.)

(b) In a real action, if he determines against the claimant, he ought to absolve the possessor; if against the possessor, he ought to order the thing and its fruits to be given up, and, after the time of Hadrian, all the fruits consumed had to be accounted for, whether the possession was bona fide or mala fide, if the thing possessed was an inheritance. Before Hadrian as to inheritance, and before and after his time as to single objects, the rule was that a bona fide possessor had to account for fruits after the bringing of the action, the mala fide possessor for all. If the possessor showed that he could not give up the possession at once, he obtained a delay on giving security to give up within a time allowed him.

(c) In an action ad exhibendum the defendant must exhibit the thing and everything derived from it, as e.g. the fruits, since the bringing the action; nor will usucapion accomplished subsequently avail him. If he states that he cannot exhibit at once, he can obtain a delay on giving security, but if he neither exhibits nor gives security, he is to be condemned in an amount representing the interest of the plaintiff in having the thing exhibited at once.

(d, e,f) In the actions familise erciaoundce, communi dividundo, and jinium reyutulorum, the judge ought, if he gives one more than another, and one thus receives more than another, to make this favoured person pay a pecuniary equivalent. (4, 5, 6.) In the action finium regutvdorum, a person ought to be condemned who has destroyed boundary marks, or opposed, in defiance of the judge's order, the measurement of the land. (6.)

In all these three actions anything adjudged becomes at once the property of the person to whom it is adjudged. (7.)

Crimes.—The subject of public prosecutions being altogether outside the general subject of the Institutes, which treat of private law (Tit. 18. pr.), may be omitted here. A sketch of Roman criminal law is given in the last section of the Introduction.

INDEX.

AIM

ABSTINENDI beneficium, 217
Aeceptilatio, 391
Accessio, lii, 98
Accrescendi jus, 153, 198
Actio, Ix, 325, 423

divisions of actions, lxxii, 424
ad exhibendum, lxxiii, 156, 406. 448,
499

aestimatoria, 364
nrbitrarin, lxix, lxxiii, 426, 448
bona; fidei, lxxiii, 326, 426
calumnim, 4J)6
commodati, 329

communi dividundo, 104, 124, 500
confussoria, 429
contraria, 496
damni injuriae, 409
de a'stirauto, 445
de constitute prounia, 434
de dolo mnlo. 448
de inofficioso, 211, 213
de peculio et in rem verso, 460
de tigno juncto, 105
depensi, 354
depositi, 330
directa, lxxii, 426
cmpti, 367
exercitoria, 457
ex testament o, 386
familim erciscundse, 124, 499
fictitia, 426

sinium regundorum, 500
furti, -103, 443
hypothecaria, 473
in duplum, 439, 442
in factum concepta, lxxii, 425
in factum pram-riptis verbis, lxxii,
in jus concepta, lxxii, 426
in personam, 424
in rem, 424

in tupplementum legitime, 212
injurinrum, 417
mstitoria, 457
judicati, 461, 465, 467
legis, lxi, Ixvii
mandati, 377
mitta, 438, 441
negativa, 429

AN I

Actio ncgotiorum gestorum, 384
noxalis, 462
Pauliana, 433
perpetna, 471
persecutoria rei, 438
pigneratitia, 331
poenalis, 439
popularis, 423
praejudicialis, 437
Publiciana, 431
quasi institoria, 378
quasi Publiciana, 432
quasi Serviana, 135, 368, 434, 448
quod dolo malo, 448
quod jussu, 457
quod mctus causa, 443
receptitia, 435
roi uxoria;, 446
servi corrupti. 402
Serviana, 366, 434, 448
stricti juris, lxxiii, 326, 426
temporalis, 471
tributoria, 458
tutelm, 73
utilis. lxxii, 426
venditi, 367

vi bonorum raptorum, 409
Actus. 118
Addictio, 15

bonorum, 313
Ademptio legatorum, 244
Aditio hereditatis, 191, 221
Adjudieatio, liii, 124
Adjunctio, 103
Adoption, xl, 40-47, 186
plena, minus plena, 42
Adpromissor, 353
Adstipulator, 353
Adversaria, 358
JErarium, Ixiv, 229
Affinitas, 35
Ager publicus, 486

vectigalis, 92. 372
Agnati, xli, lv; succession of, 276-289
Agri limitati, 99
Album, xxi. 436
t Alluvio, 99

