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these he was continually reproaching in his


to the punishment of the puritans; the third of which was, " whether it be an offence punishable, and what "punishment they deserved, who framed petitions, '* and collected a multitude of hands thereto, to preser '* to the king in a public cause, as the puritans had *' done, with an intimation to the king, that if he de'c nied their suit, many thoufands of his subjects would "be discontented?" To this the judges in their great wisdom replied, " that it was an offence sineable at dif"cretion, and very near to treason and selony in the *' punishment, for it tended to the raising sedition, re"bellion and discontent among the people." (c) This (c) Croke's judicious resolution was agreed to by the lords then pre- rePorts, Part sent. Bancroft hereupon " required a strict confor- anj Wm"mity to the rules of the church, according to the wood, Vol. "laws and canons in that behalf; and without soaring zd"P'49* "non-conformists, or half-conformists, at last reduced "them to that point, that they must either leave their "churches, or obey the church." (d) And that none rj) Heylin's might escape the penalties of the canons and high com-history of mission court, this pious prelate required " some whothe. Pie%* '" had formerly subscribed to testify their conformity by-76, *' anew subscription, in which it was to be declared, "that they did willingly and ex animo subscribe to the "three articles (inserted in the 36th canon) and to all "things in the fame contained. Which leaving no "starting hole either for practising those rites and cere"monies which they did not approve, or for approving "that which they meant not to practise, as they had "done formerly; occasioned many of them to forfake *' their benefices, rather than to subscribe according to "the true intention of the church in the faid three ar*' tides." (?) In short, such was the rigor of the pre-,, 1<li ^ lates, such the sufferings of the puritans, that we find 377. the parliament, in the year 1610, interceding with the king in their behalf. "Whereas, fay they, divers ♦' painsul and learned pastors, that have long travelled 0,4 !'ln

writings* and not contented herewith he?


"in the work of the ministerie with good fruit and V blessing of their labours, who were ever ready to per"form the legal subscription appointed by the statute of *' 13 Eliz. which only concerneth the consession of the 'c true christian faith and doctrine of the facraments, "yet for not conforming in some points of ceremonies, '' and resusing the subscription directed by the late '• canons, have been removed from their ecclesiastical *' livings, being their freehold, and debarred from all '' means of maintenance, to the great grief of sundrie .your majesties well-affected subjects; seeing the whole people, that want instruction, are by this means "punished, and through ignorance, lye open to the *' seslucements of popish, and ill-affected persons: We "therefore most humbly beseech, your majesty would *' be graciously pleased, that such deprived and silenced "ministers may by licence, or permission of the re"verend fathers., in their several diocesses, instruct, "and preach unto their people in such parishes, and places, where they may be employed: so as they apply themselves, in their miniflery to wholesome doctrine, and exhortation* and live quietly, and peace"ably in their callings, and shall not by writing or "preaching, impugn things establiihed by public au

(/) Proceed-" thority."(y) Soon after this Bancroft died, and

in os m the was fUCCeeded by George Abbot, a man of a more gencommons, 'le and merciful disposition, who was much more fain 1610. vourable to the puritans than his predecessor. But the rigor against them was far from being wholly remitted. They were so ill used, that they preserred dwelling in a wilderness to their native soil, and chose the perils of waters before the perils they were in among their brethren; though for a time even this was denied them. "Some of the bishops, fays Wilson, were not contented "to suppress many pious and religious men ; but I know '* not for what policy, restrained their going beyond "sea: for there were divers families, about this time, '..- * ' (1613)

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exposed them to the censure of the high


"(1613) stripped for New-England, andwere not siif"fered to go; though afterwards, they were upon bet

*' ter thoughts permitted."^) In short James (g) WUso«^

heartily hated the people of this denomination; and top" 7+*
be a puritan, was with him to be every thing odious
and abominable. How mischievous an effect this pre-
judice of his majesty had, will best appear from a letter
written to the illustrious Ujher, from Emanuel Down-
ing, out of Ireland, who is stiled a worthy divine, by
Dr. Parr:

"Reverend Sir,

"I hope you are not ignorant of the hurt that is

** come to the church by this name Puritan, and how

** his majesty's good intent and meaning therein is

"much abused and wronged; and especially in this

"poor country where the pope and popery is To much.

