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Though we arc not to suppose, however it has been otherwise represented, either


"of the mass but the liftings. I charge you my good

"ministers, doctors, elders, nobles, gentlemen and

"barons, to stand to your purity, and to exhort the

"people to do the fame; and I, forsooth, as long as I

(a) Caider- " brook my life, shall maintain the fame." (a) And

wood's in his speech to the parliament 1598, he tells them, " he

ehurchhif. * ' minded not to bring in papistical or anglicane bi

land,°p. 256." moP6-" (^) And in 1602, he assured the general

Fol. Edinu. assembly, " that he would stand for the church and be

Mild* )i " an ac*vocate *or tne ministry." (c) A man would

(c)Sp'oicV ''"ink by this, that James had a very great regard for

wood, p. his clergy, and an high esteem of them; and doubtless

*6'- he himself intended they should think so too. But this

was mere artifice and dissimulation; for at bottom he

hated them heartily, and could not bear the thoughts

of them. This will appear to a demonstration from his

writings. "Some fiery spirited men in the ministry,

"he fays, oftentimes calumniated him in their popular

"sermons, not for any evil or vice in him, but be

"cause he was a king, which they thought the highest

"evil." This was the effect he thought of parity in

the church. Therefore he advises his son [prince Henry']

"to take heed to such puritans, very pests in the church

"and commonwealth, whom no deserts can oblige,

"neither oaths nor promises bind, breathing nothing

"but sedition and calumnies, aspiring without measure,

"railing without reason, and making their own ima

, "ginations (without any warrant of the word) the

,♦' square of their conscience. I protest before the great

"God, and since I am here upon my testament, it is

"no place for me to lye in, that ye shall never find

'* with any hie-Iand or border thieves, greater ingrati

"tude, and more lies and vile perjuries, than with

** these phanatic spirits, and suffer not the principal of

*' them to brook your land, if ye list to set at rest;

•' except

tfirough ignorance or prejudice to the thert


"except ye would keep them for trying your patience,

"as Socrates did an evil wife." (d) (</) King

And in his premonition to all chrjlian monarchs, he. he tells us, " he was ever an enemy to the confused ,6oi "anarchy or parity of the puritans, as well appeareth ** in his AslPON." And therefore adds he, ** I cannot enough wonder with what brazen face "this answerer (Bellarmine) could fay, that 1 was a "puritan in Scotland, and an enemy to protejlants: I "that was persecuted by puritans there, not from my "birth only, but even since four months before my "birth? I that in the year of God 84, erected bishops, "and depressed all their popular parity. I then not be"ing 18 years of age, [this was the year in which the earl of Gowry was executed, and Arran committed the vilest acts of injustice] "I that in my faid book to my M son, do speak ten times more bitterly of them than "of the papists; having in my second edition thereof "affixed a long apologetic preface, only in odium pu"ritanorum." (e) This was written in tngland when (ej td.p, the king could speak his mind, and therefore we may 3o5. be sure we have his real sentiments, especially as all his actions were correspondent unto them. ' So that I had reason to fay, that James dissembled his hatred and resentment till a proper opportunity. But how worthy this was of a king is not hard tojudge. For nothing ismore unbecoming the rank and character of such an one, than dissimulation, especially towards his own subjects. It is setting an ill example unto them, which may be of the most fatal consequences; and depriving princes of that love, trust and considence, in which their fafety, strength and reputation most of all consist. But to dissemble in the affairs of religion, is vile hypocrisy; which yet 'tis plain from the king's own speeches and writings he did. But James was a weak prince, and lord Bacon has sinely obsei vedt " that the weaker for? of politicks are w thiP [great dissemblers."—" For, adds he, if a man

Scottish clergy, but that they had received


"have that penetration of judgment, as he can discern "what things are to be laid open, and what to be se-' "creted, and what to be shewed at half lights, and to "whom and when, (which indeed are arts of (late, and ". arts of lise, as Tacitus well calleth them) to him a "habit of dissimulation is an hindrance and a poorness. "But if a man cannot attain to that judgment, then "it is left to him generally to be a dissembler." (/") I will conclude this note with a pasfage from honest Montaigne, which I dare fay every reader of like cha

"raster will applaud. "As to this virtue of difsimula- '.' tion, I mortally hate it; and of all vices find none "that does evidence so much baseness and meanness of "spirit. 'Tis a cowardly and servile humour to hide "and disguise a man's self under a vizor, and not to. "dare to shew himself what he is. By that our fol"lowers are trained up to treachery. Being brought "up to speak what is not true, they make no consci

'** ence of a lye. A generous heart ought not tobelye its "own thoughts, but will make itself seen within, all "there is good, or at least manly. Aristotle reputes it. "the office of magnanimity, openly and prosessedly tov "love and hate, to judge and speak with all freedom; "and not to value the approbation or dislike of others "in comparison of truth. Apollonius faid, it was for *•' slaves to lye, and for free men to speak truth. 'Tis '.'•the chief and sundamental part of virtue, we must "love it for itself.- A man must not always tell

(/) Lord Bacon's essay on simulation and dissimu tion.