Animus domini, 95, 137, 492

AM

Animus possidendi, 137, -101

revertendi, 96
Annus utilis, 472
Appeal, xii, lxxiv, 497
Aqute ductus, 118
Aquilius Gallus, 392
Aquiliana stipulatio, 392
Arbiter, Ixii, 426
Arbitraria formula, 448
Argentarius, 435, 455
Arra, 362

Arrogatio, xl, liii, 43; acquisition by,

311
As, 193

Ascripti glebse, 16

Assertor libertatis, lxvi, 18, 437

Aureus, 67

BENEFICIUM abstinendi, 217
cedendarum actionum, 337, 356
competentia', 376, 446, 454
divisionis, 356
deliberandi, 219
inventarii, 220
legis Cornelise, 181, 354
ordinis, 356
S. C. Velleiani, 355
separationis, 215
Bona fides, 143
Bona vi rapta, 407
Bonitarium dominium, xlix
Bonorum addict io, 313; cessio, 317
distractio, 318
emptio, 317

possessio, 70, 166, 208, 303-311;

ro, 310
sectio, 370
Buildings, 105

CADUCA, 198, 228
Calata, comitia, 164
Calumnia, 259, 496
Capitis deminutio, xliii, 48, 60, 207
Capito, xxvii
Captivi, 180
Caput, 60

Catoniana regtda, 230, 242
Causa, 450, 480; causa justa, 143
Cautio, 348, 360

judicatum solvi, 468
Census, 18

Contumviri, xxi, lxii, lxvi, 210
Cessio bonorum, 317

injure, liii, lxvi, 90, 124
Chirographum, lviii, 359
Civitas, xxxvii, 14
Clausula codicillaris, 262
Codo, Theodosian, xxvii

Just inian's, xxxi, xxxiii
Codicils, liv, 261
Ccclebs, 228
Coemptio, xlii, 31

DEL

Cognati, xlii, lv; succession of, 289

degrees of, 292
Cognitio extrsordinaria, xxx
Cognitor, 467
Co-heir, 198
Co-lcgat«e, 226, 230
Collntio bonorum, 270
Colonus, 16, 111, 368, 433, 491
Comitia calata, 164
ccnturiata, xi, xii, lxxvii
curiata, x, xii, lxxvii
tributa, xiii, xvii, lxxvii
Commercium, xxxvii, 168
Commissoria lex, 366
Commixtio, 104
Commodatum, lvii, 328
Compensatio, 396, 455
Concubinage, xlii
Condemnatio, lxviii, lxix, 449, 498
Condictio, lxv, lxxii, 325

furtiva, 406
Conditions, 195, 366
Conductor, 368
Confarroatio, xlii, 31
Confusio, 104
Connubium, xvii, 32
Consanguinei, 278, 289
Consensus, 321
Consilium, 24
Constitutum, 427
Contract, lv, 3, 6
consensual, lviii, 361
formal, lviii, 321
formless, lviii, 321
literal, lviii, 358
real, lvii, 326
verbal, lvii, 332
Contractus innominati, lviii, 322
Contubentium, 36
Conventio in manum, 32
Conventus, lxvii
Co-rei promittendi, 336

stipulandi, 336
Creditor, Ivi, 320
Cretio, 219, 221
Crime, lxxvii, 501
Culpa, 323

