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In Scotland he pursued them with rigour, and was not contented till he set up episcopacy, though contrary to the inclinations of


"assembly at Perth, they passed an act for admitting "the sive articles, for which his majesty had been (n) Life of ** courting them for two years together." (a) These Laud, p. articles which his majesty had courted them so long toad7*" mit, it must be owned, were very imjK>rtant. The first requires the blessed facrament to be celebrated meekly and reverently upon their knees. The second allows the lawfulness of private communion. The third permits private baptism. The fourth commands consir(•) Spots- mation. The sifth the observation of some festivals. (&) wwi, p. * ' These articles being thus settled, order was given jto> "read them in all parish churches; the ministers were "likewise obliged to preach upon the lawfulness of *' them, and exhort their people to submission. And *' to give them the greater authority, the king ordeFed *' them to be published at the market cross of the prin*' cipal burroughs, and commanded conformity under *' pain of his displeasure. But all this not being enough *' to enforce such a conformity to the ceremonies as was *-' expected, it was thought further necessary to establish "them by the fanction of an act of parliament, and to ** give them the force of a law, this was done accords') Craw. "ingly in the year 1621." (/>) A prince must be tord sL'ves'strangely infatuated, and strongly prejudiced to employ p'*74' his power and influence in establishing.such matters as these! Let us grant episcopacy to be the most expedient government of the church (and expedient enough it [is) See sPi-must be acknowledged in proper places iq) and rightly rit of law*, executed, by overseeing the manners of the clergy, and Vol. 11. p. keeping them within the bounds of decency and regulaJ*°' Ttty ;) yet what man of fense will think it worth establishing at the risk of the peace of the community? Let sites and ceremonies be deemed ever so decent; who -will fay they are sit to be imposed by methods of severity ,and constraint? yet by these ways, we fee, these matters

ministers and people. Being seized with an ague, he died March 27, 1625, in the 59th year of his age [4 F] not without suspicion


ters were introduced among the Scots; to the disgrace of humanity, and the eternal blemish of a prince who boasted of his learning, and was forever displaying hi*

abilities. r

[4 F] He died not without suspicion of having been poisoned by Buckingham.'] "The king that was very *' much impatient in his health, was patient in his sick"ness and death. Whether he had received any thing *' that extorted his aguish fits into a sever, which might •' the sooner stupify the spirits, and hasten his end, can** not be asserted; but the countess of Buckingham had *' been tampering with him, in the absence of the dbc** tors, and had given him a medicine to drink, and "laid a plaister to his side, which the king much com"plained of, and they did rather exasperate his distem•* per than allay it: and these things were admitted *' by the insinuating persuasions of the duke her son, "who told the king they were approved medicines, and '* would do him much good. And though the duke after'

•' strove to purge himself for this application, as having
"received both medicine and plaister from Dr. Retn-
** ington, at Dunmow, in Essex, who had often cured
"agues, and such distempers with the fame; yet they
"were arguments of a complicated kind not easy to'
tx unfold; considering that whatsoever he received
*' from the doctor in the country, he might apply to the
*' king what he pleased in the court. Besides, the act
*' itself (though it had been the best medicine in the
'world) was a daring not justifiable; and some of the
*' king's physitians muttered against it, others made a
"great noise, and were forced to sty for it; and
*' though the still voice was quickly silenced by thft
*' duke's power, yet the clamourous made so deep rm-
*' pressions, that his innocence could never wear them,


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of having been poisoned by Buckingham. Hd was buried with great magnificence at West


*• out. And one of Buckingham's great provocations *' was thought to be hib sear, that the king being now *. weary of his too much greatness, and power, would "set up Bristol^ his deadly enemy against him to pull "him down. And this medicine was one of those 13 "articles that after were laid to his charge in parlia(*) Wilson," ment." (a)—Dr. Welviood in his note on this passage p. 28?' observes, " that Dr. Egiijham, one of the king's phy"sitians, was obliged to flee beyond seas, for fomeex•* preffions he had muttered about the manner of his "majesty's death, and lived at Brussels many years *' after. It was there he published a book to prove king "James was poisoned; giving a particular account of "all the circumstances of his sickness, and laying his *' death upon the duke of Buckingham and his mother.

"Among other remarkable passages, there is one

"about the plaister applied to the king's stomach.