"all, for that were folly; but what a man fays, should "be, what he thinks, otherwise 'iis knavery. I do not "know what advantage men pretend to by eternally "counterseiting and dissembling, if not, never to be '.' believed when they speak the truth. This may once "or twice pass upon, men; but to prosess concealing "their thoughts, and to brag, as some of our-princes '•'_ have done, that they would burn their Jhirts if they "knew their intentions, and that who knows to


provocations by the king's actions,- to* "behave towards him as they did(N). - -I


* - i

"dissemble, knows not how so rule: is to give warning

*' to all who have any thing to do with them, that all'

"they fay is nothing but lying and deceit." (g) '(g) Mnn

• taigne'sel*.

(N) The clergy had received provocations to behave ^yns ^ot*. towards him as they did.] I have given an account ofp. 507, gVo| the undutisul behaviour of the clergy towards James L°n&-16861 from Spotswood: but bishop Burnet tells us, " there is . . - -' "a great defect runs through archbishop Spotswood's "history, where much of the rude opposition the king "met with, particularly from the assemblies of the "kirk, is set forth; but the true ground of all the "jealousies they were possessed with, is suppressed by "him." (a) These jealousies were of his being ia his (a) Burner, heart a Papist, founded on facts delivered to them byVol.i.p. 5. the English ministry, and from his favouring and employing those of that religion. Walsingham, as I have already observed, " thought James was either inclined "to turn Papist, or to be of no religion. And when the "English court faw that they could not depend on "him, they raised all possible opposition to him inScot"land, insusing strong jealousies into those who were "enough inclined' to receive them." (b) Dr. Bircl(i) u. ib, faySj " the king of Scots was indeed, atthis time [1599J *'much suspected of inclining to popery j and a copy >' of a letter, offering obedience to the Pope, signed [^ BVcn'S '' by that king, was bro-ught from- Rome by the masterY1-ew of tha ii, of Gray, and shewn to queen Elizabeth; who sent negotiations "Sir William Bowes ambassador to him, to advertisebMween tl"= "him not to build on the-friendship of Rome." (c)England

• [This was the letter for which lord Balmerino wasF«nce, and

condemned, but pardoned^ in the year 1609; it beingBrufre's, P* said he surreptitiously got the king's hand thereto, which Lond. 1743. he himself consessed.] And we sind, in 1596, the mi-Spotswoodi nisters complaining to the king of " the favour grant-£' 4SS"ed to the popHh Lords j the countenance given t»and no'e

r "thesrrj ,

However, I am far enough from defending their whole behaviour (O). In 1589, James married a daughter of Denmark, (after

•f to the lady Hunthy, and her invitation to the baptism *' of the princess} the putting her in the hands of the "lady LivingJlone, an avowed and obstinate papist; and *' the alienation of his majesty's heart from the niini"'sters, as appeared by all his speeches public and pri

(</) Spots- "vate." (d) In lhort, (he ministers were jealous of

wood,p,4i9. his majesty's intentions; they suspected his behaviour, and were afraid that he only wanted an opportunity to crush them, and the religion they prosessed. 'Twas the belief of this, that made them break out into such indecent expressions, and undutisul behaviour; and the knowledge of their own power and influence over the people, which inspired them with courage and boldness, And, I think, all impartial persons must allow, that if ever 'tis excufable to go beyond bounds in any thing, it is in desence of religion and liberty, in opposition to popery and tyranny. Most of these men remembered the fires which popish zeal had lighted; they had seen the blood spilt by it, and therefore it is not to be wondered at, that they were more than ordinarily moved at every thing which had the least tendency to bring them back into so deplorable a state.

(O) I am far enough from desending their whole behaviour.] The behaviour of the clergy was very rough, and bordering upon rudeness. They treated majesty with too much familiarity. They prostituted their pulpits to affairs of state, and rebuked after such a manner as tended more to provoke, than to reclaim. In these things they were blame-worthy. But I should not do' them justice, were I to omit their zeal for what they thought truth; their labour and diligence in the business of the ministry, and their speaking the truth with all boldness. These were virtues for which yawl's clergy were eminent; and therefore they were held in high


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