Curator, xl, 73; suspected, 84
Curatorum satisdatio, 76

excusationes, 79
Curia, x

Customary law, 12

DAMNUM, 416
infectum, 415
Damnum injuria datum, 409
Dare, lvi, 320
Debitor, lvi, 320
Decemvirs, xiii, xvii
Decretum, 10
Doditicii, 19, 21
Deductio, 445
Deliberandi jus, 219

DEL

Delict, lvi, lix, 397
Demonstratio, lxviii, lxix, 425, 452
Deportatio, 48
Depositum, lvii, 329

miserabile. 330, 439, 412
Derelicts, 115
Detentio, 137, 491
Dies cedit, 227, 235

continui, 83

fasti et nefasti, 310

utiles, 83, 310

venit, 235
Digest, xxxii
Diligentia, 323
Disinheriting, liv, 181-188
Divorce, 39
Dolus, 323, 439, 476
Dominica potestas, 27
Dominium, xlix, 88

bonitarium, xlix

Quiritarium, xlix
Donationes, lii, 147

inter vivos, 149

mortis causa, lii, 148

ante nuptias, 151

propter nuptias, 151
Dos, 151, 233
Duplicatio, 484

EDICTUM, xx
perpetuum, xxi, xxvi, 11
repentinum, 11
Emancipatio, xxxix, 51
Emancipated children, 51, 185, 203, 270
Emphyteusis, li, 134, 369
Emperor, xxv, 10
Emptio et vonditio, lviii, 113, 361
Emptio bonorum, 317
Epistola, 10
Exchange, 364
Exceptio, lxx, 474
dilatoria, lxxv, 481
doli mali, 476
jurisjurandi, 477
metus causa, 476
non numoratm pecunim, 359, 477
paeti convonti, 481
peromptoria, 480
persons e cohserens, 484
proeuratoria, 482
rei cohoerens, 484
rei in judicium deductse, 479
rei judicatse, 478
restitutae hereditatis, 252
Execution, lxv, lxxiv
Executor, lxxv, 442
Exercitor, 378
Exheredatio, lxxiv, 181-188
Existimatio, xliii, 210
Expensilntio, 358
Extranei, 220

Extraordinaria judicia, lxxiv, lxxv, 442,
449, 486

INT

FACERE, lxxvi, 320
Falcidia quarta, 212, 247
Familia, xxxviii, 14, 27
Kami Hse emptor, 165, 171
Fere, 95
Fictions, 426

Firleicommissa, liv, 249-263, 265
Fidejussor, 352
Fidetpromissor, 353
Fidueiarius, 351
Fiduciary tutor, 61

Filiusfamilias, 158, 178, 423, 456, 462,
464

Fiscus, 142, 147, 227, 268, 313
Formula, lxvii
Formulary system, lxviii
Freedmen. 17, 333, 387, 486
Fructus, 125, 131, 498
Fundus, 230
Furiosi, 75
Furti vitium, 141
Furtiva condictio, 406
Furtum, 141, 397

manifestum, 398

nec manifostum, 398

GAIUS, xxviii
Gentes, x, 290
Gentilis, xli, It, 290

HABITATIO, 131
Hereditatis petitio, 445
Heres, liv, 214
extraneus, 220
intostati, 264
necessarius, liv, 23, 214
suus, liv, 181, 214, 266; ranking with,
276

Honorarium, 383

Hypotheca, li, 77,135, 331, 433, 447,470

TGNORANTIA, 387

1 Ulustris, 420

Imaginaria solutio, 391

Imperium, lxii

Incorporeal things, 116

In jure cessio, liii, lxvi, 90, 123

In jus vocatio, lxii, 436, 497

Indebiti solutio, 386

Infamia, xliii, 482

Infans, 69, 346

Infanti proximus, 69, 346

Ingenui, 16

Injuria, 416

Inquilinus, 368, 491

Institor, 378, 461

Institutes, xxxii

Institution of heirs, 188

Insula, 99

Intentio, lxviii, Ixix, lxx
Intercessio, 354
Interdictio aquse et ignis, 61

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