"He fays it was given out to have been rnithridate, '' and that one Dr. Remington had sent it to the duke, "as a medicine with which he had cured a great many "agues in Essex. Now Egiijham denies it was mi"thridate, and fays, neither he, nor any other physi"tians could tell what it was. He adds, that Sir Mat"thew Lister and he being, the week after the king's "death, at the earl of Warwick's house in Essex, they "sent for Dr. Remington, who lived hard by, and ask*' ing him what kind of plaister it was he had sent to "Buckingham, for the cure of an ague, and whether "he knew it was the king the duke designed it for? "RemingtomnCwcred, that one Baker, a servant 6f the "duke's, came to him in his master's name, and de"sired him if he had any certain specific remedy against *' an ague, to send it him: and accordingly he sent *' him mithridate spread upon leather, but knew not "till then that it was designed for the king. But* *' continues Egiijham, Sir Matthew Lister, and I shew


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"ing him a piece of the plaister we had kept, after it "was taken off, he seemed greatly surprized, and of"fered to take his corporal oath, that it was none of *' what he had given Baker, nor did he know what

"kind of mixture it was. But the truth is, this

"book of Eglijham's is wrote with such an air of ran"cour and prejudice, that the manner of his narrative "takes off much from the credit of what he writes."

(b) The parliament, in the year 1626, charged (t) Compfe*

Buckingham with having caused certain plaisters, and a hlstory* Vol.

t • Hi p. 7QO.»

certain r *

i -'

* It is to be wiflied Welioood had given us the title of this book of Eglijham, In the second volume of the Harleian Miscellany there is a tract intitled the Forerunner of revenge. Being two petitidns: the one to the king's most excellent majesty; the other to the most honourable houses of parliament. Wherein are expressed divers actions of the late earl of Buckingham, especially concerning the death of king James, and the marquis of Hamilron, supposed by poison. By George Eglijham, doctor of physic, and one of the physitians to king James, of happy memory, for his majesty's person above ten years, 4to. Lond. 1642, though it appears to have been written in Buckingham's life-time, and I doubt not, was then printed. There is an air of rancour and prejudice in this small piece; but not a word of what Dr. Welwood relates.

"The king, s»ys he, being sick of an ague, the duke took this oppor"tunity, when all the king's doctors of physic were at dinner, and of'* fered to him a white powder to take, the which he a long time refused; 1' but overcome with his flattering importunity, at length took it in wine, "and immediately became worse and worse, falling into many swoenings "and pains, and violent fluxes of the belly, so tormented, that his ma*' jesty cried out aloud of this white powder, would to God I had never "taken it."—He then tells us of " the countess of Buckingham's ap"plying the plaister te the king's heart and breast 5 whereupon he grew "faint, and sliort breathed and in agony. That the physitians exclaimed "that the king was poisoned; that Buckingham commanded them out of "the room, and caused one of them to be committed prisoner to his own "chamber, and another to be removed from court; and that after his "majesty's death, his body and head swelled above measure, his hair "with the skin of his head stuck to the pillow, and his nails became loose ,( upon his fingers and toes." See Harleian Miscellany, Vol, II. p. 71, 4to. Lend. I744. If this was the book in which Dr. Welwood remembered to have read what I have quoted in the note, his memory discharged its office but very ill. However, I rather suspect, there is a larger acCQUQtof Eglijbanfs in print, than that Wsl.uiood (hould have invented.

lowing, attending his interment; Dr* Williams* lord keeper, and bishop of Lin


certain drink to be provided for the use of his majesty king 'James, without the privity or direction of the physicians, and compounded of several ingredients to them unknown, notwithstanding the fame plaisters, or some plaister like thereunto, having been formerly administred unto him, did produce such ill effects as that some of the physicians did difallow thereof, and utterly refuse to meddle any further with his majesty, until these plaisters were removed, as being prejudicial to his health, yet the fame p.laisters and drink was provided by the duke, and the plaisters applied to the king's breast and wrist, and the drink given to him at seasons prohibited by the physicians. After which, they set forth, divers ill symptoms appeared upon his majesty, and his majesty attributed the cause of his trouble to the plaister (c)Set and drink which the duke had given him. (c) The Rujhworth, <j^e in jj|s anfwer ingfls on his innocency, declaring

3j," 'P* that the drink and plaister were procured by the king's own desire, on his recommendation; that by his own command they were applied ; that he (Buckingham) gave the drink in the presence of some of the physicians, who tasted it, and did not shew their dislike of it 5 and that when he told the king it was rumoured that the physic he had gave him, had done him hurt, his majesty with much discontent answered, they are worse than the ^rth" Vo! devils tstat fav lt' (d) The commons having received a j. p, j89. 'copy of the duke's answer from the lords, fay, " they "shall presently reply in such sort, according to the *! laws of parliament, that unless his power and practice "undermine our proceedings, we do not doubt but we f»)M. p. "upon the fame have judgment against him." (?) But 403. his power and practice so far undermined their proceedings, that a dissolution soon followed, by which they were prevented from producing their proofs of what they had asserted. This made a deep impresiion on men's minds, and caused them to apprehend that James had r' not


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