*' affected. I being lately in the country had confe

*' rence with a worthy, painful preacher, who hath

"been an instrument of drawing many of the meer

"Irish there, from the blindness of popery to embrace

"the gospel, with much comfort to themselves, and

"heart breaking to the priests, who perceiving that

"they cannot now prevail with their jugling tricks,

"have forget! a new device: They have now stirred

*' up some crafty papists, who very boldly rail both at

^' ministers and people, faying, they seek to sow this

** damnable heresie of puritanism among them; which

"word, though not understood, but only known to

"be most odious to his majesty, makes many afraid of

"joining themselves to the gospel, though in confe

"rence, their consciences are convicted herein: so to

*' prevent a greater mischief which may follow, It

*' were good to petition his majesty to desine a puritan^

*' whereby the mouths of those scoffing enemies would

"be stopt; and if his majesty be not at leizure, that he

** would appoint some good men to do it for him," (b) (i) Pirr'i


p. 16.

commission, who suspended, deprived and excommunicated them, notwithstanding the


. Had a puritan been truly desined, the world would have been at a loss to have known the reason of the severity used towards those who were reproached with

that title. The puritans had their fancies, as well

as their adverfaries. The surplice, the cross in baptism, the ring in marriage, bowing at the name of Jesus, and some other articles of equal importance were the objects of their aversion; they thought they smelt of popery, which they could not bear with. The bishops on the contrary had a very great fondness for these, as well as for the whole hierarchy. A dispute therefore on these subjects was natural; and had it been managed fairly, no ill consequences could have happened. But the bishops were in power; the king was their friend, and a foe to those who opposed them; and they were determined to carry their point at all adventures. The shortest way therefore was taken. The puritans were silenced, deprived, excommunicated, and all for trifles. I will not fay but the bishops might have more sense, but the puritans had more honesty. The sirst were persecutors, the latter were persecuted ; and consequently were entitled to the pity and compassion of the humane and (i)Hartley's benevolent. "James and his clergy did not under

observations stan(j the use Qf sccts>t0 purify religi0n, and also to

37TMVol.P" " set the great truths of it in a full light j and to shew II. 8vo. "their practical importance." (/') Nor did they know

See*assa his"" tne De^ wav t0 tne r'sislg of new sects and torical and " schisms, by reforming abuses, compounding smaller critical ac- *' differences, proceeding mildly, and not with fanguiHUnri Pe "nary per^ecut'ons J and taking off the principal auten, note "thors by winning and advancing them, rather than [c] Lond. ♦* enraging them by violence and bitterness (£) anl ?05Bacon'°s consequently instead of crushing, they increased them, essay on the For lord Shaftesbury justly remarks, "that there is novicissitude of" thing so ridiculous in respect of policy, or so wrong f".^'. « and odious in respect of c«mmon humanity, as a mo,

y derate Intercession made for them by many persons of quality, and by one of his parliaments.


W derate and half-way persecution; it only frets the "sore; it raises the ill-humour of mankind; excites ** the keener spirits; moves indignation in beholders; '* and sows the very feeds of schism in men's bosoms. "A resolute and bold faced persecution leaves no time or '* scope for these engendring distempers, or gathering "ill-humours. It does the work at once; by extirpa"tion, banishment, or massacre: and like a bold stroke f in surgery, dispatches by one short amputation, what

a bungling hand would make worse and worse, to "the perpetual sufferance and misery of the patient."

(/) But let us leave these reflections and return to 0 Chan*.

James, who was as much set on the ruin of puritanism vofiii

m Scotland, as in England. In the Parliament at 95.'

Perth, in the year 1606, he got an act pasted entituled

the restitution of theestateof bishops: afterwards they

were declared perpetual moderators, and had the high

commission put into their hands. In 1610, the king

sent for three of the bishops elect, in order to have them.

consecrated in England, which was done without sirst

giving them deacons or priests orders; and consequently

the validity of their former orders were acknowledged.

Soon afterwards they had great power committed unto

them, to the no small uneasiness of ministers and people.

[m) In the year 1617, James made a progress into (») Spotf

Scotland,\n order to bring the Scots nearer to conformity wo°d' f*

With the church of England. _ , Calderwood,

"But his majesty, fays Heylin, gained nothing by p. 616. "that chargeable journey, but a neglect of his corns' mands, and a contempt of his authority. His ma*' jesty therefore took a better course, than to put the "point to argument and disputation; which was to t* beat them by the belly, and to withdraw thole aug** mentations which he had formerly allowed them out f* of his exchequer: which pill so wrought upon this f * indigent and obstinate people, that the next year, in ari


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