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to Elizabeth for the crown she had lest him, by permitting no one to appear in mourning for her (dd) before him, and
"well what fays he? what fays he? Maxwell told him,
*' he wished he had so much money; Marry Jhalt thou
"Harry (faith the king) and presently commanded
"the porters to carry it to his lodging, with this ex
*' preffion, you think now you have a great purchase,
"but I am more delighted to think how much I have
"pleasured you in giving this money, than you can be
*' in receiving it." (£) And Sir Philip Herbert (after- ^) Wilson,
wards earl of Pembroke) on his marriage with the lady p. 76.
Sufan Fere, had a gift of the king of 500/. land for the
bride's jointure (c). In short, James himself assures W Win
us, "that he had dealt twice as much amongst English- TMood'Vo1,
"men as he had done to Scotishmen." (d) The King
truth is, those of the English who had the king's ear, James's and could fall readily into his humours, and contribute w"ks* to his pleasures and amusements, were sure of being enriched by him. The true courtier in this reign had a good time of it, for James was thoughtless and incomsiderate, and never knew the value of money till he Was in want of it. But merit, as such, was always neglected or overlooked by him; he knew it not, or regarded it not, but preferred his flatterers to all others.
(dd) He shewed his gratitude to Elizabeth, by permitting no one to appear in mourning for her before him.] For this curious particular we are indebted to the duke of Sullv, whose account cannot but be looked on as most authentic. "One part of the orders I "had given, (fays he, speaking of his English embas"fage) in regard to the ceremony of my audience, *' was, that all my retinue shall appear in mourning > . ** whereby I should execute the sirst part of my com"mission, which consisted in complimenting the new "king on the death of Elizabeth; though I had been ** informed at Calais^ that no one, whether ambassa
even speaking himself not only without
** dor, foreign or EngKJh, was admitted into the "presence of the new king in black: and Beaumont *' (the French resident) had since represented to me, "that what I intended would most certainly be highly "difagreeable to the court, where so strong an affec"tation prevailed to obliterate the memory of that "great queen, that (he was never spoke of, and even "the mention of her name industrioufly avoided. I '< should have been very glad not to have been sensible. "of the necessity under which I was of appearing in a *' garb, which would seem to cast a reproach on the "king and all England; but my orders were hereupon positive, not to mention that they were also most "latidable: and this was the reason 1 paid no regard to "Beaumont, who intreated me to defer putting myself "to this trouble and expence, till he had wrote about *' it to Erjkine, and some others, who were best.ac*' quainted with the court ceremonial. He wrote ac*' cordingly, but received no answer on Thursday, Fri"dayi nor even all day on Saturday; and I still persisted *' in my resolution, notwithstanding the reasons which "he continually gave me to the contrary. On Sa~ "turday night, which was the evening of the day pre"ceeding my audience, and so late that I was in bed, "Beaumont came to tell me, that Erjkine had sent to "acquaint him, that the whole court considered my "intention as a premeditated affront; and that I had "so offended the king by it, that nothing could more "effectually prevent the success of my negotiation from "its very commencement. This information agreeing "with that of my lord Sidney, &c. it. was impossible "for me to be in doubt about it: and through fear lest "a greater evil might ensue, I caused all my retinue to "change their apparel, and provide themselves others "as well as theypould. Leukoner ( master of the ceres' monies) being come the next morning to inform me, *' that I should be presented to the king at three "* "o'clock
gratitude, respect, or regard of her; but also with contempt, to the amazement of slanders
"o'clock in the afternoon; I perceived from the fatis"faction which he expressed at the new orders which "I had given, that it was indispenfably heceffary to "vanquish my repugnance: nevertheless, it publickly "gained me as much honour as if I had persisted in "it throughout, because none were ignorant I had M complied only through absolute necessity." (a) Suit's make no apology for the length of this quotaiion; memoiis, readers of taste will be glad to sind it here, and will not ""^' fail of remarking on the unaccountable ingratitude,and weakness of James. His obligations to Elizabeth were great; she had supplied him constantly with money when in Scotland, and though she had a power, with consent of parliament, she gave not away the crown of England from him; on her death-bed she declared him her heir, and in consequence thereof he took peaceable possession ,of the throne. - Ought he not then to have retained a respect for her memory, and treated her name with