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was obliged to quit the regency, and James entered upon the government March 12, 1578. Too soon, it may easily be supposed,

"hath burst out here and there into some terms of "excess, or speech of bad temper; that must be im"puted to the violence of his humour, and heat of his

Work/of "spirit." (c) What a contemptible way of speaking

the most of a tutor is this, more especially of so great a man as high and Buchanan? Had Buchanan been ever so wrong in his prince James opinion, the least fense of decency or gratitude should by rhe grace have restrained his pupil from speaking ot him alter such of God, &c. a manner. Next to parents, tutors (if they have dis

publlfhed by ... ... . , , , ,

jamesbilhop charged their parts well) have always been thought to cfwinton. have deserved honour*; and those who have refused 3616. Lond. t0 • it jjave jjeen branded with baseness and ineratiFol. p. 48o. 2 r T r 1 • 1 , 11 1 •

tude. rorto form the mind to'knowledge and virtue, to teach youth prudence, self-government, and proper behaviour, is a work of labour and merit; and such as

perform it are entitled to gratitude and respect.. But

in another place, fames plainly discovers his hatred and aversion to the memory of his instructor; for he stiles his Hijlory an infamous inveBive: " 1 would have you, "fays he, to his son prince Henry, to be well versed "in authentic histories, and especially in our own

"histories: 1 mean not of such infamous invectives

"as Buchanans or Knox's chronicles: and if any of "l^e^e infamous libels remain unto your days, use the 176. P' "law upon the keepers thereof." (d) I will leave the \ reader

* Dii rnajorum umbris renuem & sine pondere terram,
Spirantesque croecs, & in urna perpetuum ver,
Qui prseceptorem fancti voluere parentis
Esse loco. Juv. Sat, VII. v. 2o7.

In peace, ye shades of our great grandsires rest,
No heavy earth your facred bones molest:
Eternal spring, and riling flow'rs adorn
The relicks of each venerable urn,
'Who pious reVerence to their tutors paid,

As parents honour'd and as Gods obey'd

Charles Drvdin.

fed, for his own honour, or the welfare of his subjects. He was greatly in the power of his favourites the duke of Lennox and the earl of Arran, through whose instigations he performed many unpopular actions (C). Whereupon being seized by the


reader to make his own remarks on the baseness of this passage, and'the littleness of that foul that was capable of writing it concerning a preceptor. I will conclude this note by observing that the probable causes of this hatred of the memory of Buchanan were the part he had acted against his mother; the principles of his history, which were opposite to the notions of regal power entertained by James; and the great awe in which he held him in his youth, according to Melvil (e). I would (<) Melvil, have it carefully observed, that this history stiled byp-"5* "James an infamous invective, is faid by archbishop Spot/wood to be " penned with such judgment and elo

'* quenceas no country can shew a better." (f). (/) Spots

wood, p.

(C) He was greatly in the power of his favourites,3*5' the duke of Lennox and the earl of Arran, &c.] The duke of Lennox was cousin-germ an to James's father, the earl of Arran was captain James Stuart, promoted to that dignity at the expence of the house of Hamilton, unjustly deprived of it. "The duke of Lennox ** was led by evil council and wrong informations, "whereby he was moved to meddle in such hurtful "and dangerous courses, that the rest of the nobility "became jealous of his intentions, and feared their *' estates. As for the earl of Arran, they detested his "proceedings, and esteemed him the worst and most "insolent instrument that could be found out, 'to "wrack king, kirk and country. The duke had been "tolerable, had he happened upon as honest coun"scllors, as he was well inclined of himself: but "he wanted experience, and was no ways versed in B 4 "the

earls of Mar and Gowry, with others of the nobility, as he returned from hunting, and conveyed to Ruthven castle, they obtained a charge for the duke of Lennox to depart the country, and for the consinement of the earl of Arran (D). This was followed by a pro.r


<( the state of the country, nor brought up in our reli"gion, which by time he might have been brought to "have embraced. But the earl of Arran was a scorn"er of religion, presumptuous, ambitious, covetous, "careless of the commonwealth, a defpiser of the nor (*) MelviJ, * ' bility and of all honest men." (a) Hopeful counts ?3*. sellors these for a young king! and admirably sit for governing a kingdom. And yet these were the men who carried all before them, and obtained honours and, estates by wholefale. Arran from a " private gentle*' man was made gentleman of the bed-chamber, "knighted, made a privy counsellor, and tutor of Ar,•" ran. A few weeks after he was made captain of (i)Livtsand" his majesty's guards, and created earl of Arran." (£) characters of*' Lennox in a few days after his appearance at court, c*ti« C"S " ^ a Srant of tne lordship of Arbroath, then he was <rown and " created carl of Lennox, governor of Dumbarton castle, jUteofScot-* * captain of the guard, sirst gentleman of the bedGeorge3' "chamber, and great chamberlain of Scotland, and

