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of probability, faid, that they behaved with much rudeness arid insolency (aa).

However

V or living at ease, leaving; all chargeable attendance on (/JOftom,*' the English." (/) This is likewise consirmed by R. 53*. Frankland. 1 he king's gifts in lands to the Scots, unthankfully and unsittingly, they sold (fays-he) conveyM "fnah ing 'bat treasure into Scotland [g). These passages sufof King siciently shew how much of the wealth of England was, J*m^_P' bestowed on the Scots, and how much cause the English. le'ii.io'. had to be displeased at it; for there was not one of these men' that was any way useful to the English nation, though Dunbar and Carlisle were rnen of great abilities; and therefore there could be no cause for these

excessive donations. The king himself was sensible

that his liberality, to the Scots was very distasting, and therefore apologizes for it in a speech to the parliament, and promises for the future to be more sparing. Let ys hear his words. "Had I been over-sparing to them, "they might have thought Joseph had forgotten his "brethren,' or that the king had been drunk with his new kingdom. If I did respect the English when I

"cams sir it, what might the Scottish have justly

"faid, if lhad not in some measure dealt bountifully *' with them that so long had served me, so far ad*' ventured themselves with me, and been so faithful

*' to m&? Such particular persons of the Scottish,

,c nation, as might claim any extraordinary merit at *' my hands, I have already reasonably rewarded; and "f' I can assure you, that there is none left whom for I (h) King "mea-n extraordinary to strain myself further." (h) James's This was spoken Anno 1607, a little before his majesty works, p. received Ker as a favourite, and heaped on him such atiu'p. immense treasures and large possessions as I have just mentioned. Well therefore might the English grumble, despise the king, and hate his countrymen, by whom they were thus fleeced.

(aa) To whom they behaved with much insolency

However the English were not neglected

by

and rudeness.] This is attested by the-Following homely lines, which were every where posted.

-" They beg our lands, our goods, our lives,

"They switch our ?iobles, and lie with their wives;

"They pinch our gentry, and fend for our benchers j

*' They Jlab our serjeants, and pistol our fencers."

Mr. Osborn has explained these in a very entertaining manner, to whose works I reser the inquisitive reader

(a). Not contented to drain the kingdom of its ("' °*»r»»

wealth, and snatch its honours, they moreover claimed4;i oVuie precedency oT the English nobility of the fame rank, editionin.

"At a supper made by the lady Elizabeth Hatton, l6Sz'

"there grew a question between the earls of Jrgile and *' Pembroke, about place, which the Scot maintained'to "be his by seniority, as being now become all Britons: *' at which our nobility began to startle." (b) And noW Winwonder, for whatever might be the antiquity of many *^*? ?me* of the Scotch nobility, on which probably they valued Vol. iij. themselves; yet that could entitle them to no place in P- "7. England, any farther than what courtesy and civility might require. To set up a claim of right to superiority by reason of it, could be looked on as nothing but an insult, and as such, doubtless, was resented. Indeed the Scots seemed so unable to bear their good fortune, • and the English were so provoked at their insolent behaviour, that it was almost a miracle it had not issued in torrents of blood (().-. —A lesson this to princes [') See

L i •/. i r r , i . • born, P.5QC.

not to be too bountisul to persons used to low circumstances; seeing it will only tend to inspire them with pride and haughtiness, and excite envy and contempt in standers-by; much more not to enrich aliens at the expence of the natives, and cause them to lift too high their heads. There may indeed be exceptions to this rule, as when distinguished merit and great abilities are possessed, and these exerted for the good of a country j

but

by "James, for on them also he heaped* honours in abundance (bb); and 'tis certain, that a great many particular persons obtained

great

but where these are noti or not in a most eminent degiee, it is weakness and imprudence to heap- favours, which will not fail to bring on complaints, uneasinesses, and distresses on the conserrors.