honour ? should he not have owned his obligations, and celebrated her fame? should he have forbid his subjects mourning for the loss of so excellent a princess, or refused compliments of condolance from foreigners on the account of it? What! should the memory of such a princess be obliterated in a few months, even in her own court, and the glory of all her great actions be forgotten? Must her humbling Spain, her supporting the Protestant interest abroad, and establishing it at home j her attention to the national interest and honour, and raising the English crown to be the envy and admiration of Europe; must these be unspoken, uncelebrated? such was the intention of "James. But posterity more grateful, more just than that court, has mentioned her name with honour, and founded forth the glories of her reign. To resemble her has been thought honourable to princes, and her government has been set forth as a model for their imitation.—So that
by (ee)* He was excessively addicted to
envy, ignorance, spite, revenge and malice, with their united force, avail little against he reputations founded on great and beneficent actions ; and the true hero, the patriot prinoe, may despise their efforts, and rest secure that in the annals of after-ages, their characters shall shine witn the greatest: lustre, and their actions be celebrated as they deserve. A noble motive this to generous minds to pursue the pu >tic good with earnestness! and a motive, which, if well considered, will cause them to be unwearied, and persevering in the pursuit.
(ee) He spoke with contempt of her.] Sally giving an account of his first audience at court, tells us, that after James had spoken several things to him, " the "late queen (Elizabeth) was mentioned, but without [a) Sully, "one word in her praise." (a) In another converfation Vol. 11. p. he had with the king, he observes, " that an opportu*6, "nity presenting for the king to speak of the late queen
"of England, he did it, and to my great regret) adds "he, with some fort of contempt. He even went so "far as to fay, that in Scotland, long before the death "of that princess, he had directed her whole council) "and governed all her ministers, by whom he had been (S) H. p.g?." better served and obeyed tr>an her." (b) I doubt not witffth.b-' Sully sm'ied'inwardly at the vanity of James, and laid in note heartily detested his baseness with regard to the memory (»). of Elizabeth; for no one better knew her worth than
this ambassador, no one set a greater value on it. With what indignation then may we suppose him filled, whert he heard her name thus treated by her successor? and what a despicable opinion must he entertain of him? but he suppressed his sentiments on this head, and set himself to please him, of whom 'tis plain from his memorials, he had but a poor opinion. I shall only add here, that the highest merit cannot escape the tongues of the ignorant and malicious, though, for the most part, it is unhurt by them.
ease and pleasure (ff), and indulged himself in drinking, even so far as to render . . himself
(ff) Fie was excessively given td ease and pleasure.] Sully relates, that " James quitted the company to go '* to bed, where he usually passed part of the afternoon,
"sometimes the whole of it (a)." "And his t» Sully,
"thoughts were intent on ease and pleasure, fays Of- Vo1- f'< "born (£)." This would have been far enough from a nfoa,ata virtue in a private man, but in a prince it must be looked p. 470, on as a vice. For the love of ease and pleasure enervates the mind, and tends to render it incapable of what is great. And there are but sew princes who have indulged this disposition, that have made any greater figure in history than the prince of whom we are discourhng. Alexander, Clefar, and Henry IV. of France, loved pleasure as well as any men; but then they had nothing indolent in their temper, and had so much ambition, that they could not possibly abstain from striving to render their names glorious. But James not only loved pleasure, but ease, and therefore was incapable of being more significant in lise, than are the generality of eastern princes, immured in seraglios, and strangers to every thing but what their viziers or eunuchs please to inform them of, for their entertainment or amusement. So that princes of this indolent disposition neglect the affairs of government, and are ruled by minilters and favourites, and the people are left to be fleeced and oppressed, to supply the calls of luxury and pleasure. Un* happy princes! unhappy people ! the former destitute of true worth, the latter groaning under vile bondage.—" How much then does it concern those who are advanced to dominion, to exert themselves, and employ their time and talents in examining the state of those under them, and promoting their welfare? how much does it behove them to be diligent in business, skilsul in affairs, and attentive to the representations and complaints of their subjects? By these means alone can they answer th« end of thejr advancement, obtain reputation, pro