Crawfurd, "duke of Lennox." (<r). These sudden promotions

Esq; p. 137. to honour, and places of prosit to such men, must ne1736 cefiarily have been very unpopular and distasteful, and could not but be highly resented. However 'tis but ,2/*'*' justice to 'James, to acquaint the reader that he was '' very young, and consequently most easily drawn aside by those who had influence over him; and therefore more excufable than he was in misplacing his favours afterwards, as he almost always did.

(D) Being seized by the earls of Mar, &c. they obtained a charge for the duke of Lennox to depart the


clamation from the king, discharging the commissions which he had formerly given them, and declaring so doing he acted not by compulsion. However, having regained his liberty, he turned out of p|ace those who had been enemies to his favourites, and insisted on such of the nobility's asking , pardon as had been concerned in the affair of Rtithven; which causing a confederacy and

a rising,

country, and for the consinement of the earl of Arran, &c.j "As the king was returning from stag-hunting *' in Athole, in his way towaids Dumferling, he was '' invited by the earl of Gown to his house of Ru:kvent '' near Perth. The earl, who was at the head o.'the '' conspiracy, instantly sent to advertise his friends of "what had happened. Whereupon several of the dif"contented nobility, and all those th;;t were in the "English interest at hand, repaired to Rutbz-:n, where 'c without any ceremony they resolved to detain the "king, and keep him prisoner. The next dry when August 2j. ** the king was essaying to get out, they stopt him; 5 2' u wherefore growing into a passion and weeping, Sir *' Thomas'Lyon boldly, though rudely, to!d him, it was "no matter for his tears, better that bairns greet than ft bearded men." (a) After they had him ki custody MCrawthey presented a supplication to him, " representing ,urd> P"the false accufations, calumnies, oppressions and per- wood, p. "secutions they had suffered for two years, by means 32°- Seeal"of the duke of Lennox, and the earl of Ar ran, the i0 Melv''' "like whereof were never heretofore borne in Scot"land." Upon this representation, the king, sore against his will, sent orders to the duke to leave the kingdom, who obeying, died soon after at Paris, and the earl was consined for a time. Before this a Proclamation had been issued forth, " declaring that it was his H pwn voluntary act to abide at Path; and that the

i* noble

a rising, iflued in the death of the earl of Govry (E), in revenge of which, as was said, his son engaged in the conspiracy so much


"noblemen and others that attended him, had done

"nothing but what their duties obliged them unto,

"and which he took for a good service performed both

(i) Spots. "to himself and the commonwealth." (b) But all this

wood, p. was a mere a£ 0f dissimulation, and the effect of con- ,

52' strains. As soon as he was at liberty he returned to the

fame courses, and behaved after his wonted manner.

For favourites he must have, and so their pleasure was

consulted, no matter how the kingdom was pleased.

(E) Having obtained his liberty, he insisted on such of the nobility's asking pardon as were concerned in the affair of Ruthven, &c.] James was never a man of his word. We see just now, that, by proclamation, he had allowed what was done at Ruthven to be good service, and he moreover had desired the kirk " to sind it "good for their parts, and to ordain the ministers and "commissioners of every shire to publish the fame to "their parishioners, and to get the principal gentlefa) Melvil, " men's subscription to maintain the fame." (a) But 1>. 183. no sooner had he got his liberty, but he acted quite difserently from what he had declared to be his sentiments. Arran was introduced again into court, " was made '' Chancellor, captain of the castles of Edinburgh and "Stirling, and ruled so as to make the whole subjects "to tremble under him, and every man to depend up"on him, daily inventing and seeking out new faults "against diverse, to get theirescheats, lands, benefices." He wrought so far with the king, that a proclamation was published, " condemning the detaining his majesty's person at Ruthven as a fact moji treasonable. Yet his majesty declared, that he was resolved to forget and forgive that offence, providing the actors and affiilers do shew themselves penitent for the fame, ask pardon in due time, and do not provoke him by their


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