(bb) Honours in abundance were heaped on the English also.] James in his speech to the parliament, anno-1609, owns that they faw him at his entrance into England, " make knights by hundreth's, and balimcs's"8 "rons in great number." (a) This account is not bewoiks, p. yond the truth. For Sir Richard Baker, who had the 54a- honour of knighthood from him at that time, tells us, that " before his first year went about, he made God (*)Baker's " knows how many h'undred knights." (b) And if a chronicle, certain author is to be credited, in the two first years p. 401. 0f James's reign, no less than one thoufand twenty-two ('> VH.Os- knights were made by him (c). A prodigious number bom's cata- this! and such as almostexceeds belief. But the authorilogiieof the t|es alreasly qUOted in this remark,- may possibly reconWebb, &c cile us unto it. For when knights were made by hunp. 66.1751. dreds, a large sum total must run up in a comparatively short space of time. But James contented not himself with dubbing knights ; he made barons also, and enlarged the peerage to a great degree. In the first year' of his reign he made four earls and nine barons, among whom were Henry Howard, created earl of Northampton, Thomas Howard earl of Suffolk, and the famous Sir Robert Cecil, lord Cecil, afterwards earl of Salisbury. These were persons who had dexterity enough to insinuate themselves into James's favour, and obtain almost whatever they had a-mind to, for themselves or dependants j these were the persons who tranfacted most of the business of state during their lives, and reaped very great rewards by reason of it, as will soon appear. So that though James was lavish of his honours on his,

QWi\

great wealth, and large possessions from

him,

own countrymen, the English could not fay they were flighted ,, for he created lo great a number of them peers, that, with the Scots already mentioned, no less' than 62 were added to that illustrious body by him (d). (<0 Tor. This occasioned a " pafquil to be pasted up in St. Paul's, b.uck's i>ar

.. 11 111 liamentary

*' wherein was pretended an art to help weak memo-debates,Vol. "ries to a competent knowledge of the names of the vu. p. 135. "nobility." (e) Had these great dignities been con- *'°'1Lond" ferred only on the deserving, there would have been (c) Wilson, little room for complaint. But " the honours James p. 7* f* bestowed were in so lavish manner, and with so little distinction, that they ceased in some sense to

*' be honours." (/) This was highly injurious to the ^^^^

character of the conferror, and a contempt cast on those history of whose birth and great virtues intitled them to such dis- England, by tinctions. It shewed a want of judgment in James, oidcafrle!5' and tended to take off that reverence which ought to Esq; p. 235. be kept up in the minds of the people towards the Eng- 8,°. r lish nobility. For what must men think of the under- *74*' standing of that prince, who could place among the great council of the nation, John Villiers, Christopher PiUters, and Lyonel Cranfield? In how contemptible a light must the peerage be viewed by those who knew that these men had no pretence to luch an honour, but as related to George Villiers, the insolent prime minister? 'Twere to be wished that the greatest care at

all times was taken not to debase so illustrious an order of men by undeserved creations, and that nothing but real merit was the occasion of them. Then would the prince be applauded, the dignity of the peers be preserved, and all due deference paid to their decisions. But when it is known publickly, that undeserving men are advanced to this elevated rank in order to serve a party or please a favourite, then do men murmur at the crown, and pay little respect to those thus distinguished by it. For the public will judge of persons as

him (cc), to the impoverishing of the crown, and the reducing himself in a few years to great want. He soon shewed his gratitude

to

they are; titles and coronets cannot biass its judgment, or cause it to applaud the ignorant or unworthy.

(cc) Many persons obtained great wealth, and large possessions from him.] "They that then lived at court,and "were curious observers of every man's actions, could "have affirmed, that Salijbury, Suffolk, and NorthampK ton, and their friends, did get more than the whole

** nation of Scotland (Dunbar excepted). All the

"Scots in general scarce got the tythe of those English

"getters, that can be faid did stick by them, or

'' their posterity. Besides Salijbury had one trick to

'* - "get the kernel, and leave the Scots but the (hell, yet

•* cast all the envy upon them; he would make them

'' buy books of see-farms, some one, hundred pounds

"per annum, some one hundred marks, and he would

*' compound with them for a thoufand pounds, which

*' they were willing to embrace, because they were sure

"to have them pass without any controul or charge,

*' and one thoufand pounds appeared to them that ne

"ver faw ten pounds before, an inexhaustible treasure;

"then would Salijbury fill up this book with such prime

*' land as should be worth ten or twenty thoufand pounds,

"which was easy for him, being treasurer, so to do;

(*)SirAn- *' and by this means Salijbury enriched himself insi

don^cou't* " nitely, yet cast the envy on the Scots, in whose

andchaiac- *' names these books appeared, and are still upon record

ter of king * ' to all posterity; though Salijbury had the honey,

«."«/' '' thev» poor gentlemen, but part of the wax." (a)—

»2mo.Lond. Wilson tells us, " that James being one day in his gal

»lso R .Sce " lery at Wh'ttebal/» and none with him but Sir Henry

leigh's"" "Rid (afterwards earl of Holland) and James Max

wforks, Vol." well, some porters past by them, with three thoufand

j,f''0': "pounds going to the privy purse: Rich whispering

mit. °a' "Maxwtllx the king turned upon them, and asked Max

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